tsuomela + sts   458

Science’s Freedom Fighters - Los Angeles Review of Books
"Freedom’s Laboratory The Cold War Struggle for the Soul of Science By Audra J. Wolfe Published 11.18.2018 Johns Hopkins University Press 312 Pages"
book  review  sts  science  history  cold-war  propaganda 
november 2018 by tsuomela
Profile : All People: School of Informatics and Computing: Indiana University
"Nathan Ensmenger is an associate professor in the School of Informatics, Computing, and Engineering at Indiana University. His research focuses on the social and cultural history of software and software workers, the history of artificial intelligence, and questions of gender and identity in computer programming. His 2010 book The Computer Boys Take Over: Computers, Programmers, and the Politics of Technical Expertise, explored to the rise to power of the "computer expert" in American corporate, economic, and political life. He is one of the co-authors of the most recent edition of the popular Computer: A history of the Information Machine. He is currently working on a book exploring the global environmental history of the electronic digital computer."
people  academic  sts  technology  history 
december 2017 by tsuomela
Daniele Fanelli's webpages
"I graduated in Natural Sciences, giving exams in all fundamental disciplines, then obtained a PhD studying the behaviour and genetics of social wasps, and subsequently worked for two years as a science writer. Now I study the nature of science itself, and the mis-behaviours of scientists. Professional highlights I am one of the first natural scientists who specialized 24/7 in the study of scientific misconduct, bias and related issues, and have produced some of the largest studies assessing the prevalence of bias across disciplines and countries. Some of these publications have become quite influential, and my 2009 meta-analysis on surveys about misconduct is one of the most popular papers published in the entire Public Library of Science, currently counting over 185,000 views."
people  science  sts  reproducible  fraud  research  ethics 
may 2017 by tsuomela
Homo Sovieticus | The MIT Press
"In October 1989, as the Cold War was ending and the Berlin Wall about to crumble, television viewers in the Soviet Union tuned in to the first of a series of unusual broadcasts. “Relax, let your thoughts wander free . . .” intoned the host, the physician and clinical psychotherapist Anatoly Mikhailovich Kashpirovsky. Moscow’s Channel One was attempting mass hypnosis over television, a therapeutic session aimed at reassuring citizens panicked over the ongoing political upheaval—and aimed at taking control of their responses to it. Incredibly enough, this last-ditch effort to rally the citizenry was the culmination of decades of official telepathic research, cybernetic simulations, and coded messages undertaken to reinforce ideological conformity. In Homo Sovieticus, the art and media scholar Wladimir Velminski explores these scientific and pseudoscientific efforts at mind control. In a fascinating series of anecdotes, Velminski describes such phenomena as the conflation of mental energy and electromagnetism; the investigation of aura fields through the “Aurathron”; a laboratory that practiced mind control methods on dogs; and attempts to calibrate the thought processes of laborers. “Scientific” diagrams from the period accompany the text. In all of the experimental methods for implanting thoughts into a brain, Velminski finds political and metaphorical contaminations. These apparently technological experiments in telepathy and telekinesis were deployed for purely political purposes."
book  publisher  soviet-union  history  sts  paranormal  psychology 
march 2017 by tsuomela
What Algorithms Want | The MIT Press
"We depend on—we believe in—algorithms to help us get a ride, choose which book to buy, execute a mathematical proof. It’s as if we think of code as a magic spell, an incantation to reveal what we need to know and even what we want. Humans have always believed that certain invocations—the marriage vow, the shaman’s curse—do not merely describe the world but make it. Computation casts a cultural shadow that is shaped by this long tradition of magical thinking. In this book, Ed Finn considers how the algorithm—in practical terms, “a method for solving a problem”—has its roots not only in mathematical logic but also in cybernetics, philosophy, and magical thinking. Finn argues that the algorithm deploys concepts from the idealized space of computation in a messy reality, with unpredictable and sometimes fascinating results. Drawing on sources that range from Neal Stephenson’s Snow Crash to Diderot’s Encyclopédie, from Adam Smith to the Star Trek computer, Finn explores the gap between theoretical ideas and pragmatic instructions. He examines the development of intelligent assistants like Siri, the rise of algorithmic aesthetics at Netflix, Ian Bogost’s satiric Facebook game Cow Clicker, and the revolutionary economics of Bitcoin. He describes Google’s goal of anticipating our questions, Uber’s cartoon maps and black box accounting, and what Facebook tells us about programmable value, among other things. If we want to understand the gap between abstraction and messy reality, Finn argues, we need to build a model of “algorithmic reading” and scholarship that attends to process, spearheading a new experimental humanities."
