tsuomela + risk   203

Bright Line Watch
"One of the greatest threats to democracy is the idea that it is unassailable. At a time of potential danger to American demo­c­ra­t­ic norms and insti­tu­tions, it is more urgent than ever for scholars to highlight the risks to our system of gov­ern­ment. In this spirit, Bright Line Watch brings together a group of political sci­en­tists to monitor demo­c­ra­t­ic practices, their resilience, and potential threats."
democracy  political-science  risk  norms 
december 2017 by tsuomela
Digitally Endangered Species - Digital Preservation Coalition
"The DPC's 'Bit List' of Digitally Endangered Species is a crowd-sourcing exercise to discover which digital materials our community thinks are most at risk, as well as those which are relatively safe thanks to digital preservation. By compiling and maintaining this list over the coming years, the DPC aims to celebrate great digital preservation endeavors as entries become less of a ‘concern,’ whilst still highlighting the need for efforts to safeguard those still considered ‘critically endangered.’ "
digital  digital-library  preservation  risk  assessment 
december 2017 by tsuomela
Two Kinds Of Caution | Slate Star Codex
How should we deal with the risk of AI? Contrast local and global caution.
ai  artificial-intelligence  risk 
july 2017 by tsuomela
Preservation of Electronic Government Information (PEGI) | CRL
"Librarians, technologists, and other information professionals from the Center for Research Libraries, the Government Publishing Office (GPO), the University of North Texas, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the University of Missouri, University of North Carolina at Greensboro and Stanford University are undertaking a two year project to address national concerns regarding the preservation of electronic government information (PEGI) by cultural memory organizations for long term use by the citizens of the United States. The PEGI project has been informed by a series of meetings between university librarians, information professionals, and representatives of federal agencies, including the Government Publishing Office and the National Archives and Records Administration. The focus of the PEGI proposal is at-risk government digital information of long term historical significance."
data-rescue  government  scholarly-communication  public-data  risk  activism 
april 2017 by tsuomela
Responsible Data Forum — A series of collaborative events, convened to develop useful tools and strategies for dealing with the ethical, security and privacy challenges facing data-driven advocacy.
"The Responsible Data Forum is a collaborative effort to develop useful tools and strategies for dealing with the ethical, security and privacy challenges facing data-driven advocacy. RDF activities include organizing events; fostering discussion between communities; developing and testing concrete tools; disseminating useful information; and advocating for advocates and their supporters to improve the way they work with data. The Forum is a collaboration between Amnesty International, Aspiration, The Engine Room, Greenhost, HURIDOCS, Leiden University’s Peace Informatics Lab, Open Knowledge and Ushahidi."
big-data  privacy  surveillance  risk  humanitarian  genocide  human-rights  activism 
december 2016 by tsuomela
The Global Priorities Project | Prioritisation and policy research
"Every day governments, foundations, and individuals need to make hard choices about what to prioritise. Limited resources must be wisely split between worthwhile causes. But prioritising requires sophisticated methods, especially when it involves uncertainty, ambiguity, and many different contexts."
global  priorities  risk 
april 2016 by tsuomela
Global Risks 2013 - Reports - World Economic Forum
"The global risk of massive digital misinformation sits at the centre of a constellation of technological and geopolitical risks ranging from terrorism to cyber attacks and the failure of global governance. This risk case examines how hyperconnectivity could enable “digital wildfires” to wreak havoc in the real world. It considers the challenge presented by the misuse of an open and easily accessible system and the greater danger of misguided attempts to prevent such outcomes."
internet  online  risk  knowledge  bias  psychology  intelligence  misinformation  agnotology 
april 2016 by tsuomela
The Maximums of Maximums: The Hurricanes, Earthquakes, and Other Disasters That Worry Emergency Planners Most - The Atlantic
"The frustrating paradox for disaster planners is that even though people are fascinated by the risk of natural disasters, they seldom do much to prepare for them. That’s a problem that extends from the upper reaches of government down to individual citizens."
