nhaliday + metabolic   69

Amish Mutation Protects Against Diabetes and May Extend Life - The New York Times
What Dr. Vaughan and his colleagues discovered was striking. Amish carriers of the mutation live on average to age 85, about 10 years longer than their peers. Among the Amish who did not have the mutation, the rate of Type 2 diabetes was 7 percent. But for carriers of the mutation, the rate was zero, despite leading the same lifestyle and consuming similar diets. Tests showed that carriers of the mutation had 28 percent lower levels of insulin, a hormone whose chronic elevation can lead to Type 2 diabetes.
news  org:rec  genetics  genomics  pop-diff  recent-selection  usa  midwest  longevity  health  hetero-advantage  cardio  metabolic 
november 2017 by nhaliday
Fish on Friday | West Hunter
There are parts of Europe, Switzerland and Bavaria for example, that are seriously iodine deficient. This used to be a problem. I wonder if fish on Friday ameliorated it: A three-ounce serving size of cod provides your body with 99 micrograms of iodine, or 66% of the recommended amount per day.

Thinking further, it wasn’t just Fridays: there were ~130 days a years when the Catholic Church banned flesh.

Gwern on modern iodine-deficiency: https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2017/10/28/fish-on-friday/#comment-97137
population surveys indicate lots of people are iodine-insufficient even in the US or UK where the problem should’ve been permanently solved a century ago
west-hunter  scitariat  discussion  ideas  speculation  sapiens  europe  the-great-west-whale  history  medieval  germanic  religion  christianity  protestant-catholic  institutions  food  diet  nutrition  metabolic  iq  neuro  unintended-consequences  multi  gwern  poast  hmm  planning  parenting  developmental  public-health  gotchas  biodet  deep-materialism  health  embodied-street-fighting  ritual  roots  explanans 
october 2017 by nhaliday
Alcohol consumption and lifetime change in cognitive ability: a gene × environment interaction study | SpringerLink
We found a significant gene × alcohol consumption interaction on lifetime cognitive change (p = 0.007). Individuals with higher genetic ability to process alcohol showed relative improvements in cognitive ability with more consumption, whereas those with low processing capacity showed a negative relationship between cognitive change and alcohol consumption with more consumption.
study  psychology  cog-psych  psychometrics  iq  metabolic  ethanol  mendel-randomization  endo-exo  GxE  homo-hetero  biodet  behavioral-gen  environmental-effects  endogenous-exogenous 
october 2017 by nhaliday
EWG's Seafood Calculator | EWG
recommends Salmon (Atlantic), Sardines (Pacific), Mussels, Trout, and Mackerel for me
org:health  fitsci  tools  calculator  dynamic  nutrition  diet  health  metabolic  hypochondria  oceans  org:ngo  cooking  objektbuch  food 
october 2017 by nhaliday
House O’Rats | West Hunter
Not content with our simple selection experiment, we also install complicated mazes with flaming hoops that the rats have to jump through in order to get extra food and mates: we want rats with different brains, and eventually we get them. They’re maze-bright and flaming-hoop-bright. We install treadmills and feed the rats according to their work output, and eventually they produce more work per amount of food eaten. They’ve maximized efficiency rather than surge power, which was more useful back when they were wild and free. Not only that, they eventually come to like being on the treadmill, almost as if it’s some sort of race.

There are other silos – one full of rice and another full of maize. They have different mazes and flaming hoops, built at different times: and there are still wild rats, too, although not as many as in the silos.

But no matter how much they change, they’re still just a bunch of rats.
west-hunter  scitariat  discussion  ideas  gedanken  analogy  comparison  parable  sapiens  pop-diff  recent-selection  agriculture  farmers-and-foragers  population  metabolic  nutrition  diet  immune  disease  parasites-microbiome  egalitarianism-hierarchy  ethanol  iq  intelligence  eden  embodied  fitness  efficiency  race  conceptual-vocab  🌞  biodet  behavioral-gen  agri-mindset  realness 
september 2017 by nhaliday
Mechanisms of microbial traversal of the blood–brain barrier
A journey into the brain: insight into how bacterial pathogens cross blood–brain barriers: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1038/nrmicro.2016.178
How do extracellular pathogens cross the blood-brain barrier?: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11973156
Defense at the border: the blood–brain barrier versus bacterial foreigners: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3589978/
study  bio  medicine  health  embodied  neuro  neuro-nitgrit  disease  parasites-microbiome  metabolic  🌞  pdf  piracy  org:nat  multi  red-queen  epidemiology 
september 2017 by nhaliday
Medicine as a pseudoscience | West Hunter
The idea that venesection was a good thing, or at least not so bad, on the grounds that one in a few hundred people have hemochromatosis (in Northern Europe) reminds me of the people who don’t wear a seatbelt, since it would keep them from being thrown out of their convertible into a waiting haystack, complete with nubile farmer’s daughter. Daughters. It could happen. But it’s not the way to bet.

Back in the good old days, Charles II, age 53, had a fit one Sunday evening, while fondling two of his mistresses.

Monday they bled him (cupping and scarifying) of eight ounces of blood. Followed by an antimony emetic, vitriol in peony water, purgative pills, and a clyster. Followed by another clyster after two hours. Then syrup of blackthorn, more antimony, and rock salt. Next, more laxatives, white hellebore root up the nostrils. Powdered cowslip flowers. More purgatives. Then Spanish Fly. They shaved his head and stuck blistering plasters all over it, plastered the soles of his feet with tar and pigeon-dung, then said good-night.

