tsuomela + cognition   177

Understanding Society: Bodily cognition
"The Oxford Handbook of 4E Cognition, edited by Albert Newen, Leon de Brun, and Shaun Gallagher, "
book  review  cognition  extended  philosophy  metaphysics 
february 2019 by tsuomela
The Knowledge Illusion by Steven Sloman, Philip Fernbach | PenguinRandomHouse.com
"We all think we know more than we actually do.   Humans have built hugely complex societies and technologies, but most of us don’t even know how a pen or a toilet works. How have we achieved so much despite understanding so little? Cognitive scientists Steven Sloman and Philip Fernbach argue that we survive and thrive despite our mental shortcomings because we live in a rich community of knowledge. The key to our intelligence lies in the people and things around us. We’re constantly drawing on information and expertise stored outside our heads: in our bodies, our environment, our possessions, and the community with which we interact—and usually we don’t even realize we’re doing it.   The human mind is both brilliant and pathetic. We have mastered fire, created democratic institutions, stood on the moon, and sequenced our genome. And yet each of us is error prone, sometimes irrational, and often ignorant. The fundamentally communal nature of intelligence and knowledge explains why we often assume we know more than we really do, why political opinions and false beliefs are so hard to change, and why individual-oriented approaches to education and management frequently fail. But our collaborative minds also enable us to do amazing things. This book contends that true genius can be found in the ways we create intelligence using the community around us. SEE LESS "
book  publisher  cognition  knowledge  bias  limits 
november 2017 by tsuomela
This is the best book to help you understand the wild 2016 campaign - Vox
"Back in May, Christopher Achen and Larry Bartels released Democracy for Realists, based on years of scholarship they’ve done on the ugly realities of how American voting behavior really works. It sheds crucial light on a question that liberals have been banging their heads over for months — why on earth would anyone vote for Donald Trump? Their analysis is both troubling and important: Throughout history, people in general have cast their votes for no particularly good reason at all, so there’s no reason to expect Trump supporters to be any different. "
book  review  political-science  democracy  voting  psychology  reasoning  decision-making  cognition 
october 2016 by tsuomela
Keith Olbermann and our vogue for EVISCERATIONS and EPIC RANTS.
Some parallels to Dan Kahan and cultural cognition dualism in public understanding of science.
rhetoric  politics  rants  language  persuasion  cognition  public-understanding  science  expertise 
october 2016 by tsuomela
Apocalypse when? (Not) thinking and talking about climate change | Discover Society
"Psychologists are identifying countless psychological ‘barriers’ that obstruct behaviour change despite knowledge about anthropogenic ecological degradation, that include perceptual, cognitive, emotional, interpersonal and group processes (see Robert Gifford’s overview). Some researchers, inspired by psychoanalysis, study how defence mechanisms act as barriers to action in the context of ecological crisis. Originally conceptualized by Freud, defence mechanisms are psychological processes aimed at avoiding, or protecting one’s self from, experiences of emotional distress, destructive impulses, or threats to self-esteem. Many – like repression, regression, projection and denial – have entered into everyday language."
environment  climate-change  global-warming  psychology  defense-mechanism  psychoanalysis  bias  cognition  risk  crisis  solutionism  apocalypse  fear 
march 2015 by tsuomela
Genius Is More Common Than You Think — 7 Days of Genius — Medium
"That’s why the people who most benefit from multiples — and from thinking out loud online — will probably remain in the nonprofit world: Artists, activists, and everyday people pursuing their side passions. They know the secret: Fun, crazy ideas are surprising common; fun, crazy people are surprisingly common. We just have to connect the dots."
