6490
Phenome-wide heritability analysis of the UK Biobank
> Intriguingly, greater heritability was observed among men for the personality trait of miserableness.
heritability  genomics 
2 days ago
Really fascinating to see : neuro
> The entire timelapse spans 16 hours, and you can see sensory neurons send their branches out from the spinal cord across the entire fish, keeping their cell bodies in the same place. These will allow the fish to sense touch. Most of the cells of this fish’s body are invisible, so you can imagine these branches squeezing their way through tens of thousands of cells to reach their targets.
neuroscience  zebrafish  video  development 
3 days ago
Microsoft Word - name Al-Anon.doc
> Approximately 57 responses were received. Some groups suggested names they were already
calling themselves such as, AA Associates, AA Auxiliary, Non-AA, Triple A, Women's Auxiliary of AA,
Friendship, AA Helpmates, Twelfth Step Auxiliary. The majority, however, favored the AA Family Group
name, which Lois and the Committee changed to "Al-Anon" which is a contraction of the two words.
Alcoholics Anonymous.
This decision came about when AA objected to the use of the letters "AA" in the name of the
national association of non-alcoholics since their Sixth Tradition stated that an AA group ought never lend
the AA name to any related facility or outside enterprise.
The hyphen was included because there are, in many locations in the U.S. and Canada, AA Clubhouses
that call themselves Alanon or Alano. The hyphen also identifies Al-Anon as a distinct organization.
AA  addiction  alcohol  etymology 
4 days ago
Ascent to Altitude as a Weight Loss Method: The Good and Bad of Hypoxia Inducible Factor Activation
> Disease states such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer are conditions where there is a persistent loss of appetite with an increase in energy expenditure. Another situation in which weight loss is accompanied by appetite suppression and increased energy expenditure is when otherwise healthy subjects are taken to altitude. While the cause of weight loss in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer is complex and multifactorial, a feature these diseases share in common with normal subjects exposed to altitude is hypoxia (1). At altitude hypoxia is secondary to the reduction in barometric pressure causing a decrease in the inspired partial pressure of oxygen whereas hypoxia is due to parenchymal lung injury in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Hypoxia in cancer patients is more localized and results from tumor growth outstripping its vascular supply (2).

This review will examine the physiologic response to hypoxia and focus on those mechanisms which may contribute to weight loss in these otherwise disparate conditions. Several points will be emphasized. First, hypobaric hypoxia facilitates weight reduction not only by suppressing appetite but also by increasing energy expenditure. Second, up-regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) mediates the loss in weight, change in energetics, and
weight_loss  altitude  cancer  HIF  hypoxia 
4 days ago
80,000 Hours thinks that only a small proportion of people should earn to give long term - 80,000 Hours
> To get a sense of this, I surveyed the 80,000 Hours team on the following question: “At this point in time, and on the margin, what portion of altruistically motivated graduates from a good university, who are open to pursuing any career path, should aim to earn to give in the long term?” (Please note that this is just a straw poll used as a way of addressing the misconception stated; it doesn’t represent a definitive answer to this question).

Will: 15%
Ben: 20%
Rob: 10%
Roman: 15%

Instead, we think that most people should be doing things like politics, policy, high-value research, for-profit and non-profit entrepreneurship, and direct work for highly socially valuable organizations.
career  post_mdphd 
5 days ago
Here's What Happened When Japan Renamed Schizophrenia | AllPsych Blog
> So JSPN decided to rename the disorder. After all, it couldn’t possibly make the situation any worse. Starting in late 2002, schizophrenia became known as Togo Shitcho Sho (“integration disorder”) in Japan.

Over the next few months, the new term spread rapidly through the psychiatric profession. Within seven months, 78 percent of psychiatrists in Japan were using it.

As usage of the new term grew, it got easier to tell people about their diagnosis. Thirteen months out, 86 percent of doctors surveyed said they found it easier to communicate with their patients using the new term.
schizophrenia  names  japan  psychiatry 
6 days ago
Microglia Play an Active Role in Obesity-Associated Cognitive Decline | Journal of Neuroscience
> Obesity affects >600 million people worldwide, a staggering number that appears to be on the rise. One of the lesser known consequences of obesity is its deleterious effects on cognition, which have been well documented across many cognitive domains and age groups. To investigate the cellular mechanisms that underlie obesity-associated cognitive decline, we used diet-induced obesity in male mice and found memory impairments along with reductions in dendritic spines, sites of excitatory synapses, increases in the activation of microglia, the brain's resident immune cells, and increases in synaptic profiles within microglia, in the hippocampus, a brain region linked to cognition. We found that partial knockdown of the receptor for fractalkine, a chemokine that can serve as a "find me" cue for microglia, prevented microglial activation and cognitive decline induced by obesity.
microglia  obesity  cognition 
6 days ago
Large Majorities Dislike Political Correctness - The Atlantic
> According to the report, 25 percent of Americans are traditional or devoted conservatives, and their views are far outside the American mainstream. Some 8 percent of Americans are progressive activists, and their views are even less typical. By contrast, the two-thirds of Americans who don’t belong to either extreme constitute an “exhausted majority.” Their members “share a sense of fatigue with our polarized national conversation, a willingness to be flexible in their political viewpoints, and a lack of voice in the national conversation.”