book  publisher  algorithms  meaning  desire  technology  sts 
march 2017 by tsuomela
Computer Chronicles : Free Movies : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive
"Hosted by Stewart Cheifet, Computer Chronicles was the world's most popular television program on personal technology during the height of the personal computer revolution. It was broadcast for twenty years from 1983 - 2002. The program was seen on more than 300 television stations in the United States and in over 100 countries worldwide, with translations into French, Spanish, Chinese, and Arabic. The series had a weekly television broadcast audience of over two million viewers."
computers  history  news  journalism  1980s  1990s  2000s  television  personal  technology  sts 
january 2017 by tsuomela
The Science of Information, ca. 1870-1945: The Universalization of Knowledge in a Utopian Age
"Between about 1870 and 1945, for visionaries and planners around the world, projects for assembling universal knowledge and projects for effecting a universal political order went hand-in-hand. This symposium will investigate the development of intertwining utopianisms in internationalist politics and in the science of information during this period. This span of years stretches from the onset of modern war, in America and Western Europe, to its most horrific climax in World War II. It is also the period during which global transportation and communications systems were constructed, the modern global economy was knit together, and both scientific and humanistic scholarship became a professional and global enterprise. Such developments made the collection and sharing of information and the establishment of accord among nation-states especially urgent, the stuff of utopian speculation, pacifist dreams, and, sometimes, pragmatic nightmares. A striking measure of this urgency was the formation in 1922 of the League of Nations’ International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, the primary aim of which was to address and resolve issues at the intersection of information and diplomacy."
conference  sts  history  information 
september 2016 by tsuomela
Council for the Advancement of Science Writing | Council for the Advancement of Science Writing
"The Council for the Advancement of Science Writing is committed to improving the quality and quantity of science news reaching the public. Directed and advised by distinguished journalists and scientists, CASW develops and funds programs that encourage accurate and informative writing about developments in science, technology, medicine and the environment."
professional-association  science  writing  public-understanding  communication  sts 
september 2016 by tsuomela
Science Curiosity and Political Information Processing by Dan M. Kahan, Asheley R Landrum, Katie Carpenter, Laura Helft, Kathleen Hall Jamieson :: SSRN
"This paper describes evidence suggesting that science curiosity counteracts politically biased information processing. This finding is in tension with two bodies of research. The first casts doubt on the existence of “curiosity” as a measurable disposition. The other suggests that individual differences in cognition related to science comprehension - of which science curiosity, if it exists, would presumably be one - do not mitigate politically biased information processing but instead aggravate it. The paper describes the scale-development strategy employed to overcome the problems associated with measuring science curiosity. It also reports data, observational and experimental, showing that science curiosity promotes open-minded engagement with information that is contrary to individuals’ political predispositions. We conclude by identifying a series of concrete research questions posed by these results."
