tsuomela + collective-intelligence   38

Handbook of Collective Intelligence | The MIT Press
"Intelligence does not arise only in individual brains; it also arises in groups of individuals. This is collective intelligence: groups of individuals acting collectively in ways that seem intelligent. In recent years, a new kind of collective intelligence has emerged: interconnected groups of people and computers, collectively doing intelligent things. Today these groups are engaged in tasks that range from writing software to predicting the results of presidential elections. This volume reports on the latest research in the study of collective intelligence, laying out a shared set of research challenges from a variety of disciplinary and methodological perspectives. Taken together, these essays—by leading researchers from such fields as computer science, biology, economics, and psychology—lay the foundation for a new multidisciplinary field. Each essay describes the work on collective intelligence in a particular discipline—for example, economics and the study of markets; biology and research on emergent behavior in ant colonies; human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence; and cognitive psychology and the “wisdom of crowds” effect. Other areas in social science covered include social psychology, organizational theory, law, and communications."
book  publisher  collective-intelligence 
february 2016 by tsuomela
Group discussion improves lie detection
"Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a “wisdom-of-crowds” effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the “truth bias”). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment."
groups  lying  psychology  philosophy  epistemology  knowledge  collective-intelligence 
september 2015 by tsuomela
Thomas W. Malone Home Page
"Thomas W. Malone is the Patrick J. McGovern Professor of Management at the MIT Sloan School of Management and the founding director of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence. He was also the founder and director of the MIT Center for Coordination Science and one of the two founding co-directors of the MIT Initiative on "Inventing the Organizations of the 21st Century." Professor Malone teaches classes on organizational design, information technology, and leadership, and his research focuses on how work can be organized in new ways to take advantage of the possibilities provided by information technology. "
academia  people  business  collective-intelligence 
september 2014 by tsuomela
Collective Intelligence | Conversation | Edge
"It's important to realize that intelligence is not just something that happens inside individual brains. It also arises with groups of individuals. In fact, I'd define collective intelligence as groups of individuals acting collectively in ways that seem intelligent. By that definition, of course, collective intelligence has been around for a very long time. Families, companies, countries, and armies: those are all examples of groups of people working together in ways that at least sometimes seem intelligent."
collective-intelligence  research  interview  psychology  sociology  crowdsourcing  augmentation  intelligence 
december 2012 by tsuomela
Democratic Reason: The Mechanisms of Collective Intelligence in Politics by Helene Landemore :: SSRN
This paper argues that democracy can be seen as a way to channel “democratic reason,” or the collective political intelligence of the many. The paper hypothesizes that two main democratic mechanisms - the practice of inclusive deliberation (in its direct and indirect versions) and the institution of majority rule with universal suffrage - combine their epistemic properties to maximize the chances that the group pick the “better” political answer within a given context and a set of values. The paper further argues that under the conditions of a liberal society, characterized among other things by sufficient cognitive diversity, these two mechanisms give democracy an epistemic edge over versions of the rule of the few.
democracy  political-science  collective-intelligence  collective  collaboration  decision  intelligence 
august 2011 by tsuomela
When Do Groups Perform Better than Individuals? A Company Takeover Experiment by Marco Casari, Jingjing Zhang, Christine Jackson :: SSRN
"It is still an open question when groups will perform better than individuals in intellectual tasks. We report that in a company takeover experiment, groups placed better bids than individuals and substantially reduced the winner’s curse. This improvement was mostly due to peer pressure over the minority opinion and to group learning. Learning took place from interacting and negotiating consensus with others, not simply from observing their bids. When there was disagreement within a group, what prevailed was not the best proposal but the one of the majority. Groups underperformed with respect to a “truth wins” benchmark although they outperformed individuals deciding in isolation. "
groups  collective-intelligence  decision-making  performance  intelligence 
august 2011 by tsuomela
Global Futures Studies
"The Millennium Project was founded in 1996 after a three-year feasibility study with the United Nations University, Smithsonian Institution, Futures Group International, and the American Council for the UNU. It is now an independent non-profit global participatory futures research think tank of futurists, scholars, business planners, and policy makers who work for international organizations, governments, corporations, NGOs, and universities. The Millennium Project manages a coherent and cumulative process that collects and assesses judgments from over 2,500 people since the beginning of the project selected by its 40 Nodes around the world. The work is distilled in its annual "State of the Future", "Futures Research Methodology" series, and special studies."
future  futures  research  scenario  planning  wicked-problems  problem-solving  learning  discussion  collaboration  collective-intelligence  social-science 
august 2011 by tsuomela
Our Eucatastrophe - Charlie's Diary
"Remember when I said in our last post that our problems are no longer technological? What I meant was that developing the technologies we need to save our collective asses is no longer the big issue
communication  future  wicked-problems  problem-solving  scalability  learning  discussion  collaboration  collective-intelligence  social-science  social-media 
august 2011 by tsuomela
Wicked (2) - Charlie's Diary