Most members of the “exhausted majority,” and then some, dislike political correctness. Among the general population, a full 80 percent believe that “political correctness is a problem in our country.” Even young people are uncomfortable with it, including 74 percent ages 24 to 29, and 79 percent under age 24. On this particular issue, the woke are in a clear minority across all ages.
politically_correct  poll  2018  US  politics 
6 days ago
The varieties of material existence
> For the past decade or so, when friends ask me what is the most exciting thing happening in science, one of the subjects I often burble about excitedly is quantum matter – very roughly, the emerging field in which we’re engineering entirely new states of matter, with intrinsically quantum mechanical properties. It turns out there’s far more types of matter, with far weirder properties, than people ever dreamed of.

I’m not an expert on quantum matter, I only follow it from afar. Yet what I see makes me suspect something really profound and exciting is going on, something that may, in the decades and centuries to come, change our conception of what matter is.
quantum  michael_nielsen  physics  future 
7 days ago
Distill is dedicated to making machine learning clear and dynamic
> The web is a powerful medium to share new ways of thinking. Over the last few years we’ve seen many imaginative examples of such work. But traditional academic publishing remains focused on the PDF, which prevents this sort of communication.

Reactive diagrams allow for a type of communication not possible in static mediums. Hover over this diagram to see how a neural turing machine shifts its attention over its old memory values to create new values.
publishing  academic  pdf  internet 
7 days ago
Against Depression – Dervala.com
> It’s been more than a year since I got sick, and eight months since I got better. Every day I think of the scientists who mashed up rat brains to create the drugs that brought me back to life, and I’m grateful. And I wish more people could shuck that hollow shell.
depression  science 
7 days ago
Transhumanism: A Secular Sandbox for Exploring the Afterlife? - Science Not Fiction : Science Not Fiction
> Worth noticing amidst the rancor is a recent result by friend and colleague Konrad Kording, who just showed that the number of neurons that we can simultaneously record from is following Moore’s Law. Not long ago, we were limited to recording the activity of a single brain cell at a time; more recently, we can record from several hundred at once. When you examine the trend over 56 different studies, Kording and his student showed that the number is doubling every seven years. Although this is a longer interval than Moore’s Law (two year doublings), what’s really important is that the growth is exponential. Exponential growth lies at the heart of the arguments for the nearness of the Singularity. Given Kording’s result, however, how long do you think it will be before we can record from every neuron in the brain at once? You might be surprised: even with this incredible exponential growth, it will take 220 years.
konrad_kording  moores_law  neuroscience 
9 days ago
Association of Apathy With Risk of Incident Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis | Dementia and Cognitive Impairment | JAMA Psychiatry | JAMA Network
> Apathy was associated with an approximately 2-fold increased risk of dementia in memory clinic patients. Moderate publication bias may have inflated some of these estimates. Apathy deserves more attention as a relevant, cheap, noninvasive, and easily measureable marker of increased risk of incident dementia with high clinical relevance, particularly because these vulnerable patients may forgo health care.
dementia  apathy  psychiatry 
11 days ago
Effect of Increased Daily Water Intake in Premenopausal Women With Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections: A Randomized Clinical Trial | Urology | JAMA Internal Medicine | JAMA Network
> Maybe for the best. An open-label RCT of 140 women with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and poor water intake (< 1.5L daily) found that increasing drinking water reduced subsequent UTIs. Participants randomized to add 1.5L of water to their usual daily intake had an average of 1.7 UTIs per year compared to 3.2 in patients with no additional fluid intake. The benefits are thought to spring from flushing and dilution of bacteria in the urinary tract.
UTI  water  fluids 
11 days ago
Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: A proof-of-concept study - Michael P Bogenschutz, Alyssa A Forcehimes, Jessica A Pommy, Claire E Wilcox, PCR Barbosa, Rick J Strassman, 2015
> Abstinence did not increase significantly in the first 4 weeks of treatment (when participants had not yet received psilocybin), but increased significantly following psilocybin administration (p < 0.05). Gains were largely maintained at follow-up to 36 weeks. The intensity of effects in the first psilocybin session (at week 4) strongly predicted change in drinking during weeks 5–8 (r = 0.76 to r = 0.89) and also predicted decreases in craving and increases in abstinence self-efficacy during week 5.
Psilocybin  alcohol  addiction 
12 days ago
the mass defunding of higher education that’s yet to come
> Many, I can say with great confidence, would reply to the poll above with glee. They would tell you that they don’t want the support of Republicans. There’s little attempt to grapple with the simple, pragmatic realities of political power and how it threatens vulnerable institutions whose funding is in doubt. That’s because there is no professional or social incentive in the academy to think strategically or to understand that there is a world beyond campus. Instead, all of the incentives point towards constantly affirming one’s position in the moral aristocracy that the academy has imagined itself as. The less one spends on concerns about how the university and its subsidiary departments function in our broader society, the greater one’s performed fealty to the presumed righteousness of the communal values. I cannot imagine a professional culture less equipped to deal with a crisis than that of academics in the humanities and social sciences and the current threats of today. The Iron Law of Institutions defines the modern university, and what moves someone up the professional ranks within a given field is precisely the type of studied indifference to any concerns that originate outside of the campus walls.
academia  education  government  fredie_deboer  politics 
13 days ago
Vasili Arkhipov - Wikipedia
> Vasili Alexandrovich Arkhipov was a Soviet Navy officer credited with casting the single vote that prevented a Soviet nuclear strike (and, presumably, all-out nuclear war) during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Such an attack likely would have caused a major global thermonuclear response which Noam Chomsky described as could have destroyed much of the world.[1] As flotilla commander and second-in-command of the diesel powered submarine B-59, only Arkhipov refused to authorize the captain's use of nuclear torpedoes against the United States Navy, a decision requiring the agreement of all three senior officers aboard. In 2002 Thomas Blanton, who was then director of the US National Security Archive, said that Arkhipov "saved the world".[2]
war  nuclear  russia  history 
13 days ago
Relics: Einstein's Brain - Wikipedia
> Because of its somewhat absurd premise and execution, Einstein's Brain's veracity has often been questioned. The notion of a brain of such fame being misplaced and subsequently found by an eccentric Japanese professor has by many been found too outrageous to be true, but aside from the regular narrativization of material found in documentaries, very little actually indicates forgery.

