6401
Highlights | JAMA | JAMA Network
> The rationale for combining antihypertensive drugs into a single pill is to improve efficacy, minimize adverse events, and improve adherence to therapy. Webster and colleagues randomized 700 adults with hypertension and found that treatment with a pill containing low doses of 3 antihypertensive drugs increased the proportion of patients achieving their target blood pressure goals vs usual care. In an editorial, Huffman and colleagues suggest that fixed-dose combination therapy is likely to be most efficient in settings with shortages of health care workers and limited access to medications.
blood_pressure 
yesterday
β-Amyloid accumulation in the human brain after one night of sleep deprivation. - PubMed - NCBI
> Here we used PET and 18F-florbetaben to measure brain Aβ burden (ABB) in 20 healthy controls tested after a night of rested sleep (baseline) and after a night of sleep deprivation. We show that one night of sleep deprivation, relative to baseline, resulted in a significant increase in Aβ burden in the right hippocampus and thalamus. These increases were associated with mood worsening following sleep deprivation, but were not related to the genetic risk (APOE genotype) for Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, baseline ABB in a range of subcortical regions and the precuneus was inversely associated with reported night sleep hours.
alzheimers  sleep  amyloid 
yesterday
Stop Saying Your Patient Is Allergic to Iodine – Op-(m)ed
> This not an exercise in semantics, but a patient care issue. Iodine is a mineral we all need, intentionally added to our salt supply, so that people do not get iodine-deficiency goiters as they once did. (We could boost everyone’s protein intake by adding peanut powder to the salt supply, but people might understandably object.) So while some people may be allergic to compounds that happen to contain iodine, the iodine in the molecule is not the culprit.

Iodine-based contrast agents are widely used for CT and other x-ray studies. They light up blood vessels and enhance perfusing tissue. These agents are essential for diagnosing everything from clots, to tumor, to bleeding. Unfortunately, many patients do not get contrast studies they may benefit from, due to unnecessary confusion about allergies.

The most important step to avoiding confusion is to start calling contrast agents by their names, as you would do for any other drug, and to remove “iodine” from your allergy vocabulary. Like antibiotics, there is more than one kind of contrast agent. Radiologists routinely dictate the name of the agent used in their study reports, so if a reaction occurs, the information is readily available. The problem comes when we do not distinguish one agent from another. Most patients%
allergy  medicine 
2 days ago
Genome-wide polygenic scores for common diseases identify individuals with risk equivalent to monogenic mutations | Nature Genetics
> The approach identifies 8.0, 6.1, 3.5, 3.2, and 1.5% of the population at greater than threefold increased risk for coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, type 2 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and breast cancer, respectively. For coronary artery disease, this prevalence is 20-fold higher than the carrier frequency of rare monogenic mutations conferring comparable risk
polygenic_risk  GWAS 
2 days ago
Elin Nordegren - Wikipedia
> Using the $100 million she received from her divorce from Woods, she purchased a $12 million Florida mansion, which had been built in the 1920s. She had the entire structure demolished after an architect advised that it made better sense to start over than to try bringing the home up to current hurricane safety codes. Before demolishing the home in December 2011, she allowed Habitat for Humanity to come into the home for four weeks and salvage anything they found of value.[19] Many valuable contents of the estate went on the auction block at a Habitat for Humanity warehouse. Among the items donated to Habitat were a 12-foot (3.7 m) fountain with water spouting out of 3 lion's mouths, 5 Sub-Zero refrigerators, 14 vanities, temperature-controlled wine coolers, and other furniture.[20]
divorce  celebrities  money  house 
3 days ago
Urban Dictionary: Take this W
Take this W
Take the win
I won the race by 3 miles.

Just take this W and don't brag
vocab 
3 days ago
Donepezil Not the Answer for Depressed MCI Patients | ALZFORUM
> `The study has implications for current practice. “It calls into question the off-label use of donepezil in these patients,” Devanand told Alzforum. Doctors should avoid exposing people to donepezil if they are unlikely to benefit, he said. In this study, side effects such as diarrhea, headaches, dizziness, insomnia, fatigue, and nightmares were about twice as common in the treated group as in those on placebo.—Gwyneth Dickey Zakaib
depression  MCI  AChEI 
4 days ago
Most of us are wrong about how the world has changed (especially those who are pessimistic about the future) - Our World in Data
> The majority of people – 52% – believe that the share of people in extreme poverty is rising. The opposite is true. In fact, the share of people living in extreme poverty across the world has been declining for two centuries and in the last 20 years this positive development has been faster than ever before (see our entry on global poverty). For the recent era it doesn't even matter what poverty line you choose, the share of people below any poverty line has fallen (see here).
poverty  trends  2018  perception 
5 days ago
Browser Tab Clutter Is The New Hoarding | JSTOR Daily
> Nowhere is that peril clearer than in the essential, ubiquitous web browser. Like many computer users, I am in and out of my web browser all day, skipping from site to site and task to task.  In one Chrome window, I’ve got tabs open to my three latest Facebook conversations, plus a few open links that Facebook friends recommended. Three other windows hold various shopping carts, with open tabs for each item I’m currently debating. I’ve got windows open for Twitter and Slack, Gmail and iCloud, ShopStyle and Pinterest. Yet another window holds a dozen JSTOR articles I’m working through for this very article. All of that is before I look at Safari, where I’ve been running a few different windows, just to get away from the Chrome clutter.

Sure, all those browser tabs don’t actually require physical storage space. But they intrude on my computer every bit as much as physical clutter intrudes on my home. Every window is another window to flip through as I go looking for the web form I had half-completed before my last phone call. Every tab is a nagging claim on my attention, however minute. I’m often running so many browser tabs that I can’t actually find the tab I’m returning to, and have to open yet another Facebook or Gmail tab. And%
hoarding  internet  OCD  OCPD  psychology 
6 days ago
Urban Dictionary: ship
> N: Short for romantic relationship, popularized in fanfiction circles.

V: To endorse a romantic relationship.