creativity  genius  distribution  distributed  cognition  simultaneity 
march 2015 by tsuomela
Climate Science Communication and the Measurement Problem by Dan M. Kahan :: SSRN
"This paper examines the science-of-science-communication measurement problem. In its simplest form, the problem reflects the use of externally invalid measures of the dynamics that generate cultural conflict over risk and other policy-relevant facts. But at a more fundamental level, the science-of-science-communication measurement problem inheres in the phenomena being measured themselves. The “beliefs” individuals form about a societal risk such as climate change are not of a piece; rather they reflect the distinct clusters of inferences that individuals draw as they engage information for two distinct ends: to gain access to the collective knowledge furnished by science, and to enjoy the sense of identity enabled by membership in a community defined by particular cultural commitments. The paper shows how appropriately designed “science comprehension” tests — one general, and one specific to climate change — can be used to measure individuals’ reasoning proficiency as collective-knowledge acquirers independently of their reasoning proficiency as cultural-identity protectors. Doing so reveals that there is in fact little disagreement among culturally diverse citizens on what science knows about climate change. The source of the climate-change controversy and like disputes is the contamination of education and politics with forms of cultural status competition that make it impossible for diverse citizens to express their reason as both collective-knowledge acquirers and cultural-identity protectors at the same time."
climate-change  global-warming  framing  communication  identity  cognition  motivated-cognition  psychology 
september 2014 by tsuomela
SPT v6n2 - Thing Knowledge - Function and Truth
"Elsewhere I have argued for a materialist epistemology that I call "thing knowledge." This is an epistemology where the things we make bear our knowledge of the world, on a par with the words we speak. It is an epistemology opposed to the notion that the things we make are only instrumental to the articulation and justification of knowledge expressed in words or equations. Our things do this, but they do more. They bear knowledge themselves, and frequently enough the words we speak serve instrumentally in the articulation and justification of knowledge borne by things."
epistemology  philosophy  objects  knowledge  embodied  cognition 
august 2014 by tsuomela
[1406.7563] When is a crowd wise?
"Numerous studies and anecdotes demonstrate the "wisdom of the crowd," the surprising accuracy of a group's aggregated judgments. Less is known, however, about the generality of crowd wisdom. For example, are crowds wise even if their members have systematic judgmental biases, or can influence each other before members render their judgments? If so, are there situations in which we can expect a crowd to be less accurate than skilled individuals? We provide a precise but general definition of crowd wisdom: A crowd is wise if a linear aggregate, for example a mean, of its members' judgments is closer to the target value than a randomly, but not necessarily uniformly, sampled member of the crowd. Building on this definition, we develop a theoretical framework for examining, a priori, when and to what degree a crowd will be wise. We systematically investigate the boundary conditions for crowd wisdom within this framework and determine conditions under which the accuracy advantage for crowds is maximized. Our results demonstrate that crowd wisdom is highly robust: Even if judgments are biased and correlated, one would need to nearly deterministically select only a highly skilled judge before an individual's judgment could be expected to be more accurate than a simple averaging of the crowd. Our results also provide an accuracy rationale behind the need for diversity of judgments among group members. Contrary to folk explanations of crowd wisdom which hold that judgments should ideally be independent so that errors cancel out, we find that crowd wisdom is maximized when judgments systematically differ as much as possible. We re-analyze data from two published studies that confirm our theoretical results."
crowds  wisdom  aggregation  knowledge  distributed  cognition 
july 2014 by tsuomela
Political Extremism Is Supported by an Illusion of Understanding
"People often hold extreme political attitudes about complex policies. We hypothesized that people typically know less about such policies than they think they do (the illusion of explanatory depth) and that polarized attitudes are enabled by simplistic causal models. Asking people to explain policies in detail both undermined the illusion of explanatory depth and led to attitudes that were more moderate (Experiments 1 and 2). Although these effects occurred when people were asked to generate a mechanistic explanation, they did not occur when people were instead asked to enumerate reasons for their policy preferences (Experiment 2). Finally, generating mechanistic explanations reduced donations to relevant political advocacy groups (Experiment 3). The evidence suggests that people’s mistaken sense that they understand the causal processes underlying policies contributes to political polarization."