Kai Michel's article " Wo ist Einsteins Denkorgan?" ("Where is Einstein's Brain?"), published by Die Zeit in December 2004, shows just how easy it is to assume the film is a forgery. This article revolves around professor Michael Hagner of ETH Zürich, who after showing a group of students the film in question informs them that this is all fiction and that Kenji Sugimoto is a character. But after a phone call to a colleague he is informed that Sugimoto in fact is real, and that truth in fact is stranger than fiction. Or as Hagner himself puts it, "Nichts ist absurder als die Realität".
brain_preservation  einstein  history  film  documentary 
17 days ago
Effect of Digital Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia on Health, Psychological Well-being, and Sleep-Related Quality of Life: A Randomized Clinical Trial | Neurology | JAMA Psychiatry | JAMA Network
> Use of dCBT is effective in improving functional health, psychological well-being, and sleep-related quality of life in people reporting insomnia symptoms. A reduction in insomnia symptoms mediates these improvements. These results confirm that dCBT improves both daytime and nighttime aspects of insomnia, strengthening existing recommendations of CBT as the treatment of choice for insomnia.
CBT  therapy  digital_therapy  insomnia  sleep 
17 days ago
Astrocytic Activation Generates De Novo Neuronal Potentiation and Memory Enhancement: Cell
> Furthermore, astrocytic activation using either a chemogenetic or an optogenetic tool during acquisition resulted in memory recall enhancement on the following day. Conversely, directly increasing neuronal activity resulted in dramatic memory impairment. Our findings that astrocytes induce plasticity and enhance memory may have important clinical implications for cognitive augmentation treatments.
memory  astrocytes 
20 days ago
The CeNGEN Project: The Complete Gene Expression Map of an Entire Nervous System: Neuron
> The National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) has decided to fill this gap by funding the CeNGEN project. CeNGEN will detail, with high accuracy, all protein-coding and regulatory RNA (miRNA)-encoding genes expressed in each of the 118 classes of neurons of the C. elegans hermaphrodite as well as selected neurons in the male.
c_elegans  transcriptomics 
20 days ago
How 3.4 million chickens drowned in Hurricane Florence - Vox
> There are economic incentives not to care too much about one batch of birds. Birds raised for meat are killed when they’re about six weeks old. Most improvements that would reduce the risk of events like this simply wouldn’t be economically worthwhile. Because of the scale at which factory farming happens, 3 million chickens drowning — or 30 million killed for disease containment — barely registers.

Should anyone care? It’s not clear that drowning is a worse death for chickens than standard methods of slaughter. But there are lots of reasons for concern about the general changes to the industry which have increased the scale of the industry so drastically and concentrated animals onto so few farms.
kelsey_piper  economics  suffering  ethics 
21 days ago
Obesity and Influenza A Shedding | Infectious Diseases | JAMA | JAMA Network
> The researchers monitored 1783 people in 320 households in Managua, Nicaragua, during 3 flu seasons, 2015 to 2017. Symptomatic obese adults shed influenza A virus 42% longer—about an additional 1½ days—than nonobese adults. Even among infected adults with few or no symptoms, those with obesity shed the virus twice as long as those who were not obese. Obesity leads to chronic inflammation, which could alter influenza transmission potential, the authors wrote.
influenza  obesity  inflammation 
21 days ago
OT111: Ophion Thread | Slate Star Codex
> I get really annoyed when anti-NIMBYists smugly pretend to have economics on their side (as if economics was some kind of rigorously quantitative field, as opposed to ‘astrology for dudes’). Again, more supply only reduces average rents *with the same level of demand*. But if the Bay Area is the most attractive place in the US to live for young techbros, more apartments simply means more people can live there- completely negating any type of pricing advantage.

2. I want anti-NIMBYists to think carefully about the overall future of the US- not just their favorite city. Having all of our financial, technological, and cultural elites living in like 4 cities is *the* recipe for massive regional inequality- I’m pretty sure that’s like the literal plot of the Hunger Games. What becomes of the 99% of the country that’s not the Bay Area/NYC/LA? Why can’t we achieve our affordable housing goals by spreading white collar employers into Phoenix and Charlotte, Miami and Denver, Houston and Chicago…. I’m confused by liberal types who are nominally horrified by wealth inequality, yet want all of our nation’s wealth and social/technical capital to be concentrated in 1% of our physical geography.
inequality  economics  US  2018  cities 
21 days ago
Octopuses on ecstasy just want a cuddle : Research Highlights
> After absorbing the drug, the animals ignored toys, such as Star Wars figurines, that would normally have intrigued them. Instead, the octopuses socialized and spent more time touching one another with their arms than these creatures usually do.