N: I see a 'ship developing between Hermione Granger and Ron Weasley.

V: I ship Ron/Hermione
vocab 
6 days ago
'A more perfect arrangement of plants': the botanical model in psychiatric nosology, 1676 to the present day. - PubMed - NCBI
> One of the most enduring aspects of Kraepelin’s legacy was his belief in the existence of natural disease entities – ‘Natürliche Krankheitseinheiten’ – sharing anatomy, aetiology, and clinical symptomatology, and ultimately knowable to science (Hoff, 1995). Indeed, a belief in such entities is a key component of the neo-Kraepelinian commitment today (Engstrom and Kendler, 2015). Nevertheless, as early as the second edition of his Lehrbuch, Kraepelin (1887) recognized the ‘purely empirical’ nature of his disease categories. Ultimately provisional until science revealed each entity’s true form, their use was at first practical and didactic.8 By the third edition of the Lehrbuch, Kraepelin (1889: 236) explicitly rejected the possibility of achieving the Enlightenment dream for psychiatry, stating it was necessary to ‘abandon for all time a systematic demarcation of mental disorders along the lines of Linnaeus’ (Engstrom and Kendler, 2015), while at the same time persisting to assert the practical utility of a provisional classification. It is important to note that while Kraepelin gave up hope for what Mayer-Groß, would later call the ‘visible, silent and relatively timeless, stable’ world of plants (Mayer-Groß, 1929), nevertheless, his early belief in (1) discrete entities, (2) identifiable by symptoms, and (3) partially hierarchically organized, remained essentially ‘botanical’. However, it is worth noting some important distinctions. Linnaeus proposed to describe all plants; Kraepelin claimed only to describe a handful of disease categories rather than a complete classification (Engstrom and Kendler, 2015: 1193). Furthermore, while Linnaeus felt his species categories were natural as opposed to artificial, Kraepelin purported to describe only artificial categories. Yet Kraepelin’s basic concept of a disease-entity implied that the observed symptoms had some relation to underlying biology – a natural species after all. Over time however, Kraepelin came even to question this commitment to the idea of discrete illnesses. Indeed, modern historians of Kraepelin have questioned whether the neo-Kraepelinian position truly represents what Kraepelin said
daniel_mason  nosology  psychiatry  history  kraeplin  spectrum 
6 days ago
A Road Map for Sustaining Healthy Eating Behavior | NEJM
> Studies examining the effect of menu labeling on consumer behavior have found limited evidence that having access to nutrition information affects calories purchased.4 In contrast, evidence suggests that large chain restaurants that will be subject to the menu-labeling rule have reduced the calorie content of new menu items by about 60 calories (a 12% decrease), that large chain restaurants that post calorie information have items that are lower in calories than chains that don’t post calorie information, and that large chain restaurants are dropping highcalorie items from their menus
calorie  food  menu  psychology 
6 days ago
Effect of a Behavioral Intervention for Underserved Preschool-Age Children on Change in Body Mass Index: A Randomized Clinical Trial | Obesity | JAMA | JAMA Network
> A 36-month multicomponent behavioral intervention did not change BMI trajectory among underserved preschool-age children in Nashville, Tennessee, compared with a control program
obesity  childhood  RCT  education 
8 days ago
Cataphract - Wikipedia
> A cataphract was a form of armored heavy cavalry used in ancient warfare by a number of peoples in Europe, East Asia, Middle East and North africa.

The English word is derived from the Greek κατάφρακτος Kataphraktos (plural: κατάφρακτοι Kataphraktoi), literally meaning "armored" or "completely enclosed". Historically, the cataphract was a very heavily armored horseman, with both the rider and mount steed draped from head to toe in scale armor, while typically wielding a kontos or lance as their weapon.

Cataphracts served as either the elite cavalry or assault force for most empires and nations that fielded them, primarily used for impetuous charges to break through infantry formations. Chronicled by many historians from the earliest days of antiquity up until the High Middle Ages, they are believed to have influenced the later European knights, via contact with the Byzantine Empire.[1]
military  history 
8 days ago
Lutetia - Wikipedia
Precursor to Paris, in the Roman Empire. Some Roman emperors wintered there. > In May 2006, a Roman road was found during expansion of the University of Pierre and Marie Curie campus. Remains of private houses dating from the reign of Augustus (27 BC-14 AD) and containing heated floors were found. Everyday items like flowerpots, bronze chains, ceramics, and drawer handles were found. The owners were wealthy enough to own baths found in one of the homes, a status symbol among Roman citizens.
Rome  history  paris 
9 days ago
Homicidal ideation in family carers of people with dementia. - PubMed - NCBI
> RESULTS:
Seven themes were identified in the data - active thoughts of homicide; understanding homicidal thoughts in others; passive thoughts of death; euthanasia; homicidal thoughts in other caregiving situations; abuse; and disclosing thoughts of harm. Two of the 21 participants had actively contemplated the homicide of their care recipient, four expressed a passive desire for the care recipient's death, and four reported physically or verbally abusing the care recipient. Only one carer had previously disclosed these experiences.

CONCLUSION:
Homicidal ideation is a real and significant phenomenon among family carers of people with dementia. Service providers and health professionals are encouraged to identify and support carers contemplating homicide, but to do so in a way that recognises the broader social context of carer burden.
dementia  psychiatry 
12 days ago
The Effect of Treatment of Anemia with Blood Transfusion on Delirium: A Systematic Review. - PubMed - NCBI
> The majority of the included studies was not suited to answer the research question properly as the time course of the beginning of delirium as to transfusion was lacking. Our review shows that there is no good quality evidence available for blood transfusion to be a risk factor for delirium or to be a preventive or treatment option.
anemia  delirium 
13 days ago
Four Months of Rifampin or Nine Months of Isoniazid for Latent Tuberculosis in Adults | NEJM
> The 4-month regimen of rifampin was not inferior to the 9-month regimen of isoniazid for the prevention of active tuberculosis and was associated with a higher rate of treatment completion and better safety.
tuberculosis  antibiotics 
13 days ago
Management of obesity in the psychiatrist's office
> First, obesity is a behavioral problem that involves eating too much and moving too little. The most robust evidence for effective management of obesity is for behavioral interventions, usually referred to as lifestyle interventions. These are typically based on principles of cognitive behavioral therapy and social cognitive change. Psychiatrists are experts of behavioral change and are equipped with the tools to employ against this disease.