risk  disaster  management 
september 2015 by tsuomela
The Architecture of Error | The MIT Press
"When architects draw even brick walls to six decimal places with software designed to cut lenses, it is clear that the logic that once organized relations between precision and material error in construction has unraveled. Precision, already a promiscuous term, seems now to have been uncoupled from its contract with truthfulness. Meanwhile error, and the always-political space of its dissent, has reconfigured itself. In The Architecture of Error Francesca Hughes argues that behind the architect’s acute fetishization of redundant precision lies a special fear of physical error. What if we were to consider the pivotal cultural and technological transformations of modernism to have been driven not so much by the causes its narratives declare, she asks, as by an unspoken horror of loss of control over error, material life, and everything that matter stands for? Hughes traces the rising intolerance of material vagaries—from the removal of ornament to digitalized fabrication—that produced the blind rejection of organic materials, the proliferation of material testing, and the rhetorical obstacles that blighted cybernetics. Why is it, she asks, that the more we cornered physical error, the more we feared it? Hughes’s analysis of redundant precision exposes an architecture of fear whose politics must be called into question. Proposing error as a new category for architectural thought, Hughes draws on other disciplines and practices that have interrogated precision and failure, citing the work of scientists Nancy Cartwright and Evelyn Fox Keller and visual artists Gordon Matta-Clark, Barbara Hepworth, Rachel Whiteread, and others. These non-architect practitioners, she argues, show that error need not be excluded and precision can be made accountable."
book  publisher  architecture  materiality  risk  error  measurement  engineering 
march 2015 by tsuomela
Apocalypse when? (Not) thinking and talking about climate change | Discover Society
"Psychologists are identifying countless psychological ‘barriers’ that obstruct behaviour change despite knowledge about anthropogenic ecological degradation, that include perceptual, cognitive, emotional, interpersonal and group processes (see Robert Gifford’s overview). Some researchers, inspired by psychoanalysis, study how defence mechanisms act as barriers to action in the context of ecological crisis. Originally conceptualized by Freud, defence mechanisms are psychological processes aimed at avoiding, or protecting one’s self from, experiences of emotional distress, destructive impulses, or threats to self-esteem. Many – like repression, regression, projection and denial – have entered into everyday language."
environment  climate-change  global-warming  psychology  defense-mechanism  psychoanalysis  bias  cognition  risk  crisis  solutionism  apocalypse  fear 
march 2015 by tsuomela
A video and story on the scares about power lines beginning in the 1970s and continuing for the next 30 years.
fear  risk  perception  1980s  1990s  electricity  electric-grid  health  psychology  retro 
december 2014 by tsuomela
The Hazards of Going on Autopilot - The New Yorker
"We assume that more automation is better—that a driverless car or a drone-delivered package is progress, no matter the guise it takes—but the experience we’ve had in aviation teaches us to be suspicious of that assumption. “Don’t just automate something because you can,” Casner said. “Automate it because you should.”"
automation  psychology  awareness  hci  attention  risk  accidents  flying 
september 2014 by tsuomela
Threatened pandemics and laboratory escapes: Self-fulfilling prophecies | Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
"Looking at the problem pragmatically, the question is not if such escapes will result in a major civilian outbreak, but rather what the pathogen will be and how such an escape may be contained, if indeed it can be contained at al"
pandemic  epidemics  diseases  bioscience  safety  risk  lab  biology 
april 2014 by tsuomela
PLOS ONE: Assessing “Dangerous Climate Change”: Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature
"We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth’s measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today’s young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ~500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ~1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur “slow” feedbacks and eventual warming of 3–4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth’s energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels."
climate  climate-change  global-warming  risk 
april 2014 by tsuomela
The New Normal: School Shootings as Industrial Disaster » Cyborgology
"Industrial disasters are called “accidents” instead of terrorism because they are committed in the name of profit. A freight train derailment is just as calculated, deliberate, and ruthless as a homemade pipe bomb. The only difference is that industrial terrorists don’t know exactly when the bomb is going to go off and they never have the guts to be there when it does."