science  sts  communication  public-understanding  bias  curiosity 
september 2016 by tsuomela
Unfreezing the Arctic: Science, Colonialism, and the Transformation of Inuit Lands, Stuhl
"In recent years, journalists and environmentalists have pointed urgently to the melting Arctic as a leading indicator of the growing effects of climate change. While climate change has unleashed profound transformations in the region, most commentators distort these changes by calling them unprecedented. In reality, the landscapes of the North American Arctic—as well as relations among scientists, Inuit, and federal governments— are products of the region’s colonial past. And even as policy analysts, activists, and scholars alike clamor about the future of our world’s northern rim, too few truly understand its history. In Unfreezing the Arctic, Andrew Stuhl brings a fresh perspective to this defining challenge of our time. With a compelling narrative voice, Stuhl weaves together a wealth of distinct episodes into a transnational history of the North American Arctic, proving that a richer understanding of its social and environmental transformation can come only from studying the region’s past. Drawing on historical records and extensive ethnographic fieldwork, as well as time spent living in the Northwest Territories, he closely examines the long-running interplay of scientific exploration, colonial control, the testimony and experiences of Inuit residents, and multinational investments in natural resources. A rich and timely portrait, Unfreezing the Arctic offers a comprehensive look at scientific activity across the long twentieth century. It will be welcomed by anyone interested in political, economic, environmental, and social histories of transboundary regions the world over."
book  publisher  arctic  north  government  canada  colonialism  environment  sts 
september 2016 by tsuomela
Wiley: Science in the 20th Century and Beyond - Jon Agar
"A compelling history of science from 1900 to the present day, this is the first book to survey modern developments in science during a century of unprecedented change, conflict and uncertainty. The scope is global. Science's claim to access universal truths about the natural world made it an irresistible resource for industrial empires, ideological programs, and environmental campaigners during this period. Science has been at the heart of twentieth century history - from Einstein's new physics to the Manhattan Project, from eugenics to the Human Genome Project, or from the wonders of penicillin to the promises of biotechnology. For some science would only thrive if autonomous and kept separate from the political world, while for others science was the best guide to a planned and better future. Science was both a routine, if essential, part of an orderly society, and the disruptive source of bewildering transformation. Jon Agar draws on a wave of recent scholarship that explores science from interdisciplinary perspectives to offer a readable synthesis that will be ideal for anyone curious about the profound place of science in the modern world."
book  publisher  science  history  20c  sts 
august 2016 by tsuomela
The Ethics of Algorithms
"The Ethics of Algorithms is a combination research and education project. It aims to investigate the ethics and values of the computer scientists, information scientists, and software engineers who create algorithms. This research and education project aims to both bridge silos between philosophical and social scientific approaches to ethics to develop an integrated theoretical approach to ethics. Such a theoretical approach simultaneously identifies the analytical, moral reasoning that is happening during the conceptualization and design phase as well as critically analyzes the interplay between an individual's personal ethics and values and the ethics and values created by aspects of policies, institutional, economic, and cultural contexts. The proposed research furthers the literature on information ethics by taking an upstream approach that focuses on the design process. Finally, by focusing on algorithms, the proposed research will contribute to broader discussions about ethics, values, and big data. Algorithms are the driving technique behind the creation of big data sets yet there is little talk about the decisions and values that shape algorithm design and thus impact big data content. "
ethics  algorithms  big-data  philosophy  computer-science  technology  sts 
may 2016 by tsuomela
"Digital History and Philosophy of Science (dHPS) brings together historians and philosophers of science, with informaticians, computer scientists, and reference librarians with the goal of thinking of new ways to integrate traditional scholarship with digital tools and resources."
sts  philosophy  history  science  libraries  archives  digital  professional-association 
may 2016 by tsuomela
The Maintainers: A Conference
"Many groups and individuals today celebrate “innovation.” The notion is influential not only in engineering and business, but also in the social sciences, arts, and humanities. For example, “innovation” has become a staple of analysis in popular histories – such as Walter Isaacson’s recent book, The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution.  This conference takes a different approach, one whose conceptual starting point was a playful proposal for a counter-volume to Isaacson’s that could be titled The Maintainers: How a Group of Bureaucrats, Standards Engineers, and Introverts Made Technologies That Kind of Work Most of the Time. Conference participants come from a variety of fields, including academic historians and social scientists, as well as artists, activists, and engineers.  All share an interest in the concepts of maintenance, infrastructure, repair, and the myriad forms of labor and expertise that sustain our human-built world."