Second, it has become abundantly clear that psychiatric medications, especially antipsychotics, play an important role in the increased rates of obesity among patients with SMI 3. While it is preferable to prevent the excess weight gain due to psychotropic medications, this is not always possible. Many patients will already be overweight or obese at the initial visit to a psychiatrist. Management of overweight and obesity is therefore as much a part of psychiatrists' duty as the management of other medication side effects, ranging from movement disorders to impaired sexual function. Obesity is also associated with increased rates of depression, decreased quality of life, and increased stigma in this population. Obesity is a calamity that needs to be managed in the psychiatrist's office.
overweight  psychiatry  histamine  dopamine 
15 days ago
Meth Is Flooding California — and You Can Blame Mexican Cartels | VICE News
> The trafficking route has sparked a resurgence of meth-related concerns in Southern California. A study produced by the San Diego Association of Governments determined that meth use among adult arrestees had dropped sharply after the 2006 pseudoephedrine regulations, but found it had almost returned to 2005 levels by 2013.
meth  drugs  california 
15 days ago
The Secret Facebook Groups for Shocking DNA Tests - The Atlantic
> St Clair went looking for more people to talk to. She looked for support groups. She found none. So, being the type to take things in her own hands, St Clair started a group on Facebook called DNA NPE Friends, where NPE refers to “not parent expected.” (NPE comes from the genetic genealogy term “nonpaternity event,” which St Clair and others have refashioned to include both parents; another increasingly common term is “misattributed parentage.”)

“Each person comes into our group thinking they are a freak,” says St Clair. And then they find each other. A year later, DNA NPE Friends—just one of several secret Facebook groups for misattributed parentage—has amassed more than 1,000 members.
facebook  genetics 
15 days ago
PsyArXiv Preprints | Overstating the Role of Environmental Factors in Success: A Cautionary Note
> Several currently popular areas of research—brain training, mindset, grit, deliberate practice, and the bilingual advantage—are premised on the idea that environmental factors are the overwhelming determinants of success in real-world pursuits. Here, we describe the major claims from each of these areas of research, before discussing evidence for these claims, with a particular focus on meta-analyses. We then suggest that overemphasizing the malleability of abilities and other traits can have negative consequences for individuals, science, and society. We conclude with a call for balanced appraisals of the available evidence concerning this issue, to reflect current scientific discrepancies, and thereby enable informed individual decisions and collective policies.
psychology 
15 days ago
Registered Reports
> Registered Reports emphasize the importance of the research question and the quality of methodology by conducting peer review prior to data collection. High quality protocols are then provisionally accepted for publication if the authors follow through with the registered methodology.

This format is designed to reward best practices in adhering to the hypothetico-deductive model of the scientific method. It eliminates a variety of questionable research practices, including low statistical power, selective reporting of results, and publication bias, while allowing complete flexibility to report serendipitous findings.
science  publications 
15 days ago
Large randomized trial finds state pre-k program has adverse effects on academic achievement. Reform is needed to increase effectiveness. | Straight Talk on Evidence
> While the study found positive short-term effects on child achievement (at the end of the pre-k year), these effects dissipated as children entered elementary school and turned modestly negative by third grade. At the third-grade follow-up, the control group scored significantly higher in math and science achievement than the pre-k group.
preschool  RCT  education 
15 days ago
pdf -- The Cost of Bad Parents: Evidence from Incarceration on Children’s Education
> I find that conditional on conviction, parental incarceration increases years of education by 0.6 years for the children whose parents were on the margin of incarceration. This positive effect is larger when the incarceration is for a violent crime, for boys and when the incarcerated parent is the mother.
economics  econometrics  parenting  prison  violence 
15 days ago
Douglas Todd: Boys and men disappearing from psychology | Vancouver Sun
> A revealing study led by the University of B.C.’s Robinder Bedi found the vast majority of 293 research articles published over a 13-year period in the influential Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy centred on female-specific topics.

Research articles exclusively on female subjects out-numbered those on male subjects by four to one, Bedi discovered. When his team excluded a single special “men’s” edition of the psychotherapy journal from their survey, the ratio of female- to male-oriented articles in the journal soared to 15 to one.

“All of this is occurring despite … boys and men making up 34 per cent of individuals participating in counselling and psychology,” writes Bedi, an assistant professor of counselling psychology at UBC.
psychology  gender 
15 days ago
Tom Collins - Wikipedia
> In 1874, people in New York, Pennsylvania, and elsewhere in the United States would start a conversation with "Have you seen Tom Collins?"[9][10] After the listener predictably reacts by explaining that they did not know a Tom Collins, the speaker would assert that Tom Collins was talking about the listener to others and that Tom Collins was "just around the corner", "in a [local] bar," or somewhere else near.[9] The conversation about the nonexistent Tom Collins was a proven hoax of exposure.[9] In The Great Tom Collins hoax of 1874, as it became known, the speaker would encourage the listener to act foolishly by reacting to patent nonsense that the hoaxer deliberately presents as reality.[9] In particular, the speaker desired the listener to become agitated at the idea of someone talking about them to others such that the listener would rush off to find the purportedly nearby Tom Collins
meme  history  trolling  US 
15 days ago
Washington Post falls for that horrible air-rage study, and what gets me really angry about this - Statistical Modeling, Causal Inference, and Social Science
> No, what really annoys me are those sections of the scientific community who promote junk science and who acquiesce in its promotion, scientists who seem to have a say-no-evil, all-publicity-is-good-publicity attitude. I’m angry at scientists who have lifetime job contracts and who have received the laurels of their professions, who promote junk science.

