tsuomela + measurement   100

Muller, J.: The Tyranny of Metrics (Hardcover and eBook) | Princeton University Press
"Today, organizations of all kinds are ruled by the belief that the path to success is quantifying human performance, publicizing the results, and dividing up the rewards based on the numbers. But in our zeal to instill the evaluation process with scientific rigor, we've gone from measuring performance to fixating on measuring itself. The result is a tyranny of metrics that threatens the quality of our lives and most important institutions. In this timely and powerful book, Jerry Muller uncovers the damage our obsession with metrics is causing—and shows how we can begin to fix the problem. Filled with examples from education, medicine, business and finance, government, the police and military, and philanthropy and foreign aid, this brief and accessible book explains why the seemingly irresistible pressure to quantify performance distorts and distracts, whether by encouraging "gaming the stats" or "teaching to the test." That's because what can and does get measured is not always worth measuring, may not be what we really want to know, and may draw effort away from the things we care about. Along the way, we learn why paying for measured performance doesn't work, why surgical scorecards may increase deaths, and much more. But metrics can be good when used as a complement to—rather than a replacement for—judgment based on personal experience, and Muller also gives examples of when metrics have been beneficial. Complete with a checklist of when and how to use metrics, The Tyranny of Metrics is an essential corrective to a rarely questioned trend that increasingly affects us all."
book  publisher  metrics  measurement  business  organizations 
may 2018 by tsuomela
The Architecture of Error | The MIT Press
"When architects draw even brick walls to six decimal places with software designed to cut lenses, it is clear that the logic that once organized relations between precision and material error in construction has unraveled. Precision, already a promiscuous term, seems now to have been uncoupled from its contract with truthfulness. Meanwhile error, and the always-political space of its dissent, has reconfigured itself. In The Architecture of Error Francesca Hughes argues that behind the architect’s acute fetishization of redundant precision lies a special fear of physical error. What if we were to consider the pivotal cultural and technological transformations of modernism to have been driven not so much by the causes its narratives declare, she asks, as by an unspoken horror of loss of control over error, material life, and everything that matter stands for? Hughes traces the rising intolerance of material vagaries—from the removal of ornament to digitalized fabrication—that produced the blind rejection of organic materials, the proliferation of material testing, and the rhetorical obstacles that blighted cybernetics. Why is it, she asks, that the more we cornered physical error, the more we feared it? Hughes’s analysis of redundant precision exposes an architecture of fear whose politics must be called into question. Proposing error as a new category for architectural thought, Hughes draws on other disciplines and practices that have interrogated precision and failure, citing the work of scientists Nancy Cartwright and Evelyn Fox Keller and visual artists Gordon Matta-Clark, Barbara Hepworth, Rachel Whiteread, and others. These non-architect practitioners, she argues, show that error need not be excluded and precision can be made accountable."
book  publisher  architecture  materiality  risk  error  measurement  engineering 
march 2015 by tsuomela
[1501.05462] A Review of Theory and Practice in Scientometrics
"Scientometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the process of science as a communication system. It is centrally, but not only, concerned with the analysis of citations in the academic literature. In recent years it has come to play a major role in the measurement and evaluation of research performance. In this review we consider: the historical development of scientometrics, sources of citation data, citation metrics and the "laws" of scientometrics, normalisation, journal impact factors and other journal metrics, visualising and mapping science, evaluation and policy, and future developments."
bibliometrics  scientometrics  measurement  citations  citation-analysis 
january 2015 by tsuomela
Crowd science user contribution patterns and their implications
"Scientific research performed with the involvement of the broader public (the crowd) attracts increasing attention from scientists and policy makers. A key premise is that project organizers may be able to draw on underused human resources to advance research at relatively low cost. Despite a growing number of examples, systematic research on the effort contributions volunteers are willing to make to crowd science projects is lacking. Analyzing data on seven different projects, we quantify the financial value volunteers can bring by comparing their unpaid contributions with counterfactual costs in traditional or online labor markets. The volume of total contributions is substantial, although some projects are much more successful in attracting effort than others. Moreover, contributions received by projects are very uneven across time—a tendency toward declining activity is interrupted by spikes typically resulting from outreach efforts or media attention. Analyzing user-level data, we find that most contributors participate only once and with little effort, leaving a relatively small share of users who return responsible for most of the work. Although top contributor status is earned primarily through higher levels of effort, top contributors also tend to work faster. This speed advantage develops over multiple sessions, suggesting that it reflects learning rather than inherent differences in skills. Our findings inform recent discussions about potential benefits from crowd science, suggest that involving the crowd may be more effective for some kinds of projects than others, provide guidance for project managers, and raise important questions for future research."