politics  extremism  understanding  illusion  explanation  bias  cognition 
may 2014 by tsuomela
Frontiers | Embodied Cognition is Not What you Think it is | Cognitive Science
"The most exciting hypothesis in cognitive science right now is the theory that cognition is embodied. Like all good ideas in cognitive science, however, embodiment immediately came to mean six different things. The most common definitions involve the straight-forward claim that “states of the body modify states of the mind.” However, the implications of embodiment are actually much more radical than this. If cognition can span the brain, body, and the environment, then the “states of mind” of disembodied cognitive science won’t exist to be modified. Cognition will instead be an extended system assembled from a broad array of resources. Taking embodiment seriously therefore requires both new methods and theory. Here we outline four key steps that research programs should follow in order to fully engage with the implications of embodiment. The first step is to conduct a task analysis, which characterizes from a first person perspective the specific task that a perceiving-acting cognitive agent is faced with. The second step is to identify the task-relevant resources the agent has access to in order to solve the task. These resources can span brain, body, and environment. The third step is to identify how the agent can assemble these resources into a system capable of solving the problem at hand. The last step is to test the agent’s performance to confirm that agent is actually using the solution identified in step 3. We explore these steps in more detail with reference to two useful examples (the outfielder problem and the A-not-B error), and introduce how to apply this analysis to the thorny question of language use. Embodied cognition is more than we think it is, and we have the tools we need to realize its full potential."
embodied  cognition  psychology  theory 
april 2014 by tsuomela
Notes from Two Scientific Psychologists: Grounded vs. embodied cognition: a (hopefully uncontentious) note on terminology
"Our Frontiers paper made the case that embodied cognition is, by definition, a fairly radical affair. We argue ...if perception-action couplings and resources distributed over brain, body, and environment are substantial participants in cognition, then the need for the specific objects and processes of standard cognitive psychology (concepts, internally represented competence, and knowledge) goes awa"
embodied  cognition  psychology  theory 
april 2014 by tsuomela
www.nytimes.com
"But what if you could establish the neural pathways that lead to virtuosity more quickly? That is the promise of transcranial direct current stimulation, or tDCS — the passage of very low-level electrical current through targeted areas of the brain. Several studies conducted in medical and military settings indicate tDCS may bring improvements in cognitive function, motor skills and mood. "
cognition  memory  skill  expertise  learning  neurology  enhancement 
march 2014 by tsuomela
Peek inside your own brain! The rise of DIY neuroscience - Salon.com
"Neuroscience is a rapidly growing field, but one that is usually thought to be too complex and expensive for average Americans to participate in directly. Now, an explosion of cheap scientific devices and online tutorials are on the verge of changing that. This change could have exciting implications for our future understanding of the brain."
diy  neurology  neuroscience  enhancement  cognition  from instapaper
december 2013 by tsuomela
Home - Climate CoLab
"The goal of the Climate CoLab is to harness the collective intelligence of thousands of people from all around the world to address global climate change. Inspired by systems like Wikipedia and Linux, the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence has developed this on-line forum where citizens create, analyze, and select detailed proposals for what to do about climate change."
climate  environment  climate-change  problem-solving  distributed  cognition  crowdsourcing  groups  competition 
may 2013 by tsuomela
Follow the Crowd | Crowd Research Blog
"The CrowdResearch.org blog, Follow the Crowd, intends to become the premier web resource for ideas related to crowd computing research. Our focus is rapid dissemination of these ideas and vigorous discussion of them."
crowds  crowdsourcing  distributed  cognition  online  research  news  weblog-group 
march 2013 by tsuomela
Redistributing Leadership in Online Creative Collaboration | Follow the Crowd
"Online creative collaboration is complex, and leaders frequently become overwhelmed, causing their projects to fail. We introduce Pipeline, a collaboration tool designed to ease the burden on leaders, and describe how Pipeline helped redistribute leadership in a successful 28-person artistic collaboration."