Also I’m angry at the National Academy of Sciences, which is burning a little bit of its prestige—and the prestige of science in general—every time it publishes something like the himmicanes and air rage papers. No, NAS, its not always good news when you’re mentioned in the Washington Post. Not this time. Not at all.
andrew_gelman  science 
15 days ago
Meta-analysis: Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Clinical Trials in Depression
> The overall effect size for 60% or greater EPA in supplements compared with placebo was 0.558 (p<0.001); for EPA at less than 60%, it was non-significant at −0.026, (see Table 2 and Figure 1). Interpretation of these findings should take into account that asymmetry of the funnel plot indicated some negative publication bias (see Figure 2).
fish_oil  depression 
15 days ago
Links 7/18: URL Mountains | Slate Star Codex
> But it remains compatible with meat offsets; by my calculations donating $100 to the charity involved could offset eating pork one meal per day for a year.
vegetarian  ethics 
15 days ago
Chris Beat Cancer: A Comprehensive Plan for Healing Naturally: Chris Wark: 9781401956110: Amazon.com: Books
Top 25 selling book right now.
> Colon cancer survivor who opted against chemotherapy and radiation provides the toxin-free diet, lifestyle, and therapy guidelines he used to help himself heal.

Two days before Christmas and at 26 years old, Chris Wark was diagnosed with stage 3 colon cancer. He had surgery to remove a golf ball-sized tumor and a third of his colon. But after surgery, instead of the traditional chemotherapy, Wark decided to radically change his diet and lifestyle in order to promote health and healing in his body. In Chris Beat Cancer, Wark describes his healing journey, exposes the corruption and ineffectiveness of the medical and cancer industries, and shares the strategies that he and many others have used to heal cancer. These strategies include adopting the Beat Cancer Mindset; radical diet and lifestyle changes; and mental, emotional, and spiritual healing, as well as advanced integrative therapies. Dually packed with an emotional punch and extensive healing solutions, Chris Beat Cancer will inspire and guide you on your own journey toward wellness.
cancer  medicine  2018 
18 days ago
Amazon.com: Brainwashed: The Seductive Appeal of Mindless Neuroscience (2015465062911): Sally Satel, Scott O. Lilienfeld: Books
> On the plus side, this book is a lucid critique of how neural imaging has been abused within recent science. Neural images are representations, not descriptions of what is going on in the brain; even worse, they show areas of oxygenation, which can indicate places in the brain that are activating or suppressing neural connections. The fMRI is indeed in the hands of charlatans a neo-phrenology. On the negative side, the cold water is more often than not somewhat obvious, and it is only the hyperbolic enthusiasm surrounding fMRIs that makes such a corrective seem like such a breath of fresh air. Who really believes activity in region A means that the person prefers one candidate over another or that I love my iPhone?: oxygenation is a long ways away from the content of a thought or feeling. Ruth Leys has performed a much more powerful critique of the work of Benjamin Libet; see her "The Turn to Affect: A Critique."
neuroscience  book_review 
18 days ago
Pursuit predation - Wikipedia
> Pursuit predation is a form of predation in which predators give chase to fleeing prey. The chase can be initiated either by the predator or by the prey, should the prey be alerted to a predator's presence and attempt to flee before the predator gives chase. The chase ends with either the predator capturing and consuming the prey, effectively diminishing the prey's fitness, or with the prey escaping the predator's hunt, thus maintaining the prey's overall fitness, but leaving both prey and predator with metabolic losses. Pursuit predation is typically observed in carnivorous species within the kingdom Animalia, with some iconic examples being cheetahs, lions, and wolves.

