tsuomela + expertise   161

Neoliberalism From the Left
"In Leftism Reinvented: Western Parties from Socialism to Neoliberalism, Mudge looks at left parties in advanced capitalist countries over the last century and shows how the experts aligned with those parties pushed them in the direction of spin doctors and markets. In the process, left parties’ ability to represent the interests of their own working-class constituencies was eroded — and ordinary people were shut out of the halls of power."
interview  book  neoliberalism  economics  expertise  socialism  activism  ideology 
august 2018 by tsuomela
Keith Olbermann and our vogue for EVISCERATIONS and EPIC RANTS.
Some parallels to Dan Kahan and cultural cognition dualism in public understanding of science.
rhetoric  politics  rants  language  persuasion  cognition  public-understanding  science  expertise 
october 2016 by tsuomela
Yes, We Have “No Irish Need Apply” | Easily Distracted
Interesting post on Rebecca Fried, a high school student, who published an academic article, on the presence of 'no irish need apply' signs, debunking another article by a much older academic.
history  historiography  expertise  immigration  academia  controversy 
august 2015 by tsuomela
Looking Across and Looking Beyond the Knowledge Frontier: Intellectual Distance and Resource Allocation in Science by Kevin J. Boudreau, Eva Guinan, Karim Lakhani, Christoph Riedl :: SSRN
"Selecting among alternative innovative projects is a core management task in all innovating organizations. In this paper, we focus on the evaluation of frontier scientific research projects. We argue that the “intellectual distance” between the knowledge embodied in research proposals and an evaluator’s own expertise systematically relates to the evaluations given (and consequent resource allocation). We empirically evaluate effects in data collected from a grant proposal process at a leading research university in which we randomized the assignment of evaluators and proposals to generate 2,130 evaluator-proposal pairs. We find evaluators systematically give lower scores to research proposals closer to their own areas of expertise, and to highly novel research proposals. We interpret the empirical patterns in relation to a range of theoretical mechanisms and discuss implications for policy, managerial intervention and allocation of resources in the ongoing accumulation of scientific knowledge."
creativity  innovation  framing  communication  novelty  expertise  experts  research  science 
october 2014 by tsuomela
The Tea Party is timeless : Columbia Journalism Review
Book review of Anti-Intellectualism in American Life by Richard Hofstadter
book  review  history  anti-intellectual  america  expertise 
september 2014 by tsuomela
NCAR - Climate Data Guide | Data Discovery Guided by Experts
"Search and access 164 data sets covering the Atmosphere, Ocean, Land and more. Explore climate indices, reanalyses and satellite data and understand their application to climate model metrics. This is the only data portal that combines data discovery, metadata, figures and world-class expertise on the strengths, limitations and applications of climate data. "
data  data-curation  discovery  expertise  climate-change  global-warming 
april 2014 by tsuomela
www.nytimes.com
"But what if you could establish the neural pathways that lead to virtuosity more quickly? That is the promise of transcranial direct current stimulation, or tDCS — the passage of very low-level electrical current through targeted areas of the brain. Several studies conducted in medical and military settings indicate tDCS may bring improvements in cognitive function, motor skills and mood. "
cognition  memory  skill  expertise  learning  neurology  enhancement 
march 2014 by tsuomela
Virginia Master Naturalist Program Home
"Virginia Master Naturalists are volunteer educators, citizen scientists, and stewards helping Virginia conserve and manage natural resources and public lands. The process for becoming a certified Virginia Master Naturalist typically takes 6 to 12 months. One starts by completing a 40-hour basic training course offered by a local chapter of the program. An additional 8 hours of advanced training are also required. An important part of the certification process is the required 40 hours of volunteer service."
nature  environment  volunteer  organization  citizen-science  expertise  certification 
march 2014 by tsuomela
Zapnito - Home
"The web has become an ocean of noise. With user driven content and social networks like Facebook and YouTube, the web has become more confusing and noisy than ever intended. Companies are struggling with how to manage their content and communities. We are the inverse of noisy social networks. A platform that allows organizations with leaders and communities to develop and grow their customer base, employee engagement and build new sources of revenues."