The findings suggest that serotonin played an important part in social behaviour in the common ancestor of octopuses and vertebrates, whose branches on the family tree separated more than 500 million years ago.
MDMA  octopus  serotonin 
22 days ago
Impaired Recent, but Preserved Remote, Autobiographical Memory in Pediatric Brain Tumor Patients | Journal of Neuroscience
> We report that radiotherapy treatment impairs the ability to form new autobiographical memories, but spares preoperatively acquired autobiographical memories. Reductions in hippocampal volume and cortical volume in regions of the recollection network appear to contribute to this pattern of preserved preoperative, but impaired postoperative, memory. These findings have significant implications for understanding disrupted mnemonic processing in the medial temporal lobe memory system and in the broader recollection network, which are inadvertently affected by standard treatment methods for medulloblastoma tumors in children.
memory  hippocampus 
24 days ago
Treating The Prodrome | Slate Star Codex
> This theory fits the “duration of untreated psychosis” model very well. The longer you’re psychotic, with weird prediction errors popping up everywhere, the more thoroughly your brain is going to shift from its normal mode of evidence-processing to whatever mode of evidence-processing best suits receiving lots of random data. If you start antipsychotics as soon as the prediction errors start, you’ll have a few weird thoughts about how a buzzing fly might have been a sign from God, but then the weirdness will stop and you’ll end up okay. If you start antipsychotics after ten years of this kind of stuff, your brain will already have concluded that the world only makes sense in the context of a magic-wielding conspiracy plus also normal logic doesn’t work, and the sudden cessation of new weirdness won’t change that.
schizophrenia  prodrome  plasticity  neuroscience  scott_alexander 
26 days ago
Penetrance and pleiotropy of polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia in 90,000 patients across three healthcare systems | bioRxiv
> PRSs were robustly associated with schizophrenia (odds ratio per standard deviation increase in PRS = 1.65 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-1.8], p = 1.25 x 10-16) and patients in the highest risk decile of the PRS distribution had a four-fold increased odds of schizophrenia compared to those in the bottom decile (95% CI, 2.4-6.5, p = 4.43 x 10-8).
schizophrenia  genetics 
28 days ago
Association of Clinical Specialty With Symptoms of Burnout and Career Choice Regret Among US Resident Physicians | Depressive Disorders | JAMA | JAMA Network
> In a multivariable analysis, training in urology, neurology, emergency medicine, and general surgery were associated with higher relative risks (RRs) of reported symptoms of burnout (range of RRs, 1.24 to 1.48) relative to training in internal medicine.
burnout  residency 
28 days ago
Extrapolating the Eat Beef, Not Chicken argument. : slatestarcodex
> For instance it is estimated that around 50-100 billion farm animals are slaughtered every year around 90% of those are probably chicken. The number of birds in the wild is probably around 200-400 billion. Number of all mammals is probably around one trillion. Number of fish is probably higher than 10 trillion and so forth. Multiply these numbers as many species have short lifespan so you have tens of trillions of wild animals living and dying throughout the year.

People absolutely underestimate the overall horribleness of wild animal life. Vast majority of them do not get to become sexually mature dying of diseases, malnutrition, predators and other causes. Speaking of predators these are literally inhumane. I remember that Planet Earth caught some flak from showing some disturbing footage about snakes hunting some lizards. The response of show producers was surprise as they censored some truly horrible footage which is absolutely normal in nature and that does not get to be shown on the TV for obvious reasons. If you have a stomach for it watch this video of hyena eating a bull alive to understand what I mean.
ethics  morality  animals  suffering  wild_animal  birds 
4 weeks ago
Genome-wide association study of suicide attempt in psychiatric disorders identifies association with major depression polygenic risk scores | bioRxiv
> Results: Three genome-wide significant loci for [suicide attempts] were found: one associated with [suicide attempts] in MDD, one in BIP, and one in the meta-analysis of SA in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with SA in MDD (P=0.0002), BIP (P=0.0006) and SCZ (P=0.0006). Conclusions: This study provides new information on genetic associations and the genetic etiology of SA across psychiatric disorders. The finding that polygenic risk scores for major depression predict suicide attempt across disorders provide a possible starting point for predictive modelling and preventative strategies. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size hold potential to robustly identify genetic associations and gain biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.
suicide  MDD  genetics 
4 weeks ago
Cancer-Related Fatigue: How To Overcome It (Especially If You’re A High Achiever)
> Ribose: 5 grams three times a day — Ribose is a sugar that is the backbone to ATP, the energy molecule of our bodies. I use the Nutricost brand, but you can also consider the Bulk Supplements brand, which is a little cheaper and also worked fine for me
supplements  fibromyalgia  cancer  fatigue  exercise  quantified_self 
4 weeks ago
Mast Cells in the Developing Brain Determine Adult Sexual Behavior | Journal of Neuroscience
> Treatment of newborn females with a masculinizing dose of estradiol increased mast cell number and induced mast cells to release histamine, which then stimulated microglia to release prostaglandins and thereby induced male-typical synaptic patterning. These findings identify a novel non-neuronal origin of brain sex differences and resulting motivated behaviors.
sex  immune_system  immunology  mast_cells  microglia 
4 weeks ago
The earliest known drawing in history sends a message through 73,000 years
> That the early Homo sapiens living there were able to produce such designs suggests they possessed relatively ‘modern’ cognition and behaviour. What we cannot know is why they made the marks, or what they represent; unlike images of animals or hands, the drawing’s abstract nature offers no clues. And that raises a fascinating question about the history of art. Whereas the humans living in South Africa 100,000 years ago were using technology as yet undreamed of elsewhere, they had yet to invent figurative art. So, are the cave paintings of Lascaux and Sulawesi unconnected, independent inventions, or did modern humans create cave art somewhere else along the way, and then take it with them as they moved through the world?
history  art  archeology 
4 weeks ago
Carbonated Beverages | Dysphagia Ramblings
> Carbonation is a sensory option for dysphagia rehabilitation.   It’s effective through a process called chemesthesis, where the “bubbly” or “fizzy” of the carbonated beverage acts as a Trigeminal irritant.  The Trigeminal Nerve or Cranial Nerve V is one of the major swallowing nerves.  The Trigeminal Nerve has bare nerve endings making it more susceptible to sensory or afferent input.