Pursuit predation is an alternate predation strategy to ambush predation. While pursuit predators use a detection and pursuit phase in order to obtain prey, ambush predators use stealth to capture prey. Strength and speed are important to pursuit predators, whereas ambush predators ignore these in favor of surprise from a typically concealed location. While the two patterns of predation are not mutually exclusive, morphological differences in body plan can create a bias in an organism towards each type of predation.
biology  ecology  animals  evolution 
18 days ago
A Pragmatic Trial of E-Cigarettes, Incentives, and Drugs for Smoking Cessation | NEJM
> In this pragmatic trial of smoking cessation, financial incentives added to free cessation aids resulted in a higher rate of sustained smoking abstinence than free cessation aids alone. Among smokers who received usual care (information and motivational text messages), the addition of free cessation aids or e-cigarettes did not provide a benefit.
addiction  incentives  psychology  cigarettes 
19 days ago
Biogen and Eisai: Let the Alzheimer’s Arguing Commence | In the Pipeline
> APOE4, a lipoprotein, has been recognized as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s since back in the 1990s, although the mechanism behind that has been the subject of debate. But there was a regulatory-mandated change in enrollment of APOE4 patients during the (Bayesian) trial, for fear of a brain-swelling side effect that these patients are also prone to, and there ended up being far more APOE4-positive patients in the placebo group compared to the high-dose group (70% versus 30%). Which might well make that group show faster deterioration during the period of the study. Which might well blow your statistical proof that your drug substance is an improvement.
alzheimers  apoe  placebo 
19 days ago
Benjamin Rush - Wikipedia
> Rush pioneered the therapeutic approach to addiction.[48][49] Prior to his work, drunkenness was viewed as being sinful and a matter of choice. Rush believed that the alcoholic loses control over himself and identified the properties of alcohol, rather than the alcoholic's choice, as the causal agent. He developed the conception of alcoholism as a form of medical disease and proposed that alcoholics should be weaned from their addiction via less potent substances.[50]
psychiatry  history  alcohol 
19 days ago
Kenneth Kendler - Wikipedia
> Kenneth S. Kendler (born July 12, 1950)[1] is an American psychiatrist best known for this pioneering research in psychiatric genetics, particularly the genetic causes of schizophrenia.[2] Kendler is one of the highest cited psychiatry researchers. Between 1990 and 1998 he was the 2nd highest cited psychiatrist, and for the 1997-2007 decade he was ranked 4th by Thomson Reuters' Science Watch.[3] He has authored over 1,200 papers and in 2016 his h-index was 126.[4] Kendler's group was also noted for the replication of a study of Avshalom Caspi on the interaction of stressful life events and a serotonin transporter polymorphism in the prediction of episodes of major depression.[5]
psychiatry  genetics 
19 days ago
Psychoeducation - Wikipedia
> The popularization and development of the term psychoeducation into its current form is widely attributed to the American researcher C.M. Anderson in 1980 in the context of the treatment of schizophrenia.[7] Her research concentrated on educating relatives concerning the symptoms and the process of the schizophrenia. Also, her research focused on the stabilization of social authority and on the improvement in handling of the family members among themselves. Finally, C.M. Anderson's research included more effective stress management techniques. Psychoeducation in behavior therapy has its origin in the patient's relearning of emotional and social skills. In the last few years increasingly systematic group programs have been developed, in order to make the knowledge more understandable to patients and their families.[5]
psychiatry 
19 days ago
Mortality due to cirrhosis and liver cancer in the United States, 1999-2016: observational study | The BMJ
Mortality due to cirrhosis has been increasing in the US since 2009. Driven by deaths due to alcoholic cirrhosis, people aged 25-34 have experienced the greatest relative increase in mortality. White Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanic Americans experienced the greatest increase in deaths from cirrhosis. Mortality due to cirrhosis is improving in Maryland but worst in Kentucky, New Mexico, and Arkansas. The rapid increase in death rates among young people due to alcohol highlight new challenges for optimal care of patients with preventable liver disease
alcohol  cirrhosis  liver  addiction 
19 days ago
The Whole City Is Center | Slate Star Codex
> Once I could feel that my nganon was good, I had much more ability to appreciate negative or judgmental ideas like “laziness”, though I still have some distaste for them. I can see that non-depressed people are often saying “you should work harder [but your inherent personhood and essence is positive and I bless you]” rather than “you should work harder [but of course you won’t, because your inherent essence is toxic and tainted and actually you deserve to be tortured for eternity]”. Even concepts of “sin” from different philosophers are very different in their subtext — Augustine is very clearly a person focused hard on humility and repentance but not perceiving his essence as evil, he’s a healthy but hyper-conscientious person, while Luther is visibly experiencing exactly the stuff I was.
sarah_constantin  positivity  depression 
23 days ago
Postorgasmic illness syndrome - Wikipedia
> Postorgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) is a syndrome in which men have chronic physical and cognitive symptoms immediately following ejaculation in the absence of a local genital reaction.[1] The symptoms last for up to a week.[1] The cause and prevalence are unknown;[2] it is considered a rare disease.[3]
sex  psychiatry  orgasm 
29 days ago
The Longevity Research Institute
> Old publications (pre-1980).
The boom in federal and industry funding for biomedical research in recent decades probably inflated the numbers of low-quality and unreplicable publications; earlier publications are less likely to be fake (though, of course, more likely to have since been disconfirmed.)
sarah_constantin  science  truth 
4 weeks ago
Māori people - Wikipedia
> The Māori (/ˈmaʊri/; Māori pronunciation: [ˈmaːɔɾi] (About this sound listen)[7]) are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand. Māori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of canoe voyages some time between 1250 and 1300.[8][9] Over several centuries in isolation, the Polynesian settlers developed a unique culture, with their own language, a rich mythology, and distinctive crafts and performing arts. Early Māori formed tribal groups based on eastern Polynesian social customs and organisation. Horticulture flourished using plants they introduced; later, a prominent warrior culture emerged.[4]
new_zealand  culture 
4 weeks ago
Women and children first - Wikipedia
> The phrase was popularised by its usage on the RMS Titanic.[11][page needed] The Second Officer suggested to Captain Smith, "Hadn't we better get the women and children into the boats, sir?", to which the captain responded: "put the women and children in and lower away".[12] The First (Officer Murdoch) and Second (Officer Lightoller) officers interpreted the evacuation order differently; Murdoch took it to mean women and children first, while Lightoller took it to mean women and children only. Second Officer Lightoller lowered lifeboats with empty seats if there were no women and children waiting to board, while First Officer Murdoch allowed a limited number of men to board if all the nearby women and children had embarked.[13] As a consequence, 74% of the women and 52% of the children on board were saved, but only 20% of the men.[14] Some officers on the Titanic misinterpreted the order from Captain Smith, and tried to prevent men from boarding the lifeboats.[15][16] It was intended that women and children would board first, with any remaining free spaces for men. Because not all women and children were saved on the Titanic, the few men who survived, like White Star official J. Bruce Ismay, were initially branded as cowards
gender  chivalry  history  boat  titanic 
4 weeks ago
Antisense part I: the basics
> Ionis Pharmaceuticals was characterizing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a drug candidate for spinal muscular atrophy, and they discovered that the compound was actually more potent in rodents when it was given in bolus dosing — one big single injection — as opposed to continuous infusion pump-based dosing. They then went on to do bolus doses intrathecally (via lumbar puncture) in monkeys, and found that the ASO reached not only the spinal cord but distributed widely throughout the brain. The ASO’s half life was more than 2 months in the brain and several months in the spinal cord, offering the prospect that occasional lumbar punctures might be enough to provide a sustained therapeutic benefit in a human.
ASO  CJD 
4 weeks ago
Cetacea - Wikipedia
How dolphins and whales breathe. > Cetaceans have lungs, meaning they breathe air. An individual can last without a breath from a few minutes to over two hours depending on the species. Cetacea are deliberate breathers who must be awake to inhale and exhale. When stale air, warmed from the lungs, is exhaled, it condenses as it meets colder external air. As with a terrestrial mammal breathing out on a cold day, a small cloud of 'steam' appears. This is called the 'spout' and varies across species in shape, angle and height. Species can be identified at a distance using this characteristic.