citizen-science  crowdsourcing  participation  success  public-understanding  metrics  measurement 
january 2015 by tsuomela
Big brother in the academy | Features | Times Higher Education
"As monitoring of scholars’ performance, time and output increases, so do reservations about its value and effectiveness"
academic  academia  monitor  work  metrics  measurement  value 
october 2014 by tsuomela
[1407.8010] Alternative metrics in scientometrics: A meta-analysis of research into three altmetrics
"Alternative metrics are currently one of the most popular research topics in scientometric research. This paper provides an overview of research into three of the most important altmetrics: microblogging (Twitter), online reference managers (Mendeley and CiteULike) and blogging. The literature is discussed in relation to the possible use of altmetrics in research evaluation. Since the research was particularly interested in the correlation between altmetrics counts and citation counts, this overview focuses particularly on this correlation. For each altmetric, a meta-analysis is calculated for its correlation with traditional citation counts. As the results of the meta-analyses show, the correlation with traditional citations for micro-blogging counts is negligible (pooled r=0.003), for blog counts it is small (pooled r=0.12) and for bookmark counts from online reference managers, medium to large (CiteULike pooled r=0.23; Mendeley pooled r=0.51). Since the added value of an alternative metric, as an additional metric compared with traditional citation counts, is greater the less it correlates with traditional citation counts, the greatest added value - according to the meta-analysis - is associated with Twitter citations."
altmetrics  metrics  bibliometrics  measurement 
august 2014 by tsuomela
Kudos
"Kudos helps researchers explain, enrich and share their publications for greater research impact."
altmetrics  research  impact  metrics  measurement 
july 2014 by tsuomela
The Most Common Leadership Model - And Why It's Broken - Forbes
"When organizations’ hire, develop, and promote leaders using a competency-based model, they’re unwittingly incubating failure. Nothing fractures corporate culture faster, and eviscerates talent development efforts more rapidly, than rewarding the wrong people for the wrong reasons. Don’t reward technical competency – reward aggregate contribution."
business  management  skills  competency  contribution  rewards  measurement  leadership 
april 2013 by tsuomela
Deirdre N. McCloskey: Happyism | The New Republic
"But nowadays there is a new science of happiness, and some of the psychologists and almost all the economists involved want you to think that happiness is just pleasure. Further, they propose to calculate your happiness, by asking you where you fall on a three-point scale, 1-2-3: “not too happy,” “pretty happy,” “very happy.” They then want to move to technical manipulations of the numbers, showing that you, too, can be “happy,” if you will but let the psychologists and the economists show you (and the government) how."
economics  utility  happiness  utilitarianism  measurement  psychology  philosophy 
december 2012 by tsuomela
Why Our Definition Of "Failure" Gets An F | Co.Exist: World changing ideas and innovation
"New tools like Kickboard Wireless Generation, and ClassDojo have the potential to help teachers capture far more fine-grained data about students’ day-to-day performance and interactions, which besides being good for teaching, could eventually be made the basis of a more nuanced picture of what happens in schools. But this data needs to be paired with nuanced judgments by politicians and the public."
education  reform  measurement  metrics  automation  digital  judgment  values  from delicious
september 2012 by tsuomela
Magazine - The Perfected Self - The Atlantic
Though more advanced in execution, today’s electronic nudges and tweaks are identical in purpose: use what you can control to affect what you can’t. The simple elegance of this concept flips on its head Chomsky’s suggestion that behavior modification treats people as if they were no more intelligent than animals. What distinguishes our intellect from animals’ is not that we can go against our environment—most of us can’t, not in the long run—but rather that we can purposefully alter our environment to shape our behavior in ways we choose.
psychology  behavior  quantified-self  health  self-improvement  measurement  behaviorism  from delicious
june 2012 by tsuomela
Who’s dumber: Congress or Martin Luther King Jr.? The dumb report on congressional dumbness - Yahoo! News
"If you skim Sunlight’s findings, and bring to them a sporting quotient of party prejudice, you might conclude that Republicans are, say, “idiots” and Democrats are, oh, “showoffs.” To use the pre-K-level idiom preferred by the biased twerp in each of us.