Rather than acting as a nectar thick liquid, the carbonated beverage actually increases the sensory stimulation for the swallow.  Sensory input (afferent drive) drives the motoric output (efferent drive).
carbonation  dysphagia  swallowing  esophagus 
5 weeks ago
Platform screen doors - Wikipedia
> In 1987, the Singapore MRT was the first metro system in the world to incorporate glass PSDs into its stations for safety reasons, rather than due to architectural constraints.[1] All underground stations on all lines have these doors installed since their opening, and above-ground stations were retrofitted with the doors by 2011. The design of the doors themselves differ depending on their installation location and time (see below). Hong Kong's MTR was the first metro system in the world to retrofit PSDs on a transit station already in operation.
train 
5 weeks ago
Frontiers | Targeting Procrastination Using Psychological Treatments: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis | Psychology
Could be a useful/popular app that specifically uses the well-validated techniques shown to decrease procrastination. > A total of 1,639 records were identified, with 12 studies (21 comparisons, N = 718) being included in the quantitative synthesis. Overall effect size g when comparing treatment to control was 0.34, 95% Confidence Interval [0.11, 0.56], but revealing significant heterogeneity, Q(20) = 46.99, p < 0.00, and I2 = 61.14%, 95% CI [32.83, 84.24]. Conducting a subgroup analysis of three out of four studies using cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) found an effect size g of 0.55, 95% CI [0.32, 0.77], and no longer showing any heterogeneity
CBT  therapy  procrastination 
5 weeks ago
DEC2 modulates orexin expression and regulates sleep. - PubMed - NCBI
Familial natural short sleepers (FNSS) - only need 4-6 hours per sleep. One gene has been identified as mutated in these people. > We previously identified a missense mutation in the human DEC2 gene (BHLHE41) leading to the familial natural short sleep behavioral trait. DEC2 is a transcription factor regulating the circadian clock in mammals, although its role in sleep regulation has been unclear. Here we report that prepro-orexin, also known as hypocretin (Hcrt), gene expression is increased in the mouse model expressing the mutant hDEC2 transgene (hDEC2-P384R).
sleep  UCSF  mutation  genetics 
5 weeks ago
Social death - Wikipedia
> Social death is the condition of people not accepted as fully human by wider society. It is used by sociologists such as Zygmunt Bauman and historians of slavery and the Holocaust to describe the part played by governmental and social segregation in that process.[1][2] Examples of social death are:

Racial and gender exclusion, persecution, slavery, and apartheid.[3][4][5]
Governments can exclude individuals or groups from society. Examples: Protestant minority groups in early modern Europe; ostracism in Ancient Athens; criminals; prostitutes, outlaws[6][7]
Institutionalization and segregation of those labeled with a mental illness.
Change in the identity of an individual. This was a major theme during the Renaissance.
stigma  history 
5 weeks ago
Basic, Translational and Clinical Research: What the heck is the difference and how do I pick one?
> Many physicians are doing translational research! Translational research is for curious individuals who are equally eager to apply knowledge in the design of a new therapy. These individuals often are pragmatic, less concerned with theory and more with result. Oftentimes, translational research will overlap with fields of engineering and pharmacology. Doing translational research can provide promise of something that can potentially be game-changing in medicine and is highly appealing for that reason. Many people also are enticed by going through the extensive process that requires screening, validation and ultimate application of therapies to humans. In many ways, translational research is all about this process. However, be warned: very, very few therapies actually make it to humans!
research  clinical_trial  translational 
5 weeks ago
DeWitt’s “The Last Samurai” Cultivates Ambition in its Readers
> Sibylla’s response reads like a defense of DeWitt’s own endeavor: “There is an obvious difference,” she tells her child, “between someone who works within the technical limitations of his time which are beyond his control and someone who accepts without thinking limitations which are entirely within his own power to set aside.”
helen_dewitt  novel  book_review  ambition 
5 weeks ago
Links 8/18: URLin Wall : slatestarcodex
> One of the questions is not why Hitler got so popular all of a sudden but why he was so *un*popular before. Of course a part of it is that the country wasn't pissed off enough for a populist type, but there also seems to be a marked quality difference in speeches before and after, say, 1928. Before it, Hitler's speeches come off as more ranting, unfocused and generally bad - there's more of rants about Jews, and it's kind of hard to see who he's trying to appeal to.
At some point, it's obvious that Hitler makes an effort to - there's no other words - moderate his approach. The Jews thing goes on a backburner and Hitler even tries a few classic populist maneuvers, such as hinting to what he's getting at, having someone from the crowd shout that the Jews are at fault, and then essentially going "You said it!", or going on that he wants to make a deal - he doesn't go after the Jews and the Jews don't go after him, or so on.
history  nazi  germany  hitler 
5 weeks ago
erwin85/randomarticle.simple.php at master · erwin85/erwin85
Code for generating a random wikipedia page within a category.
wikipedia  random  internet 
5 weeks ago
Quote by Theodore Dalrymple: “In my study of communist societies, I came to t...” | Goodreads
> “In my study of communist societies, I came to the conclusion that the purpose of communist propaganda was not to persuade or convince, not to inform, but to humiliate; and therefore, the less it corresponded to reality the better. When people are forced to remain silent when they are being told the most obvious lies, or even worse when they are forced to repeat the lies themselves, they lose once and for all their sense of probity. To assent to obvious lies is...in some small way to become evil oneself. One's standing to resist anything is thus eroded, and even destroyed. A society of emasculated liars is easy to control. I think if you examine political correctness, it has the same effect and is intended to.”
communism  lies  humiliation  politically_correct  propaganda 
5 weeks ago
Modal wives and why it is hard to marry well - Marginal REVOLUTION
> I define a modal wife (or husband) as a person you would have married (could have married?) had you met them at the right time, unattached, and under normal life conditions.  The number of modal wives is typically greater than or equal to the number of real wives, although clever philosophers will recognize possible [sic] counterexamples. 