conference  infrastructure  technology  standards  sts 
april 2016 by tsuomela
Glaciers, gender, and science
Paper has been criticized by global warming denialists as political correctness run amok. "Glaciers are key icons of climate change and global environmental change. However, the relationships among gender, science, and glaciers – particularly related to epistemological questions about the production of glaciological knowledge – remain understudied. This paper thus proposes a feminist glaciology framework with four key components: 1) knowledge producers; (2) gendered science and knowledge; (3) systems of scientific domination; and (4) alternative representations of glaciers. Merging feminist postcolonial science studies and feminist political ecology, the feminist glaciology framework generates robust analysis of gender, power, and epistemologies in dynamic social-ecological systems, thereby leading to more just and equitable science and human-ice interactions."
geography  glaciers  feminism  sts  science  political-correctness  controversy 
march 2016 by tsuomela
A Peculiar Oceanography - The Los Angeles Review of Books
"The Island of Knowledge : The Limits of Science and the Search for Meaning author: Marcelo Gleiser publisher: Basic Books"
book  review  philosophy  scientism  sts 
february 2016 by tsuomela
Public Books — Siri, Why Am I So Busy?: An Interview with Judy Wajcman
"Judy Wajcman, a sociologist at the London School of Economics, tackles that paradox in her recent book, Pressed for Time: The Acceleration of Life in Digital Capitalism. Neta Alexander talked with her for Public Books about the history of busyness, why we haven’t reached an “End of Work” utopia, and why iPhone meditation apps aren’t the solution."
interview  author  time  time-management  busyness  overwork  work  labor  technology  technology-effects  sts 
february 2016 by tsuomela
History of science: The crucible of change : Nature : Nature Publishing Group
The invention of science: a new history of the scientific revolution by David Wooten.
book  review  science  revolution  17c  history  sts 
september 2015 by tsuomela
The Marvelous Clouds: Toward a Philosophy of Elemental Media, Peters
"When we speak of clouds these days, it is as likely that we mean data clouds or network clouds as cumulus or stratus. In their sharing of the term, both kinds of clouds reveal an essential truth: that the natural world and the technological world are not so distinct. In The Marvelous Clouds, John Durham Peters argues that though we often think of media as environments, the reverse isjust as true—environments are media."
book  publisher  media  sts  science  technology  environment  cloud  metaphor 
july 2015 by tsuomela
"BIG SCIENCE Ernest Lawrence and the Invention That Launched the Military-Industrial Complex By Michael Hiltzik Illustrated. 512 pp. Simon & Schuster. $30."
book  review  science  history  sts  big-science  20c 
july 2015 by tsuomela
Taking the road less traveled | Science Careers
“The cost of standing up for controversial results can be devastating to researchers and their families, Dreger makes clear.”
research  controversy  trends  reputation  harassment  ethics  science  sts 
july 2015 by tsuomela
Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science | The National Academies Press
"The past half-century has witnessed a dramatic increase in the scale and complexity of scientific research. The growing scale of science has been accompanied by a shift toward collaborative research, referred to as "team science." Scientific research is increasingly conducted by small teams and larger groups rather than individual investigators, but the challenges of collaboration can slow these teams' progress in achieving their scientific goals. How does a team-based approach work, and how can universities and research institutions support teams? Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science synthesizes and integrates the available research to provide guidance on assembling the science team; leadership, education and professional development for science teams and groups. It also examines institutional and organizational structures and policies to support science teams and identifies areas where further research is needed to help science teams and groups achieve their scientific and translational goals. This report offers major public policy recommendations for science research agencies and policymakers, as well as recommendations for individual scientists, disciplinary associations, and research universities. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science will be of interest to university research administrators, team science leaders, science faculty, and graduate and postdoctoral students."
book  publisher  science  teams  sts  success  effectiveness 
april 2015 by tsuomela
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Theme issue celebrating 350 years of Philosophical Transactions life sciences papers.
biology  history  science  sts  country(UK) 
march 2015 by tsuomela
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