tsuomela + computer-science   152

The evolution of lossy compression | Journal of The Royal Society Interface
"In complex environments, there are costs to both ignorance and perception. An organism needs to track fitness-relevant information about its world, but the more information it tracks, the more resources it must devote to perception. As a first step towards a general understanding of this trade-off, we use a tool from information theory, rate–distortion theory, to study large, unstructured environments with fixed, randomly drawn penalties for stimuli confusion (‘distortions’). We identify two distinct regimes for organisms in these environments: a high-fidelity regime where perceptual costs grow linearly with environmental complexity, and a low-fidelity regime where perceptual costs are, remarkably, independent of the number of environmental states. This suggests that in environments of rapidly increasing complexity, well-adapted organisms will find themselves able to make, just barely, the most subtle distinctions in their environment."
evolution  culture  fitness  perception  metaphor  computer-science 
january 2018 by tsuomela
Unlocking the Clubhouse | The MIT Press
"The information technology revolution is transforming almost every aspect of society, but girls and women are largely out of the loop. Although women surf the Web in equal numbers to men and make a majority of online purchases, few are involved in the design and creation of new technology. It is mostly men whose perspectives and priorities inform the development of computing innovations and who reap the lion's share of the financial rewards. As only a small fraction of high school and college computer science students are female, the field is likely to remain a "male clubhouse," absent major changes. In Unlocking the Clubhouse, social scientist Jane Margolis and computer scientist and educator Allan Fisher examine the many influences contributing to the gender gap in computing. The book is based on interviews with more than 100 computer science students of both sexes from Carnegie Mellon University, a major center of computer science research, over a period of four years, as well as classroom observations and conversations with hundreds of college and high school faculty. The interviews capture the dynamic details of the female computing experience, from the family computer kept in a brother's bedroom to women's feelings of alienation in college computing classes. The authors investigate the familial, educational, and institutional origins of the computing gender gap. They also describe educational reforms that have made a dramatic difference at Carnegie Mellon—where the percentage of women entering the School of Computer Science rose from 7% in 1995 to 42% in 2000—and at high schools around the country."
book  publisher  gender  computer-science  feminism 
january 2017 by tsuomela
Lesson Title
"This lesson shows how to use the Software Carpentry and Data Carpentry lesson template. For guidelines on how to help improve our lessons and this template, please see the contribution guidelines; for guidelines on how to set up your machine to preview changes locally, please see the setup instructions."
programming  computer-science  documentation  training 
december 2016 by tsuomela
The Julia Language
"Julia is a high-level, high-performance dynamic programming language for technical computing, with syntax that is familiar to users of other technical computing environments. It provides a sophisticated compiler, distributed parallel execution, numerical accuracy, and an extensive mathematical function library. Julia’s Base library, largely written in Julia itself, also integrates mature, best-of-breed open source C and Fortran libraries for linear algebra, random number generation, signal processing, and string processing. In addition, the Julia developer community is contributing a number of external packages through Julia’s built-in package manager at a rapid pace. IJulia, a collaboration between the Jupyter and Julia communities, provides a powerful browser-based graphical notebook interface to Julia."
programming  computer-science  computational-science  language 
september 2016 by tsuomela
The Ethics of Algorithms
"The Ethics of Algorithms is a combination research and education project. It aims to investigate the ethics and values of the computer scientists, information scientists, and software engineers who create algorithms. This research and education project aims to both bridge silos between philosophical and social scientific approaches to ethics to develop an integrated theoretical approach to ethics. Such a theoretical approach simultaneously identifies the analytical, moral reasoning that is happening during the conceptualization and design phase as well as critically analyzes the interplay between an individual's personal ethics and values and the ethics and values created by aspects of policies, institutional, economic, and cultural contexts. The proposed research furthers the literature on information ethics by taking an upstream approach that focuses on the design process. Finally, by focusing on algorithms, the proposed research will contribute to broader discussions about ethics, values, and big data. Algorithms are the driving technique behind the creation of big data sets yet there is little talk about the decisions and values that shape algorithm design and thus impact big data content. "
ethics  algorithms  big-data  philosophy  computer-science  technology  sts 
may 2016 by tsuomela
Home:: Michael L. Nelson, Old Dominion University
"I joined the Computer Science department at Old Dominion University in 2002. I worked at NASA Langley Research Center from 1991-2002. Through a NASA fellowship, I spent the 2000-2001 academic year at the School of Information and Library Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. I am active in the Open Archives community and am an editor of the OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE, Memento, and ResourceSync specifications. I have developed many digital libraries, including the NASA Technical Report Server. In 2007 I received an NSF CAREER award. My research interests include web science, repository-object interaction and digital preservation"
people  academic  computer-science  web-archive  preservation  digital-library 
april 2015 by tsuomela
From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog | The MIT Press
"From its first glimmerings in the 1950s, the software industry has evolved to become the fourth largest industrial sector of the US economy. Starting with a handful of software contractors who produced specialized programs for the few existing machines, the industry grew to include producers of corporate software packages and then makers of mass-market products and recreational software. This book tells the story of each of these types of firm, focusing on the products they developed, the business models they followed, and the markets they served."
book  publisher  history  software  computers  computer-science  20c 
april 2015 by tsuomela
Toward Exascale Resilience: 2014 update | Cappello | Supercomputing frontiers and innovations
"Resilience is a major roadblock for HPC executions on future exascale systems. These systems will typically gather millions of CPU cores running up to a billion threads. Projections from current large systems and technology evolution predict errors will happen in exascale systems many times per day. These errors will propagate and generate various kinds of malfunctions, from simple process crashes to result corruptions. The past five years have seen extraordinary technical progress in many domains related to exascale resilience. Several technical options, initially considered inapplicable or unrealistic in the HPC context, have demonstrated surprising successes. Despite this progress, the exascale resilience problem is not solved, and the community is still facing the difficult challenge of ensuring that exascale applications complete and generate correct results while running on unstable systems. Since 2009, many workshops, studies, and reports have improved the definition of the resilience problem and provided refined recommendations. Some projections made during the previous decades and some priorities established from these projections need to be revised. This paper surveys what the community has learned in the past five years and summarizes the research problems still considered critical by the HPC community."
supercomputing  resilience  computer-science  high-performance-computing 
august 2014 by tsuomela
Computational Culture