accidents  industry  business  business-as-usual  risk  normalization  disaster  capitalism  economics 
february 2014 by tsuomela
Eric Schlosser and the Illusion of Nuclear Weapons Safety | The Nation
"In the end, however, the basic conundrum remains. One the one hand, the multiple assurances by authorities that we had nothing to worry about were, as in so many other areas, unfounded and deceptive. Numerous accidents went unreported to the public and often to officials who should have known about them. Hydrogen bombs were dropped on or crashed into Spain, Iceland and numerous locations in the United States. They were subject to fires and explosions, in some cases leading to the dispersion of uranium and plutonium. On the other hand, we never had a nuclear explosion. But does this show the strength of the safety mechanisms? Schlosser draws the opposite conclusion that we were lucky. If things had been a bit different in many of these cases—had wires crossed one way rather than another or had decay in a safety switch occurred in a bomber that crashed—bombs would have exploded. We can ask how close we came, which means thinking about would have had to have been different in order to produce this dreaded result. But we cannot be confident about where this way of thinking leads us. And that means we may have been a lot closer to disaster than most of us believed at the time."
book  review  weapons  nuclear  safety  risk  cold-war 
october 2013 by tsuomela
Boston, West, Newtown: For Whom the Bells Toll, For Whom the Alarms Ring | The Nation
"What separates these victims from one another? Surely not innocence, for they are all innocent, and they all deserve to be mourned. And yet the blunt and awful truth is that, as a nation, we pay orders of magnitude more attention to the victims of terrorism than we do to the over 4,500 Americans killed each year while on the job."
tragedy  risk  news  media  journalism  statistics  terrorism 
april 2013 by tsuomela
Boston, Texas, and the roads: affect and the power of normalization - New APPS: Art, Politics, Philosophy, Science
"It is not to minimize the horror of the Boston bombings -- indeed, it is to highlight it -- that I point to the difference between media coverage of Boston and that of the West, Texas explosion. The former was roughly 24/7 on the big cable channels, with some coverage of the Texas explosion. But then when you look to the road fatalities stats, you realize there's something amazing when 30,000 deaths a year doesn't gain any national news at all. So what's going on? Some observations below."
ethics  media  news  journalism  risk  philosophy  affect  normalization  politics  terrorism 
april 2013 by tsuomela
The Production of Nonknowledge « through the looking glass
"UCL’s Science and Society reading group discussed an interesting paper on the production of non-knowledge, what science decides not to look at, why and how. It’s interesting because the growing literature on the sociology of ignorance – e.g. agnotology – often sees it as a problem, but as this paper points out, it’s a routine part of science. I thought I’d share my notes. "
science  knowledge  bias  controversy  public-understanding  agnotology  ignorance  forbidden  risk 
february 2013 by tsuomela
The Risk Ownership Society | Dissent Magazine
"Freaks of Fortune provides a timely source of perspective on the financial dislocations of the last decade. We have been here before. Maybe we have been nowhere else since the guns fell silent at Appomattox. Freaks of Fortune is a scholarly and affectionate recounting of a journey, which, despite hustle and heartbreak, controversy and countermovement, seems always to leave us right back where we started. We are left with a difficult question: if we wish to be free in the way that Americans understand freedom, have we no choice but to submit to a faceless, periodically psychotic “economic chance-world”?"
book  review  crisis  financial-services  finance  money  economics  risk  chance 
february 2013 by tsuomela
The World Bank - Climate Change - Climate Change Report Warns of Dramatically Warmer World This Century
""A 4°C warmer world can, and must be, avoided – we need to hold warming below 2°C," said World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim. "Lack of action on climate change threatens to make the world our children inherit a completely different world than we are living in today. Climate change is one of the single biggest challenges facing development, and we need to assume the moral responsibility to take action on behalf of future generations, especially the poorest.""
world-bank  environment  economics  capitalism  climate-change  global-warming  disaster  risk 
january 2013 by tsuomela
Perhaps we should be worried about the wildly divergent answers given to the question?