The structure of the respiratory and circulatory systems is of particular importance for the life of marine mammals. The oxygen balance is effective. Each breath can replace up to 90% of the total lung volume. For land mammals, in comparison, this value is usually about 15%. During inhalation, about twice as much oxygen is absorbed by the lung tissue as in a land mammal. As with all mammals, the oxygen is stored in the blood and the lungs, but in cetaceans, it is also stored in various tissues, mainly in the muscles. The muscle pigment, myoglobin, provides an effective bond. This additional oxygen storage is vital for deep diving, since beyond a depth around 100 m (330 ft), the lung tissue is almost completely compressed by the water pressure.
physiology  animals 
4 weeks ago
CJD Foundation Family Conference 2018
> The incidence or frequency of CJD is pretty similar between all different European countries, meaning that the exposure would also have to be pretty uniform geographically. When we look at geographic distribution of CJD cases within one country, say, the U.K., we of course see clustering where there are population centers, but other than that, the distribution is random. There are instances where a number of cases have been identified in a small town [Collins 2002], which seems surprising at first, but when you consider how many small towns there are and the frequency of CJD, it is statistically inevitable that there will be some such instances just by chance [Klug 2009]. Similarly, given how often CJD occurs, it is not actually surprising that there has been one instance observed where a husband and wife both died of it [Brown 1998]. Extensive studies have failed to reveal any environmental risk factor for CJD [de Pedro Cuesta 2012], including that there appears to be no increased risk among health care workers and others who care for patients with CJD [Alcalde-Cabero 2012]
CJD  prions  neurology 
4 weeks ago
Press Announcements > FDA updates warnings for fluoroquinolone antibiotics on risks of mental health and low blood sugar adverse reactions
> The new class-wide labeling changes will require that the mental health side effects be listed separately from other central nervous system side effects and be consistent across the labeling of the fluoroquinolone class. The mental health side effects to be included in the labeling across all the fluoroquinolones are disturbances in attention, disorientation, agitation, nervousness, memory impairment and delirium.
fluoroquinolone  antibiotics  mental_illness 
5 weeks ago
Hair ice - Wikipedia
> Hair ice (also known as ice wool or frost beard) is a type of ice that forms on dead wood and takes the shape of fine, silky hair.[1] It is somewhat uncommon, and has been reported mostly at latitudes between 45–55 °N in broadleaf forests.[1][2] The meteorologist and discoverer of continental drift, Alfred Wegener, described hair ice on wet dead wood in 1918,[3] assuming some specific fungi as the catalyst, a theory mostly confirmed by Gerhart Wagner and Christian Mätzler in 2005
ice  cold  nature 
5 weeks ago
Flick (time) - Wikipedia
> A flick is a unit of time equivalent to exactly 1/705,600,000 of a second. The figure was chosen so that frequencies of 24, 25, 30, 48, 50, 60, 90, 100 and 120 Hz, as well as 1/1000 divisions of all those, can be represented with integers.[1] The unit was launched in January 2018 by Facebook.[2] A flick is approximately 1.42 × 10−9 s, which makes it larger than a nanosecond but much smaller than a microsecond.

A similar unit for integer representation of temporal points was proposed in 2004 under the name TimeRef, splitting a second into 14,112,000 parts.[3] This makes 1 TimeRef equivalent to 50 Flicks.

Etymology[edit]
The word flick is a portmanteau of frame (as in e.g. animation frame) and tick (as in computer instruction cycle).
time  internet  facebook 
5 weeks ago
Mall walking - Wikipedia
> Mall walking is a form of exercise in which people walk or jog through the usually long corridors of shopping malls. Many malls open early so that people may mall walk; stores and other such facilities generally do not open at this time, though vending machine concessions are available. Many choose to mall walk as the indoor climate is comfortable and there is easy access to amenities, such as benches, toilets, and water fountains. Clean and level surfaces also provide a safe walking environment.[1]

Mall walking is undertaken individually, in groups, or as part of an organized mall walking program.[2] Mall walking in the United States is especially popular amongst senior citizens. Many mall walkers cite the camaraderie of walking in groups
walking  exercise 
5 weeks ago
Cognitive ability in young adulthood predicts risk of early-onset dementia in Finnish men. - PubMed - NCBI
> Lower cognitive ability total and verbal ability (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 SD disadvantage >1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.63) scores predicted higher early-onset any dementia risk across the statistical models; arithmetic and visuospatial ability scores were similarly associated with early-onset any dementia risk, but these associations weakened after covariate adjustments (HR per 1 SD disadvantage >1.57, 95% CI 0.96-2.57). All associations were rendered nonsignificant when we adjusted for participant's education. Cognitive ability did not predict late-onset dementia risk.
IQ  dementia 
5 weeks ago
PDF - MDMA + Psychotherapy for PTSD
Really effective in this phase 2 trial. > s Between Nov 10, 2010, and Jan 29, 2015, 26 veterans and first responders met eligibility criteria and were randomly assigned to receive 30 mg (n=7), 75 mg (n=7), or 125 mg (n=12) of MDMA plus psychotherapy. At the primary endpoint, the 75 mg and 125 mg groups had significantly greater decreases in PTSD symptom severity (mean change CAPS-IV total scores of –58·3 [SD 9·8] and –44·3 [28·7]; p=0·001) than the 30 mg group (–11·4 [12·7]). Compared with the 30 mg group, Cohen’s d effect sizes were large: 2·8 (95% CI 1·19–4·39) for the 75 mg group and 1·1 (0·04–2·08) for the 125 mg group. In the open-label crossover with full-dose MDMA (100–125 mg), PTSD symptom severity significantly decreased in the group that had previously received 30 mg (p=0·01), whereas no further significant decreases were observed in the group that previously achieved a large response after 75 mg doses in the blinded segment (p=0·81). PTSD symptoms were significantly reduced at the 12-month follow-up compared with baseline after all groups had fulldose MDMA (mean CAPS-IV total score of 38·8 [SD 28·1] vs 87·1 [16·1]; p<0·0001).
PTSD  MDMA  therapy 
5 weeks ago
Maternal Type 1 Diabetes and Risk of Autism in Offspring | JAMA | JAMA Network
> Maternal preexisting type 2 diabetes (T2D) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosed by 26 weeks’ gestation have been associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring.1 However, little is known about ASD risk associated with maternal preexisting type 1 diabetes (T1D). We extend previous observations by examining the risk of ASD in offspring associated with maternal T1D, T2D, and GDM
autism  diabetes 
5 weeks ago
Oral Tecovirimat for the Treatment of Smallpox | NEJM
If you can't do human trials for a legit reason, you can do them in animals instead and get FDA approval via the Animal Rule.
> Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980, but variola virus (VARV), which causes smallpox, still exists. There is no known effective treatment for smallpox; therefore, tecovirimat is being developed as an oral smallpox therapy. Because clinical trials in a context of natural disease are not possible, an alternative developmental path to evaluate efficacy and safety was needed.