Under one view, you have hundreds or thousands of modal wives, most of whom you never meet.  (How many does the average person meet, how soon do you know when you meet one, and how confused would you be if they were all in the same room at once?)  Your correct dating strategy is to cast your net very widely, and hope to find and marry one of these people. 

Under another view, modal wives are no big deal.  Your so-called "modal wives" are no better for you than, say, the best woman you could pick out of a lot of thirty eligibles.  The key inputs for a good marriage are attitude and a minimum degree of compatibility, not search and discovery.
marriage  relationships  search 
5 weeks ago
It’s Time to Get Billionaires Off of Welfare by Bernie Sanders and Ro Khanna : TrueReddit
> Well, first off, it's really overstated how much Bezos is wealthy. His wealth is tied up in Amazon stocks, which he periodically sells. So when he's worth $150B, or Amazon is worth $1 trillion, they don't have a bank account with that money in it. They have stock, which if they sold it all at todays value, would be worth that.

That said, Bezos probably has billions of dollars cash floating around. Billions.

Anyways, income is taxed when you make it. So your wealth - i.e. your stocks and assets - are not taxed until you convert it (by selling it) to income. So if Jeff Bezos sells a $1B worth of Amazon shares, it's now income, and it's taxed at the capital gains rate, which is now either 15% or 20%, and for him, would be 20%. So the government would get $200 million and he'd get $800 million.

Amazon, meanwhile, pays basically no taxes, because it doesn't actually make any money. It is increasing in value, but not making a lot of profit.
income  inequality  bezos  2018  taxes  US 
5 weeks ago
Open Access With A Vengeance | In the Pipeline
> This has to be the loudest and highest-caliber shot yet across the bow of the current subscription model in scientific publishing. How will Elsevier, Springer/Nature, Wiley and the others react? How will the scientific societies themselves react? That latter question will emphasize that some of them are, in fact, more publishers than they are scientific societies, at least as how that latter term is popularly perceived. (There are other organizations that are, financially, better thought of as life insurance companies or direct marketing providers than as any sort of membership society, but I don’t know if any of the scientific ones have quite made it to that point or not!)
open_access  europe 
5 weeks ago
DNA methylation age is accelerated in alcohol dependence. - PubMed - NCBI
> One blood dataset and one liver tissue dataset of individuals with ALC exhibited positive age acceleration (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0069, respectively), whereas the other blood and liver tissue datasets both exhibited trends of positive age acceleration that were not significant (p = 0.83 and p = 0.57, respectively). Prefrontal cortex tissue exhibited a trend of negative age acceleration (p = 0.19). These results suggest that excessive alcohol consumption may be associated with epigenetic aging in a tissue-specific manner and warrants further investigation using multiple tissue samples from the same individuals.
aging  alcohol 
5 weeks ago
Metabolism and weight loss: debunking myths in the metabolic chamber - Vox
> The basal metabolic rate accounts for the largest amount of the total calories a person burns each day (65 to 80 percent for most adults). Physical activity, on the other hand, accounts for a much smaller portion — 10 to 30 percent for most people — despite what many people believe. And digesting food accounts for about 10 percent.