"Computational Culture is an online open-access peer-reviewed journal of inter-disciplinary enquiry into the nature of the culture of computational objects, practices, processes and structures. The journal’s primary aim is to examine the ways in which software undergirds and formulates contemporary life. Computational processes and systems not only enable contemporary forms of work and play and the management of emotional life but also drive the unfolding of new events that constitute political, social and ontological domains. In order to understand digital objects such as corporate software, search engines, medical databases or to enquire into the use of mobile phones, social networks, dating, games, financial systems or political crises, a detailed analysis of software cannot be avoided."
journal  academic  software-studies  software  computer-science  humanities  sts 
august 2013 by tsuomela
The Petabyte Age: Because More Isn't Just More — More Is Different
"Sensors everywhere. Infinite storage. Clouds of processors. Our ability to capture, warehouse, and understand massive amounts of data is changing science, medicine, business, and technology. As our collection of facts and figures grows, so will the opportunity to find answers to fundamental questions. Because in the era of big data, more isn't just more. More is different. "
petabyte  big-data  pundits  computer  computer-science  future  science 
july 2013 by tsuomela
In Memoriam: Domesticity, Gender, and the 1977 Apple II Personal Computer
"This paper considers one of the first personal computers to be marketed to a mainstream American audience in the late 1970s: the Apple II. Lewis Mumford's notion of 'ideological and social preparation' is adapted to describe this period as a preparatory phase for the later ubiquity and absorbing quality of our relationship with personal computers. In examining the Apple II's design alongside a key marketing image we can discern that domesticity and gender were crucial points of negotiation during this period. In the late 1970s marketing for Apple the image of idyllic domesticity quickly became a major context for computer promotion, a development that had gendered implications. The example of 1930s streamlining in the design of domestic household appliances is used as a parallel with the Apple II's startling application of a plastic case: the concealing plastic exterior simultaneously simplified and obscured the device, transforming it from a 'machine' into a 'personal appliance.'"
paper  computers  history  sts  computer-science  gender  apple 
july 2013 by tsuomela
302 Found
"The omission of women from the history of computer science perpetuates misconceptions of women as uninterested or incapable in the field. This article retells the history of ENIAC's "invention" with special focus on the female technicians whom existing computer histories have rendered invisible. In particular, it examines how the job of programmer, perceived in recent years as masculine work, originated as feminized clerical labor. The story presents an apparent paradox. It suggests that women were somehow hidden during this stage of computer history while the wartime popular press trumpeted just the opposite--that women were breaking into traditionally male occupations within science, technology, and engineering. A closer look at this literature explicates the paradox by revealing widespread ambivalence about women's work. While celebrating women's presence, wartime writing minimized the complexities of their actual work. While describing the difficulty of their tasks, it classified their occupations as subprofessional. While showcasing them in formerly male occupations, it celebrated their work for its femininity. Despite the complexities--and often pathbreaking aspects--of the work women performed, they rarely received credit for innovation or invention. "
paper  computers  history  sts  computer-science  gender  culture  technology 
july 2013 by tsuomela
The Computer Boys Take Over | The MIT Press
"Like all great social and technological developments, the "computer revolution" of the twentieth century didn't just happen. People—not impersonal processes—made it happen. In The Computer Boys Take Over, Nathan Ensmenger describes the emergence of the technical specialists—computer programmers, systems analysts, and data processing managers—who helped transform the electronic digital computer from a scientific curiosity into the most powerful and ubiquitous technology of the modern era. They did so not as inventors from the traditional mold, but as the developers of the "software" (broadly defined to include programs, procedures, and practices) that integrated the novel technology of electronic computing into existing social, political, and technological networks. As mediators between the technical system (the computer) and its social environment (existing structures and practices), these specialists became a focus for opposition to the use of new information technologies. To many of their contemporaries, it seemed the "computer boys" were taking over, not just in the corporate setting, but also in government, politics, and society in general. Ensmenger follows the rise of the computer boys as they struggled to establish a role for themselves within traditional organizational, professional, and academic hierarchies. He describes the tensions that emerged between the craft-centered practices of vocational programmers, the increasingly theoretical agenda of academic computer science, and the desire of corporate managers to control and routinize the process of software development. In doing so, he provides a human perspective on what is too often treated as a purely technological phenomenon."
book  publisher  sts  computers  history  computer-science  20c  programming 
july 2013 by tsuomela
[1212.0018] Evidence for Non-Finite-State Computation in a Human Social System
"Finite-State Machines are a basic model of computation, forming one of the simplest classes in the computational hierarchy. When given a probabilistic transition structure, they are one of the most common methods for description and prediction of symbolic time-series in the biological and social sciences. Here we show how a generalization of a central result for finite-state machines, the pumping lemma, to the probabilistic case, leads to a crucial constraint: sufficiently long sequences will be exponentially suppressed for finite-state processes. We apply the probabilistic pumping lemma to an analysis of behavioral patterns in the distributed, open-source Wikipedia community to demonstrate strong evidence for the emergence of functional powers over and above the regular grammars, and provide evidence to associate these with fundamentally interpersonal and social phenomena."
wikipedia  collaboration  modeling  computer-science  formal  complexity  self-organized 
april 2013 by tsuomela
Making Light: Keeping track of the fact watching them watching back
"Prediction: Google Glass will declare creepshot problems “out of their control”, but will find ways to hamper film piracy."
google-glass  surveillance  observation  privacy  feminism  power  technology  technology-effects  computer-science  ethics 
march 2013 by tsuomela
The ORCHID Project
"This vision of people and computational agents operating at a global scale offers tremendous potential and, if realised correctly, will help us meet the key societal challenges of sustainability, inclusion, and safety that are core to our future."
computational-science  computer-science  collaboration  human  agents 
october 2012 by tsuomela
Making crowdsourcing easier - MIT News Office
"Researchers at MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory are developing a new database system, called Qurk, that will automatically crowdsource tasks that are difficult or impossible to perform computationally."
crowdsourcing  computer-science  library  database  system  automation  from delicious
august 2012 by tsuomela
Loper OS » Engelbart’s Violin
In the mind of today’s technological entrepreneur, the ideal user (and employee) is semi-skilled – or unskilled entirely.  The ideal user interface for such a person never rewards learning or experience when doing so would come at the cost of immediate accessibility to the neophyte.  This design philosophy is a mistake – a catastrophic, civilization-level mistake.  There is a place in the world for the violin as well as the kazoo.  Modern computer engineering is kazoo-only, and keyboards are only the most banal example of this fact. 
computer-science  computer  design  interface  input-device  keyboards  technology  professional  tools  from delicious
may 2012 by tsuomela
Next Time, Fail Better - Commentary - The Chronicle of Higher Education
"Humanities students should be more like computer-science students.