If, however, you listen to a sampler of speeches by various congresspeople at a range of oration grade levels, you might find something completely different."
politics  language  rhetoric  measurement  metrics  grading  useless  congress  from delicious
may 2012 by tsuomela
PLoS ONE: Assessing Public Engagement with Science in a University Primate Research Centre in a National Zoo
"Recent years have seen increasing encouragement by research institutions and funding bodies for scientists to actively engage with the public, who ultimately finance their work. Animal behaviour as a discipline possesses several features, including its inherent accessibility and appeal to the public, that may help it occupy a particularly successful niche within these developments. It has also established a repertoire of quantitative behavioural methodologies that can be used to document the public's responses to engagement initiatives. This kind of assessment is becoming increasingly important considering the enormous effort now being put into public engagement projects, whose effects are more often assumed than demonstrated. Here we report our first attempts to quantify relevant aspects of the behaviour of a sample of the hundreds of thousands of visitors who pass through the ‘Living Links to Human Evolution Research Centre’ in Edinburgh Zoo. This University research centre actively encourages the public to view ongoing primate research and associated science engagement activities. Focal follows of visitors and scan sampling showed substantial ‘dwell times’ in the Centre by common zoo standards and the addition of new engagement elements in a second year was accompanied by significantly increased overall dwell times, tripling for the most committed two thirds of visitors. Larger groups of visitors were found to spend more time in the Centre than smaller ones. Viewing live, active science was the most effective activity, shown to be enhanced by novel presentations of carefully constructed explanatory materials. The findings emphasise the importance and potential of zoos as public engagement centres for the biological sciences."
science  public-understanding  engagement  assessment  measurement  museum  zoo  from delicious
april 2012 by tsuomela
Toolmaker Talk: Yoni Donner (Quantified Mind) | Quantified Self
Donner: Quantified Mind is a web application that allows users to track the variation in their cognitive functions under different conditions, using cognitive tests that are based on long-standing principles from psychology, but adapted to be repeatable, short, engaging, automatic and adaptive.

The goal is to make cognitive optimization an exact science instead of relying on subjective feelings, which can be deceiving or so subtle that they are hard to interpret. Quantified Mind allows fun and easy self-experimentation and data analysis that can lead to actionable conclusions.
quantified-self  cognition  psychology  metrics  measurement  self-improvement  from delicious
april 2012 by tsuomela
Leap seconds: Their time has come | The Economist
But possibly no longer. Next week, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is meeting in Geneva, and one of the items on its agenda is the abolition of the leap second. If the assembled delegates vote in favour, then the next leap second (which will be added one second before midnight on June 30th, causing clocks set to UTC to display 23:59:59 for two seconds instead of one) will be one of the last—and the answer to the question “what time is it?” will have ceased to have anything to do with the revolutions of the heavens.
time  metrology  measurement  standards  from delicious
january 2012 by tsuomela
Jonah Lehrer on Problems With SATs, GREs, the NFL Combine and Other Performance Tests | Head Case - WSJ.com
"...leading him to distinguish between two types of personal assessment. One measures "maximum performance": People who know they're being tested are highly motivated and focused, just like those cashiers scanning a few items while being timed.

The other type measures "typical performance"—measured over long periods of time, as when Mr. Sackett recorded the speed of cashiers who didn't know they were being watched. In this sort of test, character traits that have nothing to do with maximum performance begin to influence the outcome. Cashiers with speedy hands won't have fast overall times if they take lots of breaks."
measurement  performance  success  maximum  typical  testing 
april 2011 by tsuomela
Science/AAAS | The Gonzo Scientist (Episode 14) - The Science Hall of Fame
"Welcome to the Science Hall of Fame, a pantheon of the most famous scientists of the past 200 years. This interactive database uses an objective and literal measure of fame: the frequency with which the full names of scientists appear in books published between 1800 and 2000. This is an example of "culturomics" "
science  fame  measurement  culturomics  statistics  history 
february 2011 by tsuomela
ingentaconnect Using curriculum vitae to compare some impacts of NSF research gr...