There are several predictors of how fast or slow a person’s metabolic rate will be. These include the amount of lean muscle and fat tissue in the body, age, and genetics. Women tend to burn fewer calories than men. Having a higher metabolic rate means your body uses food for fuel (instead of storing it as fat) more quickly. But you can still gain weight if you consume more calories than your body needs. Counterintuitively, heavier people generally have higher metabolic rates than skinny folks to meet the fuel demands of their larger bodies.
diet  exercise  myth  weight_loss  metabolism 
5 weeks ago
DNA Methylation Signatures of Depressive Symptoms in Middle-aged and Elderly Persons: Meta-analysis of Multiethnic Epigenome-wide Studies | Depressive Disorders | JAMA Psychiatry | JAMA Network
> The EWAS identified methylation of 3 CpG sites to be significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms: cg04987734 (P = 1.57 × 10−08; n = 11 256; CDC42BPB gene), cg12325605 (P = 5.24 × 10−09; n = 11 256; ARHGEF3 gene), and an intergenic CpG site cg14023999 (P = 5.99 × 10−08; n = 11 256; chromosome = 15q26.1). The predicted expression of the CDC42BPB gene in the brain (basal ganglia) (effect, 0.14; P = 2.7 × 10−03) and of ARHGEF3 in fibroblasts (effect, −0.48; P = 9.8 × 10−04) was associated with major depression
depression  epigenetics 
5 weeks ago
Baloxavir Marboxil for Uncomplicated Influenza in Adults and Adolescents | NEJM
> In the phase 2 trial, the median time to alleviation of influenza symptoms was 23.4 to 28.2 hours shorter in the baloxavir groups than in the placebo group (P<0.05). In the phase 3 trial, the intention-to-treat infected population included 1064 patients; 84.8 to 88.1% of patients in each group had influenza A(H3N2) infection. The median time to alleviation of symptoms was 53.7 hours (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.5 to 58.5) with baloxavir, as compared with 80.2 hours (95% CI, 72.6 to 87.1) with placebo (P<0.001)
influenza  baloxavir 
5 weeks ago
A homing system targets therapeutic T cells to brain cancer | Nature
>Here we show that, in contrast to inflammatory brain diseases such as multiple sclerosis, where endothelial cells upregulate ICAM1 and VCAM1 to guide the extravasation of pro-inflammatory cells, cancer endothelium downregulates these molecules to evade immune recognition. By contrast, we found that cancer endothelium upregulates activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), which allowed us to overcome this immune-evasion mechanism by creating an ALCAM-restricted homing system (HS).
t_cells  brain_cancer  cancer 
5 weeks ago
Amazon.com: Customer reviews: The Perspectives of Psychiatry
> The heart of the problem is that The Perspectives attempts to address the real issues of psychiatry with the over-valued ideas of an inpatient psychiatric philosopher having written 100 year ago without the benefit of today's neuroscience, understandings of computational science, information theory, complex system's theory, or even the full impact of an understanding of evolution and adaptation. And so the book, intended as a complaint or an alternative approach to viewing patients than that offered by the categorizations of the DSM, fails to actually address certain central dichotomies and nebulous clinical diagnostics. Other troublesome issues for the underpinnings of psychiatry, such as free will or the mind-brain relationship are also not addressed. Yet, there is an available neuroscience literature to help reflect the relevance of these persistent questions for budding psychiatrist attempting to develop a more thoughtful approach to a deeper understanding of psychophenomenology. And it is not in this book! At least 4 other books, all written by individuals working directly for P. McHugh, intend to extend his "perspectives" model . However, none of them ever respond to the significant conflicts on which psychiatry's progress has been blocked.
psychiatry  neuroscience 
6 weeks ago
Culture War Roundup for the Week of August 27, 2018 : slatestarcodex
> So in other words, Mendel was part of a large and active research community which sprang from commercial sources, kept in close touch with commercial breeders, and was well aware of the commercial importance of their work; even if peas were of little importance on their own and no one could seriously have expected Mendel to single-handedly solve the problem (though he kind of did), they were a model organism hopefully useful for elucidating the mysterious principles of heredity which applied to important things, like sheep. Considering that he apparently only became a monk to get an education for free, and his original abbot-sponsor was himself a researcher, his biography sounds remarkably like a grad student being hired to replace his advisor! (Abbot : PI :: monk : grad student :: monastery : department :: vow of poverty : stipend+debt ...)