social-networks  micronetworking  expertise  business  consulting 
september 2013 by tsuomela
On Security Awareness Training - Dark Reading
"The whole concept of security awareness training demonstrates how the computer industry has failed. We should be designing systems that won't let users choose lousy passwords and don't care what links a user clicks on. We should be designing systems that conform to their folk beliefs of security, rather than forcing them to learn new ones. "
computer  education  security  training  expertise  novice  awareness 
march 2013 by tsuomela
Academic assholes and the circle of niceness | The Thesis Whisperer
"In his best selling book ‘The No Asshole Rule’ Robert Sutton, a professor at Stanford University, has a lot to say on the topic of, well, assholes in the workplace. The book is erudite and amusing in equal measures and well worth reading especially for the final chapter where Sutton examines the advantages of being an asshole. He cites work by Teresa Amabile, who did a series of controlled experiments using fictitious book reviews. While the reviews themselves essentially made the same observations about the books, the tone in which the reviewers expressed their observations was tweaked to be either nice or nasty. What Amabile found was: … negative or unkind people were seen as less likeable but more intelligent, competent and expert than those who expressed the the same messages in gentler ways"
personality  argument  behavior  academia  intelligence  expertise  appearance 
march 2013 by tsuomela
Down a mineshaft or why historians (must) become polymaths. | The Renaissance Mathematicus
"Anybody doing contextual history will, no matter what the starting point of his or her investigations, eventually run up against one or other field of human endeavour about which he or she is more or less ignorant. When this happens our intrepid historian has one of two choices he or she can either stop his or her investigations at that point and not answer the obvious questions that have popped up or he or she can buckle down and acquire a working knowledge of a new field thus increasing his or hers status as a polymath."
historiography  history  polymath  learning  science  expertise  academic 
february 2013 by tsuomela
Edge.org
Perhaps we should be worried about the wildly divergent answers given to the question?
2013  future  risk  catastrophe  expertise  experts 
january 2013 by tsuomela
Teaching What You Don't Know - Do Your Job Better - The Chronicle of Higher Education
"Therese Huston's Teaching What You Don't Know (Harvard University Press), which analyzes the gap between teaching as an expert of the course content and teaching as a novice of it."
book  review  education  pedagogy  expertise  novice  teaching  skill 
october 2012 by tsuomela
UnderstandingSociety: How things work
"But think about the challenge of understanding society from the other end of the stick -- the perspective of the ordinary participant. From the participant's perspective the situation often looks more like an environment of black boxes: how will the world respond if I do X, Y, or Z? And for a significant part of society, how the boxes work is a life-affecting mystery."
social-epistemology  explanation  perspective  science  ordinary  expertise  poverty  from delicious
july 2012 by tsuomela
Why do people pay for useless advice? Implications of gambler's and hot-hand fallacies in false-expert settingsIZA - Institute for the Study of Labor
"We investigated experimentally whether people can be induced to believe in a non-existent expert, and subsequently pay for what can only be described as transparently useless advice about future chance events. Consistent with the theoretical predictions made by Rabin (2002) and Rabin and Vayanos (2010), we show empirically that the answer is yes and that the size of the error made systematically by people is large. "
economics  research  statistics  probability  expertise  reasoning  chance  bias  prediction  cognition  from delicious
june 2012 by tsuomela
Guest Review by Aaron Swartz: Chris Hayes’ The Twilight of The Elites — Crooked Timber
"Hayes pins the blame on an unlikely suspect: meritocracy. We thought we would just simply pick out the best and raise them to the top, but once they got there they inevitably used their privilege to entrench themselves and their kids (inequality is, Hayes says, “autocatalytic”). Opening up the elite to more efficient competition didn’t make things more fair, it just legitimated a more intense scramble. The result was an arms race among the elite, pushing all of them to embrace the most unscrupulous forms of cheating and fraud to secure their coveted positions. As competition takes over at the high end, personal worth resolves into exchange value, and the elite power accumulated in one sector can be traded for elite power in another: a regulator can become a bank VP, a modern TV host can use their stardom to become a bestselling author (try to imagine Edward R. Murrow using the nightly news to flog his books the way Bill O’Reilly does). This creates a unitary elite, detached from the bulk of society, yet at the same time even more insecure."
elites  expertise  inequality  income-distribution  power  politics  economics  american  meritocracy  from delicious
june 2012 by tsuomela
Moral Intuitions: Are Philosophers Experts? by Kevin Tobia, Wesley Buckwalter, Stephen Stich :: SSRN
"Recently psychologists and experimental philosophers have reported findings showing that in some cases ordinary people’s moral intuitions are affected by factors of dubious relevance to the truth of the content of the intuition. Some defend the use of intuition as evidence in ethics by arguing that philosophers are the experts in this area, and philosophers’ moral intuitions are both different from those of ordinary people and more reliable. We conducted two experiments indicating that philosophers and non-philosophers do indeed sometimes have different moral intuitions, but challenging the notion that philosophers have better or more reliable intuitions. "
philosophy  morality  ethics  psychology  expertise  academic  from delicious
may 2012 by tsuomela
'Gaia' Scientist Reverses Climate Predictions | Global Warming Controversy | LiveScience
"Lovelock, who introduced the Gaia Hypothesis describing life on Earth as a vast self-regulating organism some 40 years ago, also stated that since 2000, warming had not happened as expected.

"The climate is doing its usual tricks. There's nothing much really happening yet. We were supposed to be halfway toward a frying world now," Lovelock told MSNBC.com in an interview.