"Why is it even possible to have misunderstandings online when we have all these tools at hand to help prevent them? It's because social media systems like Facebook are just the tricycle version of what social media will become. Facebook barely hints at what's coming
communication  future  wicked-problems  problem-solving  scalability  learning  discussion  collaboration  collective-intelligence  social-science  social-media 
august 2011 by tsuomela
Wicked (1) - Charlie's Diary
"Here's my take on things: our biggest challenges are no longer technological. They are issues of communication, coordination, and cooperation. These are, for the most part, well-studied problems that are not wicked. The methodologies that solve them need to be scaled up from the small-group settings where they currently work well, and injected into the DNA of our society--or, at least, built into our default modes of using the internet. They then can be used to tackle the wicked problems."
communication  future  wicked-problems  problem-solving  scalability  learning  discussion  collaboration  collective-intelligence 
august 2011 by tsuomela
Harmony of Means and Ends
"I would also add --- and this is something Henry and I have ben thinking about a lot --- that it is often not at all trivial to figure out what your interests are, or how to achieve them, and that (small-d) democrats should try to find ways to help people work that out. Actually having political clout is often going to depend on collective action, but this needs to be complemented by collective cognition, which is how people figure out what to want and how to achieve it. That, however, is part of a much larger and rather different story, for another time. "
politics  political-science  theory  change  social-movement  cognition  collective-action  collective-intelligence 
july 2011 by tsuomela
LEDFace Blog - Help Us Build a New Kind of Intelligence
"Ledface has a very specific goal: to enable people to tap into collective intelligence to acquire information to solve their day-to-day problems. Think of it as a new kind of social network in which people interact with each other indirectly, through knowledge, through Ledface.
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At Ledface, everyone can ask and we will match the question with the group best suited to answer. We select a group of people who match each query and we ask them to interact in real time as a team to create the answer. They share their thoughts, combine them, and review each other’s input. So you don’t get a list of replies, but a specific, custom answer co-created in real time each time you ask. No names, no ego, just knowledge."
collaboration  crowdsourcing  wisdom  crowds  intelligence  collective-intelligence  tools 
july 2011 by tsuomela
Julian Assange and the Computer Conspiracy; “To destroy this invisible government” « zunguzungu
Most of the news media seems to be losing their minds over Wikileaks without actually reading these essays, even though he describes the function and aims of an organization like Wikileaks in pretty straightforward terms. But, to summarize, he begins by describing a state like the US as essentially an authoritarian conspiracy, and then reasons that the practical strategy for combating that conspiracy is to degrade its ability to conspire, to hinder its ability to “think” as a conspiratorial mind. The metaphor of a computing network is mostly implicit, but utterly crucial: he seeks to oppose the power of the state by treating it like a computer and tossing sand in its diodes.
wikileaks  secrecy  authoritarian  revolution  conspiracy  collective-intelligence 
december 2010 by tsuomela
How wise are crowds?
Fortunately, in a paper to be published in the Review of Economic Studies, researchers from MIT’s Departments of Economics and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science have demonstrated that, as networks of people grow larger, they’ll usually tend to converge on an accurate understanding of information distributed among them, even if individual members of the network can observe only their nearby neighbors. A few opinionated people with large audiences can slow that convergence, but in the long run, they’re unlikely to stop it.
collective-intelligence  crowdsourcing  modeling  game-theory  simulation  intelligence  wisdom  networks  collective 
november 2010 by tsuomela
[0710.4911] Social Media as Windows on the Social Life of the Mind
This is a programmatic paper, marking out two directions in which the study of social media can contribute to broader problems of social science: understanding cultural evolution and understanding collective cognition. Under the first heading, I discuss some difficulties with the usual, adaptationist explanations of cultural phenomena, alternative explanations involving network diffusion effects, and some ways these could be tested using social-media data. Under the second I describe some of the ways in which social media could be used to study how the social organization of an epistemic community supports its collective cognitive performance.
social-media  collective-intelligence  epistemology  network  evolution  culture 
november 2010 by tsuomela
Evidence for a Collective Intelligence Factor in the Performance of Human Groups -- Woolley et al., 10.1126/science.1193147 -- Science
Psychologists have repeatedly shown that a single statistical factor—often called "general intelligence"—emerges from the correlations among people's performance on a wide variety of cognitive tasks. But no one has systematically examined whether a similar kind of "collective intelligence" exists for groups of people. In two studies with 699 individuals, working in groups of two to five, we find converging evidence of a general collective intelligence factor that explains a group's performance on a wide variety of tasks. This "c factor" is not strongly correlated with the average or maximum individual intelligence of group members but is correlated with the average social sensitivity of group members, the equality in distribution of conversational turn-taking, and the proportion of females in the group.
group  intelligence  distributed  cognition  collaboration  research  psychology  science  social  collective-intelligence 
october 2010 by tsuomela
Ming the Mechanic: Be afraid, be very afraid
We, the people, are the real power. If a million people agree on what is in our common interest, what's one anti-social asshole gonna do? Go hide? Unfortunately, today, that one guy is the CEO, and you could be laid off any day if you don't do what you're supposed to. But if we actually were talking with each other, he'd be the guy who'd be running for cover. Assuming he's one of those guys who got there by deceit and coercion.