"While traditional grants remain central in US federal support of academic scientists and engineers, the role of multidisciplinary NSF Centers is growing. Little is known about how funding through these Centers affects scientific output or (as is an NSF aim) increases academic collaboration with industry. This paper tests the use of CVs to examine how Center funding affects researchers’ publication rates and their obtaining industry grants. We find that CVs are indeed usable, but some ways of collecting them work much better than others, and that researchers who obtain Center grants are more likely to obtain grants from industry too, suggesting that this NSF aim is being met. We do not find that Centers improve publication rates. "
research  funding  productivity  metrics  measurement  methods  cv 
february 2011 by tsuomela
Laurence Chandy and Geoffrey Gertz - Missing poverty's new reality: There's a lot less of it
"We estimate that between 2005 and 2010, nearly half a billion people escaped extreme hardship, as the total number of the world's poor fell to 878 million people. Never before in history have so many people been lifted out of poverty in such a short period. The U.N. Millennium Development Goals established the target of halving the rate of global poverty between 1990 and 2015
poverty  global  economics  growth  econometrics  2010s  measurement 
january 2011 by tsuomela
Academic Analytics: A New Tool for a New Era | EDUCAUSE
In responding to internal and external pressures for accountability in higher education, especially in the areas of improved learning outcomes and student success, IT leaders may soon become critical partners with academic and student affairs. IT can contribute to this call for accountability through academic analytics, which is emerging as a new tool for a new era
academic  evaluation  measurement  analytics 
december 2010 by tsuomela
Definitions and Standards : Uncertain Principles
The image most people have of physical standards would have both the meter and the second tied to some sort of physical reference, with the speed of light determined in terms of those two standards. And, in fact, that's how things used to be-- if you look at the history of the definition of the meter, you see that it was tied to a physical standard until 1983. So why the change?

The reason for the change is basically that we can do a much better job of measuring time than position, thanks to spectroscopic techniques developed in the 1940's.
history  science  measurement  metrology  definition  standard  sts  speed  light  physics 
december 2010 by tsuomela
SSRN-And Action: TV Sentiment and the US Consumer by Matthias Uhl
The average American watches over five hours of television per day. We test whether sentiment in TV news shows influences the ordinary consumer in the US, and whether the University of Michigan Index of Consumer Sentiment is better at explaining changes in private consumption than TV news sentiment. TV news sentiment, we find, can better explain the consumption behavior of US households, especially when combined with personal income and savings.
paper  media-effects  media  economics  measurement  consumer  consumption 
november 2010 by tsuomela
Cormode - A manifesto for modeling and measurement in social media - First Monday - 6 September 2010
Online social networks (OSNs) have been the subject of a great deal of study in recent years. The majority of this study has used simple models, such as node–and–edge graphs, to describe the data. In this paper, we argue that such models, which necessarily limit the structures that can be described and omit temporal information, are insufficient to describe and study OSNs. Instead, we propose that a richer class of Entity Interaction Network models should be adopted. We outline a checklist of features that can help build such a model, and apply it to three popular networks (Twitter, Facebook and YouTube) to highlight important features. We also discuss important considerations for the collection, validation and sharing of OSN data.
social-networks  social-media  network-analysis  networks  research  measurement  methods  twitter  data  social  network 
october 2010 by tsuomela
Econometric Measures of Systemic Risk in the Finance and Insurance Sectors
We propose several econometric measures of systemic risk to capture the interconnectedness among the monthly returns of hedge funds, banks, brokers, and insurance companies based on principal components analysis and Granger-causality tests. We find that all four sectors have become highly interrelated over the past decade, increasing the level of systemic risk in the finance and insurance industries. These measures can also identify and quantify financial crisis periods, and seem to contain predictive power for the current financial crisis. Our results suggest that hedge funds can provide early indications of market dislocation, and systemic risk arises from a complex and dynamic network of relationships among hedge funds, banks, insurance companies, and brokers.
economics  complexity  systems  risk  measurement  modeling  interconnection  social-networks  network-analysis  finance 
august 2010 by tsuomela
All Those Worthless Papers. In the Pipeline:
No, these ideas are worthy, but they don't get to the real problem. It's not like all the crappy papers are coming from younger faculty who are bucking for tenure, you know. Plenty more are emitted by well-entrenched groups who just generate things that no one ever really wants to read. I think we've made it too possible for people to have whole scientific careers of complete mediocrity.
science  publishing  scholarly-communication  academia  mediocrity  success  measurement 
june 2010 by tsuomela
interfluidity » Capital can’t be measured
So, for large complex financials, capital cannot be measured precisely enough to distinguish conservatively solvent from insolvent banks, and capital positions are always optimistically padded. Given these facts, and I think they are facts, even “hard” capital and leverage restraints are unlikely to prevent misbehavior. Can anything be done about this? Are we doomed to some post-modern quantum mechanical nightmare wherein “Schrödinger’s Banks” are simultaneously alive and dead until some politically-shaped measurement by a regulator forces a collapse of the superposition of states into hunky-doriness?

Yes, we are doomed, unless and until we simplify the structure of the banks.
economics  banking  finance  financial-services  regulation  capital  law  measurement 
june 2010 by tsuomela
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