METHODS
We investigated the efficacy of tecovirimat in nonhuman primate (monkeypox) and rabbit (rabbitpox) models in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Animal Efficacy Rule, which was interpreted for smallpox therapeutics by an expert advisory committee. We also conducted a placebo-controlled pharmacokinetic and safety trial involving 449 adult volunteers
smallpox  virus  fda 
5 weeks ago
Color - Wikipedia
> While most humans are trichromatic (having three types of color receptors), many animals, known as tetrachromats, have four types. These include some species of spiders, most marsupials, birds, reptiles, and many species of fish. Other species are sensitive to only two axes of color or do not perceive color at all; these are called dichromats and monochromats respectively. A distinction is made between retinal tetrachromacy (having four pigments in cone cells in the retina, compared to three in trichromats) and functional tetrachromacy (having the ability to make enhanced color discriminations based on that retinal difference). As many as half of all women are retinal tetrachromats.[13]:p.256 The phenomenon arises when an individual receives two slightly different copies of the gene for either the medium- or long-wavelength cones, which are carried on the X chromosome. To have two different genes, a person must have two X chromosomes, which is why the phenomenon only occurs in women.
color  psychology  perception  genetics 
5 weeks ago
DE MORVEAU, GUYTON (1737 - 1816), et al
> The Méthode de Nomenclature Chimique was the result of eight months of intensive work by four French chemists, Guyton de Morveau, Lavoisier, Berthollet, and Fourcroy, who met almost daily from the middle of 1786 until its publication in 1787. Before this work, the same substance might have as many as 12 different names, mostly having no relation to the thing. The main object of the Nomenclature was to present a systematic view of Lavoisier's new system of chemistry and to propose a more rational system of naming chemical compounds. The older nomenclature was characterized by names such as powder of algaroth, oil of tartar, salt of alembroth, pompholix, and many others, which often bore little or no relation to the substance's chemical constitution. In contrast, the Nomenclature introduced names such as hydrogen, oxygen, sodium chloride, and ferric sulfate, which are still in use today.
chemistry  history  science 
5 weeks ago
Arno Schmidt - Wikipedia
> Schmidt was a strict individualist, almost a solipsist. Disaffected by his experience of the Third Reich, he had an extremely pessimistic world view. In Schwarze Spiegel, he describes his utopia as an empty world after an anthropogenic apocalypse. Although he was not a deist in the conventional sense, he maintained that the world was created by a monster called Leviathan, whose predatory nature was passed on to humans. Still, he thought this monster could not be too powerful to be attacked, if it behooved humanity.
fiction  germany  20th  leviathon 
5 weeks ago
Pleminia (gens) - Wikipedia
What if your family was known for this. > The gens Pleminia was a minor plebeian family at ancient Rome. The only member of this gens mentioned in history is Quintus Pleminius, infamous for his outrageous conduct at Locri during the Second Punic War
history  rome  plebian  patrician 
5 weeks ago
Patisiran, an RNAi Therapeutic, for Hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis | NEJM
> The mean (±SD) baseline Norfolk QOL-DN score was 59.6±28.2 in the patisiran group and 55.5±24.3 in the placebo group; the least-squares mean (±SE) change from baseline was −6.7±1.8 versus 14.4±2.7 (difference, −21.1 points; P<0.001) at 18 months
RNAi  amyloidosis  transthyretin 
5 weeks ago
Aestivation - Wikipedia
> Although relatively uncommon, a small number of mammals aestivate.[16] Animal physiologist Kathrin Dausmann of Philipps University of Marburg, Germany, and coworkers presented evidence in a 2004 edition of Nature that the Malagasy fat-tailed dwarf lemur hibernates or aestivates in a small tree hole for seven months of the year.[17] According to the Oakland Zoo in California, East African hedgehogs are thought to aestivate during the dry season.[18]
metabolism  animals 
5 weeks ago
Iron law of oligarchy - Wikipedia
> Michels' theory states that all complex organizations, regardless of how democratic they are when started, eventually develop into oligarchies. Michels observed that since no sufficiently large and complex organization can function purely as a direct democracy, power within an organization will always get delegated to individuals within that group, elected or otherwise.
politics  law  life  sociology 
5 weeks ago
World Models
> Most existing model-based RL[29, 30] approaches learn a model of the RL environment, but still train on the actual environment. Here, we also explore fully replacing an actual RL environment with a generated one, training our agent’s controller only inside of the environment generated by its own internal world model, and transfer this policy back into the actual environment.

To overcome the problem of an agent exploiting imperfections of the generated environments, we adjust a temperature parameter of internal world model to control the amount of uncertainty of the generated environments. We train an agent’s controller inside of a noisier and more uncertain version of its generated environment, and demonstrate that this approach helps prevent our agent from taking advantage of the imperfections of its internal world model.
world_models  neural_networks  reinforcement 
6 weeks ago
Adam Gazzaley, MD, PhD: Developing Prescribable Video Games | Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders | JAMA | JAMA Network
> If approved, Gazzaley says AKL-T01, potentially marketed as EVO, will be the first nondrug prescription therapy for ADHD, not to mention the first-ever prescribable video game. Another version of EVO, AKL-T02, is in early trials for comorbid ADHD in children with autism.