While warming may not have reached Lovelock's expectations, it is clearly happening"
interview  climate-change  global-warming  environment  media  celebrity  expertise  elites  controversy  from delicious
april 2012 by tsuomela
Music, Modernism, and the Twilight of the Elites
"By now it is becoming hard to remember that, at the peak of its popularity and influence, classical music carried with it an undeniable intellectual and even moral authority, qualities which would rub off on composers and performers such as Aaron Copland, Leonard Bernstein, Albert Schweitzer, Pierre Boulez, Van Cliburn and Igor Stravinsky, all of whom would, in different ways, play leading roles within the social and cultural landscape of the cold war period."
history  music  expertise  elites  classical  modernism  genre  influence  from delicious
april 2012 by tsuomela
Science on Stage: Expert Advice as Public Drama - Stephen Hilgartner
Behind the headlines of our time stands an unobtrusive army of science advisors. Panels of scientific, medical, and engineering experts evaluate the safety of the food we eat, the drugs we take, and the cars we drive. But despite the enormous influence of science advice, its authority is often problematic, and struggles over expert advice are thus a crucial aspect of contemporary politics. Science on Stage is a theoretically informed and empirically grounded study of the social process through which the credibility of expert advice is produced, challenged, and sustained.
book  publisher  science  sts  performance  sociology  expertise  from delicious
april 2012 by tsuomela
Charles Murray on the new upper class « Statistical Modeling, Causal Inference, and Social Science
"I think Murray and I are basically in agreement about the facts here. If you take narrow enough slices and focus on the media, academia, and civilian government, you can find groups of elites with liberal attitudes on economic and social issues. But I’m also interested in all those elites with conservative attitudes. Statistically, they outnumber the liberal elites. The conservative elites tend to live in different places than the liberal elites and they tend to have influence in different ways (consider, for example, decisions about where to build new highways, convention centers, etc., or pick your own examples), and those differences interest me." Annotated link http://www.diigo.com/bookmark/http://andrewgelman.com/2012/02/some-reactions-to-charles-murrays-thoughts-on-income-and-politics
elites  expertise  class  wealth  income  economics  politics  from delicious
april 2012 by tsuomela
A Companion to Relativism // Reviews // Philosophical Reviews // University of Notre Dame
The question we most need addressed is not what epistemic modals mean, but what to do with other people's.
book  review  philosophy  relativism  epistemology  expertise  people  testimony  trust  from delicious
april 2012 by tsuomela
AmericanScience: A Team Blog: Lovecraft, Science, and Epistemic Subcultures
"Thinking about these communities reminded me of Lovecraft’s earlier interactions. In some ways, amateur journalism and epistolary circles of Lovecraft’s day were not unlike the blogs and webpages that Less Wrong and the chemtrailers use. (Yes, I know the dangers of cross-temporal and cross-technological comparisons.) Still, I think there is much to explore about how such groups produce and distribute their knowledge against the background of an epistemic status quo. If scientists have their journals—as Alex Csiszar has been exploring—the laity have their amateur journalism and their blogs. And such spaces give historians of science and technology and STS scholars a chance to examine and probe the practices of epistemic subcultures." Annotated link http://www.diigo.com/bookmark/http://americanscience.blogspot.com/2012/04/lovecraft-science-and-epistemic.html
sts  science  media  amateur  history  technology  insider  outsider  boundaries  expertise  laypeople  journalism  from delicious
april 2012 by tsuomela
Communicating between the Academic and Non-Academic Worlds « Ph.D. Octopus
"However, from talking to numerous faculty members and academics from a variety of institutions, it has become clear to me that a central problem remains: none of these extra-curricular activities matter when a job search committee determines which graduate student to invite for an interview, and they do not matter for tenure. These facts make it subtly clear that, as a whole, the modern American academy expresses a keen indifference toward the relationship between academic knowledge and the public interest/public good"
academia  crisis  jobs  work  labor  expertise  public  public-understanding  communication  from delicious
april 2012 by tsuomela
Too Smart to Fail: Notes on an Age of Folly | | Notebook | The Baffler
"Of course there was a place where ideas weren’t simply for sale, I thought: the professions. Ethical standards kept professionals independent of their clients’ gross pecuniary interests.

These days, though, I’m not so sure. Money has transformed every watchdog, every independent authority. Medical doctors are increasingly gulled by the lobbying of pharmaceutical salesmen. Accountants were no match for Enron. Corporate boards are rubber stamps. Hospitals break unions, and, with an eye toward future donations, electronically single out rich patients for more luxurious treatment.
economics  profession  expertise  money  corruption  capitalism  from delicious
march 2012 by tsuomela
Thomas Frank: How Americans Have Gotten Played -- Over and Over and Over Again | News
"Of course there was a place where ideas weren’t simply for sale, I thought: the professions. Ethical standards kept professionals independent of their clients’ gross pecuniary interests.