leadership  online  collaboration  crowds  crowdsourcing  trust  distributed  cognition  toolkit  software 
march 2013 by tsuomela
Do We Need a Global Brain? | Sliwa | tripleC - Cognition, Communication, Co-operation
"The new trend of Pervasive Computing, based on massively deployed wireless sensor and actor networks, will enable gathering data about the world with an unprecedented accuracy and influencing it. Among many application fields, health support system will permit to measure and transmit the vital health parameters and to exert externally controlled actions on the human body. Such systems provide evident benefits, but also pose great new risks of misuse by totalitarian governments or criminals. Also “good” governments, in their effort to improve the lives of the citizens, may be tempted to rectify their conduct beyond their will and to enforce it with new means of total surveillance. This Global Brain, controlled by authorities advised by experts, too complex to be overseen by the general public, may lead to a revival of the Plato’s Rule of the Philosophers, a Brave New World where democracy is just an empty shell."
pervasive-computing  big-data  big-brother  global  sensors  democracy  post-democracy  distributed  cognition  communication 
february 2013 by tsuomela
www.culturalcognition.net - Cultural Cognition Papers by Date - The Tragedy of the Risk-Perception Commons: Culture Conflict, Rationality Conflict, and Climate Change
"The conventional explanation for controversy over climate change emphasizes impediments to public understanding: limited popular knowledge of science, the inability of ordinary citizens to assess technical information, and the resulting widespread use of unreliable cognitive heuristics to assess risk. A large survey of U.S. adults (N = 1540) found little support for this account. On the whole, the most scientifically literate and numerate subjects were slightly less likely, not more, to see climate change as a serious threat than the least scientifically literate and numerate ones. More importantly, greater scientific literacy and numeracy were associated with greater cultural polarization: respondents predisposed by their values to dismiss climate change evidence became more dismissive, and those predisposed by their values to credit such evidence more concerned, as science literacy and numeracy increased. We suggest that this evidence reflects a conflict between two levels of rationality: the individual level, which is characterized by citizens’ effective use of their knowledge and reasoning capacities to form risk perceptions that express their cultural commitments; and the collective level, which is characterized by citizens’ failure to converge on the best available scientific evidence on how to promote their common welfare. Dispelling this “tragedy of the risk-perception commons,” we argue, should be understood as the central aim of the science of science communication."
science  communication  risk  climate-change  cognition  bias  culture  ideology 
december 2012 by tsuomela
BBC Column: Psychological self-defence for the age of email « Mind Hacks
"Here’s a pretty safe assumption to make: you probably feel like you’re inundated with email, don’t you? It’s a constant trickle that threatens to become a flood. Building up, it is always nagging you to check it. You put up spam filters and create sorting systems, but it’s never quite enough. And that’s because the big problems with email are not just technical – they’re psychological. If we can understand these we’ll all be a bit better prepared to manage email, rather than let it manage us."
email  attention  information-overload  psychology  bias  cognition  gtd  productivity 
october 2012 by tsuomela
Why do people pay for useless advice? Implications of gambler's and hot-hand fallacies in false-expert settingsIZA - Institute for the Study of Labor
"We investigated experimentally whether people can be induced to believe in a non-existent expert, and subsequently pay for what can only be described as transparently useless advice about future chance events. Consistent with the theoretical predictions made by Rabin (2002) and Rabin and Vayanos (2010), we show empirically that the answer is yes and that the size of the error made systematically by people is large. "
economics  research  statistics  probability  expertise  reasoning  chance  bias  prediction  cognition  from delicious
june 2012 by tsuomela
Moral rethink | Prospect Magazine
"But this does not mean that it is wrong to push the question even further, asking how we can be encouraged to care more about the well-being and suffering of those who happened not to be born within the same borders as us. Haidt thinks liberals ignore concepts like authority and the sacred. But really, liberalism’s power consists in challenging the moral relevance of such concepts. Since liberals dispute that authority really is of fundamental moral importance, it is circular reasoning to argue that this is a form of “moral blindness.”"
book  review  morality  politics  liberal  conservative  moral-language  cognition  emotion  ethics  liberalism  from delicious
may 2012 by tsuomela
Last hope for the left | Prospect Magazine
"So, is the future post-liberal? The WEIRD liberalism of the baby boomer generation was perhaps condemned to a dogmatic universalism as a result of emerging in the shadow of two world wars, the Holocaust and the anti-colonial and civil rights struggles. There was a lot to react against and it is perhaps understandable that in eagerly embracing the moral equality of all humans, some boomers slipped into a carelessness towards national borders and identities and a rigidity towards many forms of equality. The next generation of politics need not make the same mistake."