Gazzaley, who is a professor of neurology, physiology, and psychiatry at UCSF—and a lifelong gamer—recently spoke with JAMA about digital medicines for the brain.
video_games  psychiatry  adhd 
6 weeks ago
'Conjunctival Icterus,' Not 'Scleral Icterus' | JAMA | JAMA Network
> The expression "scleral icterus" generally used by physicians is grossly incorrect. For decades, physical diagnosis primers have cued medical students to look for "scleral icterus" in the patient with jaundice; the standard medical textbooks perpetuate this term. Specifically, several texts authoritatively state that jaundice can be detected in the sclera at a plasma bilirubin concentration of approximately 2 mg/dL.We have studied histological sections of globes from patients with clinical jaundice, including cases of biliary obstruction and Wilson's disease. We found that of all ocular tissues, the least amount of bilirubin staining is seen in the scleral stroma. In the case of Wilson's disease we studied, the plasma bilirubin concentration reached 60 mg/dL and the degree of clinical jaundice was most remarkable, yet almost no bilirubin pigment was present in the sclera. It is the conjunctiva, a mucous membrane rich in stromal vessels, that turns yellow, not
physical_exam  jaundice 
6 weeks ago
Psychogenic itch
> Think of Nanni Morretti film “Caro Diaro” (Dear Diary): In this movie, the patient was misdiagnosed with psychogenic itch for many years and then finally diagnosed with Hodgkin’s disease.
lymphoma  itch  psychiatry  dermatology 
6 weeks ago
Highlights From The Comments On Piketty | Slate Star Codex
Wealth inequality is much larger and more important than income inequality, in the past and now. > When rate of return on capital is persistently higher than economic growth, wealth inequality tends to be became entrenched and inherited, unless special circumstances, like wealthy people consuming or giving away giant portions of their fortunes, apply. This is true by definition, and thus not very interesting. Piketty however claims that this is the case now in the EU as well as in the US, and has been since at least 80s, although it definitely wasn´t the case in first half of 20th century.
inequality  2018  piketty  wealth  income  economics  history 
6 weeks ago
Finding The Famous Painting of the Blue People of Kentucky | DNA Science Blog
> The blue people of Troublesome Creek had methemoglobinemia, a metabolic condition affecting hemoglobin, the four-part protein that carries oxygen bound to an iron atom at each subunit’s core. Like my recent post about the deaf community on Martha’s Vineyard, it is a tale of an autosomal recessive disease that has dissipated over time as the descendants of the original carrier couple left home. The community in Chilmark so embraced the hearing impaired among them that everyone used their own local form of sign language. The Kentucky families did not experience such acceptance, according to the sparse literature on them. Their blue hue was a genetic badge of inbreeding
methemoglobinemia  skin_color  genetics 
6 weeks ago
Raincoats_George comments on Family of baby treated at hospital with bottle of formula gets $18G bill: report
> But when you know all this it changes your perception. I had a coworker come in that had flipped his mustang. He was banged up and bruised. He refused ems and had a friend drive him over. He was getting his vitals and knew to vagal down to get his pulse rate lower. Obviously he was in shock a bit and his pulse rate was higher. He did it so he didn't activate trauma criteria and get the big bill. If we are being honest. I don't blame him one bit. I'm not saying he would have gotten that whole system activated. It's not like all trauma gets that. You can break your arm and we won't do it. You don't need it. But the fact that he was so willing to avoid activating the system because he know the cost is so telling of Healthcare billing in America. It's fucked.

Nobody should ever have to go bankrupt because of their care. Ever.

But anyways that's today's lesson on trauma centers. I bet a number of you have been through this (or whatever variation your local trauma centers use).
trauma  medicine  cost  2018  vagal 
6 weeks ago
Heroin - Wikipedia
> The head of Bayer's research department reputedly coined the drug's new name, "heroin," based on the German heroisch, which means "heroic, strong" (from the ancient Greek word "heros, ήρως"). Bayer scientists were not the first to make heroin, but their scientists discovered ways to make it, and Bayer led commercialization of heroin.[75]

In 1895, the German drug company Bayer marketed diacetylmorphine as an over-the-counter drug under the trademark name Heroin.[76] It was developed chiefly as a morphine substitute for cough suppressants that did not have morphine's addictive side-effects. Morphine at the time was a popular recreational drug, and Bayer wished to find a similar but non-addictive substitute to market. However, contrary to Bayer's advertising as a "non-addictive morphine substitute," heroin would soon have one of the highest rates of addiction among its users.[77]
opioid  heroin  addiction  history  morphine 
6 weeks ago
Bodybuilders' body composition: effect of nandrolone decanoate. - PubMed - NCBI
> The use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) among bodybuilders to increase muscle mass is widespread. Nandrolone decanoate (ND) is one of the most popular misused AAS, although the effects on body composition are equivocal ... The results show that the administration of 200 mg.wk(-1) of ND (intramuscularly) for 8 wk significantly increased body mass and FFM, whereas fat mass, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and the hydration of the FFM remained unaffected. These data indicate that the changes can be attributed to an increase of muscle mass
RCT  anabolic  steroids  muscles  decanoate 
6 weeks ago
Methaqualone - Wikipedia
> Methaqualone, sold under the brand name Quaalude (pronounced KWAY-lood) and sometimes stylized "Quāālude"[1] in the United States and Mandrax in the United Kingdom and South Africa, is a sedative and hypnotic medication. It is a member of the quinazolinone class.

The sedative–hypnotic activity of methaqualone was first noted by researchers in the 1950s. In 1962, methaqualone was patented in the US by Wallace and Tiernan.[2] Its use peaked in the early 1970s as a hypnotic, for the treatment of insomnia, and as a sedative and muscle relaxant.

Methaqualone became increasingly popular as a recreational drug and club drug in the late 1960s and 1970s, known variously as "ludes" or "sopers" (also "soaps") in the U.S. and "mandrakes" and "mandies" in the UK, Australia and New Zealand. The substance is sold both as a free base and as an ammonium salt (hydrochloride).
toxicology  drugs  1970s  hypnotic 
6 weeks ago
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