There is one problem to solve. It is THE problem. How can we work together, towards our common interests, in a way that is constructive. In particular, how can we together solve complex problems together that we wouldn't be able to solve individually.

It is called collective intelligence.
collective-intelligence  manifesto  future  collaboration  cooperation 
september 2010 by tsuomela
Ming the Mechanic: Truth: superconductivity for scalable networks
Masses of people who need to keep up appearances, trying to adhere to norms they never consciously agreed to, are relatively easy to control. They can be rendered rather harmless, as they each pursue individual rewards that don't truly match what they need and want.

If we make collaborative tools that simply reinforce our inclination to keep up appearances, they won't go far. If they only help us exchange impressively sounding declarations, abstract positions and lists of accomplishments, they won't have accomplished much.

Collective intelligence has something to do with increasing the number of opportunities for stuff to connect up, and lowering the resistance to it happening. Lacking or incorrect information are forms of resistance. Correct and complete information decreases resistance and increases connections.
truth  collective-intelligence  collaboration  systems 
july 2010 by tsuomela
Paul Weirich - Collective Rationality: Equilibrium in Cooperative Games - Reviewed by Martin Peterson, Eindhoven University of Technology - Philosophical Reviews - University of Notre Dame
In Collective Rationality, Paul Weirich presents a very precise account of what collective rationality amounts to, proposes a new generalised equilibrium concept that he argues is more plausible than Nash's, and briefly discusses the implications of his views for other philosophical topics.
philosophy  game-theory  rationality  collective  collective-intelligence  group  decision-making 
july 2010 by tsuomela
Stack Overflow
Stack Overflow is a collaboratively edited question and answer site for programmers
programming  development  forum  tools  community  hint  tip  collective-intelligence 
september 2008 by tsuomela
Cultivating Society's Civic Intelligence
Journal of Society, Information and Communication, vol 4 No. 2
collective-intelligence  history  technology 
january 2007 by tsuomela

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