book  review  morality  politics  liberal  conservative  moral-language  cognition  emotion  from delicious
may 2012 by tsuomela
Analytic Thinking Promotes Religious Disbelief
Scientific interest in the cognitive underpinnings of religious belief has grown in recent years. However, to date, little experimental research has focused on the cognitive processes that may promote religious disbelief. The present studies apply a dual-process model of cognitive processing to this problem, testing the hypothesis that analytic processing promotes religious disbelief. Individual differences in the tendency to analytically override initially flawed intuitions in reasoning were associated with increased religious disbelief. Four additional experiments provided evidence of causation, as subtle manipulations known to trigger analytic processing also encouraged religious disbelief. Combined, these studies indicate that analytic processing is one factor (presumably among several) that promotes religious disbelief. Although these findings do not speak directly to conversations about the inherent rationality, value, or truth of religious beliefs, they illuminate one cognitive factor that may influence such discussions.
science  religion  psychology  cognition  mental-process  analytic  thinking  style  from delicious
april 2012 by tsuomela
Using Less Effort to Think, Opinions Lean More Conservative | Arkansas Newswire | University of Arkansas
“People endorse conservative ideology more when they have to give a first or fast response,” Eidelman said. “This low-effort thinking seems to favor political conservatism, suggesting that it may be our default ideology. To be clear, we are not saying that conservatives think lightly.”
political-science  psychology  cognition  style  bias  effort  conservative  from delicious
april 2012 by tsuomela
Toolmaker Talk: Yoni Donner (Quantified Mind) | Quantified Self
Donner: Quantified Mind is a web application that allows users to track the variation in their cognitive functions under different conditions, using cognitive tests that are based on long-standing principles from psychology, but adapted to be repeatable, short, engaging, automatic and adaptive.

The goal is to make cognitive optimization an exact science instead of relying on subjective feelings, which can be deceiving or so subtle that they are hard to interpret. Quantified Mind allows fun and easy self-experimentation and data analysis that can lead to actionable conclusions.
quantified-self  cognition  psychology  metrics  measurement  self-improvement  from delicious
april 2012 by tsuomela
How to Perfect Real-Time Crowdsourcing  - Technology Review
"So how quickly can a crowd be put into action.?That's the question tackled today by Michael Bernstein at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and a few pals.

In the past, these guys have found ways to bring a crowd to bear in about two seconds. That's quick. But the reaction time is limited to how quickly a worker responds to an alert.

Now these guys say they've find a way to reduce the reaction time to 500 milliseconds--that's effectively realtime. A system with a half second latency could turn crowdsourcing into a very different kind of resource.

The idea that Bernstein and co have come up with is straightforward. These guys simply "precruit" a crowd and keep them on standby until a task becomes available. Effectively, they're paying workers a retainer so that they are available immediately when needed"
real-time  crowdsourcing  computer-science  distributed  cognition  from delicious
april 2012 by tsuomela
Are the Left and Right Equally Biased?–Debating Dan Kahan
"My guest was Yale’s Dan Kahan, who was also on the show a year earlier, discussing his cultural cognition model. This is a very powerful and increasingly influential account of how different ideological groups–hierarchs, individualists, egalitarians, communitarians–are biased towards rejecting science on particular topics that are, shall we say, in their emotionally defensive “zones.”