I decided that as I sat in on a colleague's computer-science course during the beginning of this, my last, semester in the classroom. I am moving into administration full time, and I figured that this was my last chance to learn some of the cool new digital-humanities stuff I've been reading about. What eventually drove me out of the class (which I was enjoying tremendously) was the time commitment: The work of coding, I discovered, was an endless round of failure, failure, failure before eventual success. Computer-science students are used to failing. They do it all the time. It's built into the process, and they take it in stride."
learning  education  discipline  humanities  computer-science  failure  success  from delicious
may 2012 by tsuomela
Prof. Gregory V. Wilson
"My main interest is the overlap between software engineering
and computational science."
people  academic  computer-science  software  software-studies  science  computational-science  from delicious
may 2012 by tsuomela
How to Perfect Real-Time Crowdsourcing  - Technology Review
"So how quickly can a crowd be put into action.?That's the question tackled today by Michael Bernstein at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and a few pals.

In the past, these guys have found ways to bring a crowd to bear in about two seconds. That's quick. But the reaction time is limited to how quickly a worker responds to an alert.

Now these guys say they've find a way to reduce the reaction time to 500 milliseconds--that's effectively realtime. A system with a half second latency could turn crowdsourcing into a very different kind of resource.

The idea that Bernstein and co have come up with is straightforward. These guys simply "precruit" a crowd and keep them on standby until a task becomes available. Effectively, they're paying workers a retainer so that they are available immediately when needed"
real-time  crowdsourcing  computer-science  distributed  cognition  from delicious
april 2012 by tsuomela
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