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Teach debugging
A friend of mine and I couldn't understand why some people were having so much trouble; the material seemed like common sense. The Feynman Method was the only tool we needed.

1. Write down the problem
2. Think real hard
3. Write down the solution

The Feynman Method failed us on the last project: the design of a divider, a real-world-scale project an order of magnitude more complex than anything we'd been asked to tackle before. On the day he assigned the project, the professor exhorted us to begin early. Over the next few weeks, we heard rumors that some of our classmates worked day and night without making progress.

...

And then, just after midnight, a number of our newfound buddies from dinner reported successes. Half of those who started from scratch had working designs. Others were despondent, because their design was still broken in some subtle, non-obvious way. As I talked with one of those students, I began poring over his design. And after a few minutes, I realized that the Feynman method wasn't the only way forward: it should be possible to systematically apply a mechanical technique repeatedly to find the source of our problems. Beneath all the abstractions, our projects consisted purely of NAND gates (woe to those who dug around our toolbox enough to uncover dynamic logic), which outputs a 0 only when both inputs are 1. If the correct output is 0, both inputs should be 1. The input that isn't is in error, an error that is, itself, the output of a NAND gate where at least one input is 0 when it should be 1. We applied this method recursively, finding the source of all the problems in both our designs in under half an hour.

How To Debug Any Program: https://www.blinddata.com/blog/how-to-debug-any-program-9
May 8th 2019 by Saketh Are

Start by Questioning Everything

...

When a program is behaving unexpectedly, our attention tends to be drawn first to the most complex portions of the code. However, mistakes can come in all forms. I've personally been guilty of rushing to debug sophisticated portions of my code when the real bug was that I forgot to read in the input file. In the following section, we'll discuss how to reliably focus our attention on the portions of the program that need correction.

Then Question as Little as Possible

Suppose that we have a program and some input on which its behavior doesn’t match our expectations. The goal of debugging is to narrow our focus to as small a section of the program as possible. Once our area of interest is small enough, the value of the incorrect output that is being produced will typically tell us exactly what the bug is.

In order to catch the point at which our program diverges from expected behavior, we must inspect the intermediate state of the program. Suppose that we select some point during execution of the program and print out all values in memory. We can inspect the results manually and decide whether they match our expectations. If they don't, we know for a fact that we can focus on the first half of the program. It either contains a bug, or our expectations of what it should produce were misguided. If the intermediate state does match our expectations, we can focus on the second half of the program. It either contains a bug, or our understanding of what input it expects was incorrect.

Question Things Efficiently

For practical purposes, inspecting intermediate state usually doesn't involve a complete memory dump. We'll typically print a small number of variables and check whether they have the properties we expect of them. Verifying the behavior of a section of code involves:

1. Before it runs, inspecting all values in memory that may influence its behavior.
2. Reasoning about the expected behavior of the code.
3. After it runs, inspecting all values in memory that may be modified by the code.

Reasoning about expected behavior is typically the easiest step to perform even in the case of highly complex programs. Practically speaking, it's time-consuming and mentally strenuous to write debug output into your program and to read and decipher the resulting values. It is therefore advantageous to structure your code into functions and sections that pass a relatively small amount of information between themselves, minimizing the number of values you need to inspect.

...

Finding the Right Question to Ask

We’ve assumed so far that we have available a test case on which our program behaves unexpectedly. Sometimes, getting to that point can be half the battle. There are a few different approaches to finding a test case on which our program fails. It is reasonable to attempt them in the following order:

1. Verify correctness on the sample inputs.
2. Test additional small cases generated by hand.
3. Adversarially construct corner cases by hand.
4. Re-read the problem to verify understanding of input constraints.
5. Design large cases by hand and write a program to construct them.
6. Write a generator to construct large random cases and a brute force oracle to verify outputs.
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may 2019 by nhaliday

bundles : abstractframemathpeepsproblem-solvingvague

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