Kahan ascribes this to motivated reasoning--e.g., our preexisting emotional commitments, or group commitments, skew our reading of evidence (scientific or otherwise) and lead us to elaborately defend our prior commitments. And because hierarchical-individualists have a very different vision of the “good” society and how it is organized than do egalitarian-communitarians, they accordingly reason very differently about scientific issues that threaten their values (like global warming) than do those on the other side."
politics  psychology  motivated-cognition  reasoning  group  cognition  bias  from delicious
april 2012 by tsuomela
Are Emotions Prophetic? | Wired Science | Wired.com
While there is an extensive literature on the potential wisdom of human emotion – David Hume was a prescient guy – it’s only in the last few years that researchers have demonstrated that the emotional system (aka Type 1 thinking) might excel at complex decisions, or those involving lots of variables. If true, this would suggest that the unconscious is better suited for difficult cognitive tasks than the conscious brain, that the very thought process we’ve long disregarded as irrational and impulsive might actually be more intelligent, at least in some conditions.
emotion  psychology  cognition  thinking  decision-making  complexity  from delicious
march 2012 by tsuomela
ScienceDirect - Cognition : Two dogmas of conceptual empiricism: implications for hybrid models of the structure of knowledge
Concepts seem to consist of both an associative component based on tabulations of feature typicality and similarity judgments and an explanatory component based on rules and causal principles. However, there is much controversy about how each component functions in concept acquisition and use. Here we consider two assumptions, or dogmas, that embody this controversy and underlie much of the current cognitive science research on concepts. Dogma 1: Novel information is first processed via similarity judgments and only later is influenced by explanatory components. Dogma 2: Children initially have only a similarity-based component for learning concepts
cognition  concepts  knowledge  philosophy  psychology  explanation  from delicious
december 2011 by tsuomela
Yale Law School | Dan M. Kahan
Dan Kahan is the Elizabeth K. Dollard Professor of Law at Yale Law School. In addition to risk perception, his areas of research include criminal law and evidence.
people  academic  law  school(Yale)  risk  perception  culture  cognition 
august 2011 by tsuomela
www.culturalcognition.net - home
The Cultural Cognition Project is a group of scholars interested in studying how cultural values shape public risk perceptions and related policy beliefs. Cultural cognition refers to the tendency of individuals to conform their beliefs about disputed matters of fact (e.g., whether global warming is a serious threat
academic-center  law  school(Yale)  cognition  culture  motivated-cognition  science  perception  bias  psychology 
august 2011 by tsuomela
Sticky Thoughts
Cognitive inflexibility may play an important role in rumination, a risk factor for the onset and maintenance of depressive episodes. In the study reported here, we assessed participants’ ability to either reverse or maintain in working memory the order of three emotion or three neutral words. Differences (or sorting costs) between response latencies in backward trials, on which participants were asked to reverse the order of the words, and forward trials, on which participants were asked to remember the words in the order in which they were presented, were calculated. Compared with control participants, depressed participants had higher sorting costs, particularly when presented with negative words. It is important to note that rumination predicted sorting costs for negative words but not for positive or neutral words in the depressed group. These findings indicate that depression and rumination are associated with deficits in cognitive control.
psychology  cognition  depression  flexibility 
august 2011 by tsuomela
Harmony of Means and Ends
"I would also add --- and this is something Henry and I have ben thinking about a lot --- that it is often not at all trivial to figure out what your interests are, or how to achieve them, and that (small-d) democrats should try to find ways to help people work that out. Actually having political clout is often going to depend on collective action, but this needs to be complemented by collective cognition, which is how people figure out what to want and how to achieve it. That, however, is part of a much larger and rather different story, for another time. "
politics  political-science  theory  change  social-movement  cognition  collective-action  collective-intelligence 
july 2011 by tsuomela
Balkinization - Science Communication vs. Soulcraft
"These data suggest that conflict over climate change, far from reflecting a deficit in public comprehension of scientific information, demonstrates how adept people are in forming beliefs that express their group commitments. Should that surprise anyone? Right or wrong, the risk perceptions of an ordinary individual won’t actually affect the climate: the contribution an individual makes to carbon emission levels by her personal behavior as a consumer, or to climate change policymaking by her personal behavior as a voter, is just too small to matter. If, however, an individual (whether a university professor in Massachusetts or an oil-rig worker in Oklahoma) forms a belief about climate change that is heretical within her community, she might well forfeit the friendship and respect of people she depends on most for support in her everyday life.
"
climate  global-warming  psychology  perception  deficit  science  education  bias  cognition 
july 2011 by tsuomela
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