2013  future  risk  catastrophe  expertise  experts 
january 2013 by tsuomela
www.culturalcognition.net - Cultural Cognition Papers by Date - The Tragedy of the Risk-Perception Commons: Culture Conflict, Rationality Conflict, and Climate Change
"The conventional explanation for controversy over climate change emphasizes impediments to public understanding: limited popular knowledge of science, the inability of ordinary citizens to assess technical information, and the resulting widespread use of unreliable cognitive heuristics to assess risk. A large survey of U.S. adults (N = 1540) found little support for this account. On the whole, the most scientifically literate and numerate subjects were slightly less likely, not more, to see climate change as a serious threat than the least scientifically literate and numerate ones. More importantly, greater scientific literacy and numeracy were associated with greater cultural polarization: respondents predisposed by their values to dismiss climate change evidence became more dismissive, and those predisposed by their values to credit such evidence more concerned, as science literacy and numeracy increased. We suggest that this evidence reflects a conflict between two levels of rationality: the individual level, which is characterized by citizens’ effective use of their knowledge and reasoning capacities to form risk perceptions that express their cultural commitments; and the collective level, which is characterized by citizens’ failure to converge on the best available scientific evidence on how to promote their common welfare. Dispelling this “tragedy of the risk-perception commons,” we argue, should be understood as the central aim of the science of science communication."
science  communication  risk  climate-change  cognition  bias  culture  ideology 
december 2012 by tsuomela
UnderstandingSociety: Regulatory thrombosis
"What this all suggests is that the U.S. government and our political culture do a particularly bad job of creating organizational intelligence in response to crucial national challenges. By this I mean an effective group of bureaus with a clear mission, committed executive leadership, and consistent communication and collaboration among agencies and a demonstrated ability to formulate and carry out rational plans in addressing identified risks. (Perrow's general assessment of the French nuclear power system seems to be that it is more effective in maintaining safe operations and protecting nuclear materials against attack.) And the US government's ability to provide this kind of intelligent risk abatement seems particularly weak."
book  review  disaster  risk  government  regulation  regulatory-capture  business  congress  failure  from delicious
july 2012 by tsuomela
Don’t Tell Me What (I Need) To Do, Tell Me What (I Want) To Do « how to save the world
"No matter that simplistic models and solutions and symptoms rarely work: Still, we want books that tell us we can lose weight easily in 7-10 days, or that we can geoengineer our way out of climate change. We want to believe what we already believe, or at least what we want to believe, or, in cases when there is overwhelming evidence that those beliefs no longer make sense, we want to believe what we are ‘born-again’ ready to believe. And, likewise, we want to be told that what we ‘should’ do is what we are already doing, or what we want to do, or what we are at last ready and willing to do. Until then, we are deaf, and there is no point arguing with us."
habit  psychology  disaster  risk  from delicious
april 2012 by tsuomela
Can Hydras Eat Unknown-Unknowns for Lunch?
"The general idea behind the Hydra narrative in a broad sense (not just what Taleb has said/will say in October) is that hydras eat all unknown unknowns (not just Taleb’s famous black swans) for lunch. I have heard at least three different versions of this proposition in the last year. The narrative inspires social system designs that feed on uncertainty rather than being destroyed by it. Geoffrey West’s ideas about superlinearity are the empirical part of an attempt to construct an existence proof showing that such systems are actually possible." Annotated link http://www.diigo.com/bookmark/http://www.ribbonfarm.com/2012/03/22/can-hydras-eat-unknown-unknowns-for-lunch
uncertainty  risk  trends  history  technology  innovation  narrative  terrorism  from delicious
april 2012 by tsuomela
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