These days, though, I’m not so sure. Money has transformed every watchdog, every independent authority. Medical doctors are increasingly gulled by the lobbying of pharmaceutical salesmen. Accountants were no match for Enron. Corporate boards are rubber stamps. Hospitals break unions, and, with an eye toward future donations, electronically single out rich patients for more luxurious treatment."
economics  profession  expertise  money  corruption  from delicious
march 2012 by tsuomela
Marx, Anarchism, and Web Standards - Literate Programming
"This tendency means that most language that's specific to a domain will generally trend towards the usable at the expense of the learnable. The impact this has on individuals new to the domain, however, is that of a wall. An impediment. Overcoming this obstacle requires a bit of good faith on the part of the beginner
language  learning  usability  expertise  community  community-of-practice  anarchism  marxism  standards  jargon  from delicious
february 2012 by tsuomela
Two Theories of Home Heat Control* - Kempton - 2010 - Cognitive Science - Wiley Online Library
People routinely develop their own theories to explain the world around them. These theories can be useful even when they contradict conventional technical wisdom. Based on in-depth interviews about home heating and thermostat setting behavior, the present study presents two theories people use to understand and adjust their thermostats. The two theories are here called the feedback theory and the valve theory. The valve theory is inconsistent with engineering knowledge, but is estimated to be held by 25% to 50% of Americans. Predictions of each of the theories are compared with the operations normally performed in home heat control. This comparison suggests that the valve theory may be highly functional in normal day-to-day use. Further data is needed on the ways this theory guides behavior in natural environments.
philosophy  psychology  explanation  folk-psychology  science  folk  theory  expertise  laypeople  from delicious
december 2011 by tsuomela
Discerning the Division of Cognitive Labor: An Emerging Understanding of How Knowledge Is Clustered in Other Minds - Keil - 2010 - Cognitive Science - Wiley Online Library
The division of cognitive labor is fundamental to all cultures. Adults have a strong sense of how knowledge is clustered in the world around them and use that sense to access additional information, defer to relevant experts, and ground their own incomplete understandings. One prominent way of clustering knowledge is by disciplines similar to those that comprise the natural and social sciences. Seven studies explored an emerging sense of these discipline-based ways of clustering of knowledge. Even 5-year-olds could cluster knowledge in a manner roughly corresponding to the departments of natural and social sciences in a university, doing so without any explicit awareness of those academic disciplines. But this awareness is fragile early on and competes with other ways of clustering knowledge. Over the next few years, children come to see discipline-based clusters as having a privileged status, one that may be linked to increasingly sophisticated assumptions about essences for natural kinds. Possible mechanisms for this developmental shift are examined.
philosophy  psychology  explanation  folk-psychology  science  folk  theory  expertise  laypeople  understanding  knowledge  division  labor  from delicious
december 2011 by tsuomela
The Feasibility of Folk Science - Keil - 2010 - Cognitive Science - Wiley Online Library
If folk science means individuals having well worked out mechanistic theories of the workings of the world, then it is not feasible. Laypeople’s explanatory understandings are remarkably coarse, full of gaps, and often full of inconsistencies. Even worse, most people overestimate their own understandings. Yet recent views suggest that formal scientists may not be so different. In spite of these limitations, science somehow works and its success offers hope for the feasibility of folk science as well. The success of science arises from the ways in which scientists learn to leverage understandings in other minds and to outsource explanatory work through sophisticated methods of deference and simplification of complex systems. Three studies ask whether analogous processes might be present not only in laypeople but also in young children and thereby form a foundation for supplementing explanatory understandings almost from the start of our first attempts to make sense of the world.
philosophy  psychology  explanation  folk-psychology  science  folk  theory  expertise  laypeople  from delicious
december 2011 by tsuomela
Stumbling and Mumbling: When consultation fails
"It all hinges upon whether the answer to a question is demonstrable or not. If it is demonstrable, then an expert who knows the answer can prove that he does so by using logic or evidence, and non-experts will defer to him. Consultation will then work, simply by virtue of bringing expertise into play.
But some knowledge is non-demonstrable. The expert might be able to distinguish between Klee and Kandinsky, but he’ll find it harder to demonstrate his expertise to laymen than, say, a mathematician will be able to demonstrate that he knows the solution to an equation. And where knowledge is non-demonstrable, people might follow false experts."
expertise  consulting  collaboration  groupthink  group  behavior  psychology  crowdsourcing 
september 2011 by tsuomela
Nothing is obvious to everyone « Scott Berkun
"If you study any trivial thing with persistence you will find complexity. Atoms yields quarks. Blood yields DNA. The more carefully you look, the more questions you find.

Everything is simple and complex at the same time."
complexity  expertise  learning 
august 2011 by tsuomela
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