As a matter of historical contingency (obscure language, Mendel being badly distracted by promotion to abbot & legal warfare & dying relatively young, destruction of papers, initial misinterpretation), it didn't have an (immediate) fruitful impact, but it very easily could've and eventually did as soon as someone redid his work and reread his paper. As examples of l'art pour l'art,
history  science  genetics  mendel 
6 weeks ago
Amazon.com: Pure Encapsulations - Melatonin 0.5 mg - Hypoallergenic Supplement Supports the Body's Natural Sleep Cycle* - 180 Capsules: Health & Personal Care
> BTW, I've discovered that taking a "drug holiday" from melatonin for a week or two restores its effectiveness if it seems to stop working.
melatonin  sleep 
7 weeks ago
Bystander cricothyrotomy with ballpoint pen: a fresh cadaveric feasibility study. - PubMed - NCBI
> A cricothyroidotomy just with a ballpoint pen is virtually impossible. First, the airflow resistance in commercially available ballpoint pens is too high to produce effective ventilation. Second, the cricothyroid ligament is too strong to be penetrated by ballpoint pens.
cricothyroidotomy 
7 weeks ago
Overcoming Bias : Compulsory Licensing Of Backroom IT?
> When new technologies were developed in the past, they would diffuse to other firms fast enough so that productivity rose across entire industries. … But imagine instead of power looms, someone is trying to copy and reproduce Google’s cloud infrastructure itself. … Things have just gotten too complicated. The technologies we rely on now are massive and inextricably linked to the engineers, workers, systems and business models built around them. … While in the past it might have been possible to license, steal or copy someone else’s technology, these days that technology can’t be separated from the systems of which it’s a part. … Walmart built an elaborate logistics system around bar code scanners, which allowed it to beat out smaller retail rivals. Notably, it never sold this technology to any competitors. (more)
economics  2018  tech 
7 weeks ago
Cardiovascular Safety of Lorcaserin in Overweight or Obese Patients | NEJM
> At 1 year, weight loss of at least 5% had occurred in 1986 of 5135 patients (38.7%) in the lorcaserin group and in 883 of 5083 (17.4%) in the placebo group (odds ratio, 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.74 to 3.30; P<0.001). Patients in the lorcaserin group had slightly better values with respect to cardiac risk factors (including blood pressure, heart rate, glycemic control, and lipids) than those in the placebo group. During a median follow-up of 3.3 years, the rate of the primary safety outcome was 2.0% per year in the lorcaserin group and 2.1% per year in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.14; P<0.001 for noninferiority); the rate of extended major cardiovascular events was 4.1% per year and 4.2% per year, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.07; P=0.55). Adverse events of special interest were uncommon, and the rates were generally similar in the two groups, except for a higher number of patients with serious hypoglycemia in the lorcaserin group (13 vs. 4, P=0.04).
weight_loss  lorcaserin 
7 weeks ago
Coronary CT Angiography and 5-Year Risk of Myocardial Infarction | NEJM
> In this trial, the use of CTA in addition to standard care in patients with stable chest pain resulted in a significantly lower rate of death from coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 5 years than standard care alone, without resulting in a significantly higher rate of coronary angiography or coronary revascularization.
coronary  CT  MI 
7 weeks ago
Brain Damage from Cardiovascular Disease Starts Earlier Than You Think | ALZFORUM
> no matter how long a person lived, his or her risk for future brain atrophy due to cardiovascular disease had always been highest when they were about 45. “The study suggests that the effects of cardiovascular risk factors on the brain are much more robust in the 40s and then diminish as people get older,” said DeCarli.
blood_pressure  dementia  mid_life 
7 weeks ago
Changes in midlife death rates across racial and ethnic groups in the United States: systematic analysis of vital statistics | The BMJ
> NH blacks experienced increased midlife mortality from 17 causes, including drug overdoses (149.6%), homicides (21.4%), hypertensive diseases (15.5%), obesity (120.7%), and liver cancer (49.5%). NH blacks also experienced retrogression: after a period of stable or declining midlife mortality early in 1999-2016, death rates increased for alcohol related liver disease, chronic lower respiratory tract disease, suicides, diabetes, and pancreatic cancer. Among Hispanics, midlife mortality increased across 12 causes, including drug overdoses (80.0%), hypertensive diseases (40.6%), liver cancer (41.8%), suicides (21.9%), obesity (106.6%), and metabolic disorders (60.0%). Retrogression also occurred in this population; after a period of declining mortality, death rates increased for alcohol related liver disease, mental and behavioral disorders involving psychoactive substances, and homicides.
US  mortality  mental_illness  suicide  drugs 
7 weeks ago
The Challenge of Reforming Nutritional Epidemiologic Research | Nutrition | JAMA | JAMA Network
> Individuals consume thousands of chemicals in millions of possible daily combinations. For instance, there are more than 250 000 different foods and even more potentially edible items, with 300 000 edible plants alone. Seemingly similar foods vary in exact chemical signatures (eg, more than 500 different polyphenols). Much of the literature silently assumes disease risk is modulated by the most abundant substances; for example, carbohydrates or fats. However, relatively uncommon chemicals within food, circumstantial contaminants, serendipitous toxicants, or components that appear only under specific conditions or food preparation methods (eg, red meat cooking) may be influential. Risk-conferring nutritional combinations may vary by an individual’s genetic background, metabolic profile, age, or environmental exposures. Disentangling the potential influence on health outcomes of a single dietary component from these other variables is challenging, if not impossible.
ioannidis  nutrition  causation 
7 weeks ago
Efficacy and safety of semaglutide compared with liraglutide and placebo for weight loss in patients with obesity: a randomised, double-blind, placebo and active controlled, dose-ranging, phase 2 trial - The Lancet
One of the most effective weight loss drug trials to date. > stimated mean weight loss was −2·3% for the placebo group versus −6·0% (0·05 mg), −8·6% (0·1 mg), −11·6% (0·2 mg), −11·2% (0·3 mg), and −13·8% (0·4 mg) for the semaglutide groups. All semaglutide groups versus placebo were significant (unadjusted p≤0·0010), and remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing (p≤0·0055).
weight_loss  GLP1 
7 weeks ago
Dimensions of psychopathology in the medically ill. A latent trait analysis. - PubMed - NCBI
> Symptom data were collected from 312 hospitalized medically ill patients using the Monash Interview for Liaison Psychiatry and subjected to latent trait analysis. A model with 5 dimensions provided an acceptable fit to the data. Dimensions were characterized as demoralization, anhedonia, autonomic anxiety, somatic symptoms, and grief. The demoralization dimension was similar to the concept of demoralization described by Frank and to the "giving up-given up complex" described by Engel.
depression  quantitative  dimension 
7 weeks ago
Carbon Dioxide: An Open Door Policy | Slate Star Codex
>
Since the main source of CO2 is human exhalation, I’m most worried about buildings where many people are crammed into small spaces in close proximity (hello, Bay Area readers!). Since the main way CO2 gets cleared is through ventilation, I’m most worried about buildings made to strict environmental standards with great insulation (hello, Bay Area readers again!).

If you’re concerned about this, the best solution is to open a window or an internal door in your bedroom at night. If for some reason this is impossible, the second-best solution is to get certain succulents or other plants that participate in the ominously-named process of “dark fixation” – ie do their plant breathe-in-CO2-and-breathe-out-oxygen thing at night. This is also called “crassalacean acid metabolism” and Googling either term will get you a list of appropriate species. It will probably take like ten succulents to do much to CO2 levels, but a room full of succulents on every flat surface is also kind of #aesthetic.
CO2  sleep  intelligence  scott_alexander  cognition 
7 weeks ago
Exploring the Relationship Between Depression and Dementia | Dementia and Cognitive Impairment | JAMA | JAMA Network
> Most clinical trials of potential Alzheimer disease treatments do not consider neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression or irritability as primary research targets, even though “these symptoms are widely recognized as the most stressful and challenging manifestations of dementia,” concluded authors of a recent review article. Only 17.7% of the relevant studies they found on clinicaltrials.gov tested the effect of pharmacological or nonpharmacological interventions on neuropsychiatric symptoms, they wrote.
psychiatry  depression  dementia 
7 weeks ago
Upload Your Brain - Mindful
> Failing to pursue research that might make brain emulation possible is therefore unethical, Hayworth argues. “There are moral implications to knowing you could have preserved the information content of a human brain but instead said, ‘nah, screw it’” he says. If we do not at least try to develop the technology to preserve the unique patterning of neural circuitry that encodes an individual, including “the memories and knowledge of Holocaust survivors before they all die, that, to me, would be as if we again burned the library of Alexandria” and lost an incalculable store of human experience.
uploading  BPF 
8 weeks ago
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