...

Friday. The king was worse. He tells them not to let poor Nelly starve. They try the Oriental Bezoar Stone, and more bleeding. Dies at noon.

Most people didn’t suffer this kind of problem with doctors, since they never saw one. Charles had six. Now Bach and Handel saw the same eye surgeon, John Taylor – who blinded both of them. Not everyone can put that on his resume!

You may wonder how medicine continued to exist, if it had a negative effect, on the whole. There’s always the placebo effect – at least there would be, if it existed. Any real placebo effect is very small: I’d guess exactly zero. But there is regression to the mean. You see the doctor when you’re feeling worse than average – and afterwards, if he doesn’t kill you outright, you’re likely to feel better. Which would have happened whether you’d seen him or not, but they didn’t often do RCTs back in the day – I think James Lind was the first (1747).

Back in the late 19th century, Christian Scientists did better than others when sick, because they didn’t believe in medicine. For reasons I think mistaken, because Mary Baker Eddy rejected the reality of the entire material world, but hey, it worked. Parenthetically, what triggered all that New Age nonsense in 19th century New England? Hash?

This did not change until fairly recently. Sometime in the early 20th medicine, clinical medicine, what doctors do, hit break-even. Now we can’t do without it. I wonder if there are, or will be, other examples of such a pile of crap turning (mostly) into a real science.

good tweet: https://twitter.com/bowmanthebard/status/897146294191390720
The brilliant GP I've had for 35+ years has retired. How can I find another one who meets my requirements?

1 is overweight
2 drinks more than officially recommended amounts
3 has an amused, tolerant atitude to human failings
4 is well aware that we're all going to die anyway, & there are better or worse ways to die
5 has a healthy skeptical attitude to mainstream medical science
6 is wholly dismissive of "a|ternative” medicine
7 believes in evolution
8 thinks most diseases get better without intervention, & knows the dangers of false positives
9 understands the base rate fallacy

EconPapers: Was Civil War Surgery Effective?: http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/htrhcecon/444.htm
contra Greg Cochran:
To shed light on the subject, I analyze a data set created by Dr. Edmund Andrews, a Civil war surgeon with the 1st Illinois Light Artillery. Dr. Andrews’s data can be rendered into an observational data set on surgical intervention and recovery, with controls for wound location and severity. The data also admits instruments for the surgical decision. My analysis suggests that Civil War surgery was effective, and increased the probability of survival of the typical wounded soldier, with average treatment effect of 0.25-0.28.

Medical Prehistory: https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2016/03/14/medical-prehistory/
What ancient medical treatments worked?

https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2016/03/14/medical-prehistory/#comment-76878
In some very, very limited conditions, bleeding?
--
Bad for you 99% of the time.

https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2016/03/14/medical-prehistory/#comment-76947
Colchicine – used to treat gout – discovered by the Ancient Greeks.

https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2016/03/14/medical-prehistory/#comment-76973
Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm)
Wrap the emerging end of the worm around a stick and slowly pull it out.
(3,500 years later, this remains the standard treatment.)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebers_Papyrus

https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2016/03/14/medical-prehistory/#comment-76971
Some of the progress is from formal medicine, most is from civil engineering, better nutrition ( ag science and physical chemistry), less crowded housing.

Nurses vs doctors: https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2014/10/01/nurses-vs-doctors/
Medicine, the things that doctors do, was an ineffective pseudoscience until fairly recently. Until 1800 or so, they were wrong about almost everything. Bleeding, cupping, purging, the four humors – useless. In the 1800s, some began to realize that they were wrong, and became medical nihilists that improved outcomes by doing less. Some patients themselves came to this realization, as when Civil War casualties hid from the surgeons and had better outcomes. Sometime in the early 20th century, MDs reached break-even, and became an increasingly positive influence on human health. As Lewis Thomas said, medicine is the youngest science.

Nursing, on the other hand, has always been useful. Just making sure that a patient is warm and nourished when too sick to take care of himself has helped many survive. In fact, some of the truly crushing epidemics have been greatly exacerbated when there were too few healthy people to take care of the sick.

Nursing must be old, but it can’t have existed forever. Whenever it came into existence, it must have changed the selective forces acting on the human immune system. Before nursing, being sufficiently incapacitated would have been uniformly fatal – afterwards, immune responses that involved a period of incapacitation (with eventual recovery) could have been selectively favored.

when MDs broke even: https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2014/10/01/nurses-vs-doctors/#comment-58981
I’d guess the 1930s. Lewis Thomas thought that he was living through big changes. They had a working serum therapy for lobar pneumonia ( antibody-based). They had many new vaccines ( diphtheria in 1923, whopping cough in 1926, BCG and tetanus in 1927, yellow fever in 1935, typhus in 1937.) Vitamins had been mostly worked out. Insulin was discovered in 1929. Blood transfusions. The sulfa drugs, first broad-spectrum antibiotics, showed up in 1935.

DALYs per doctor: https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2018/01/22/dalys-per-doctor/
The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden – the number of years lost. I’m wondering just much harm premodern medicine did, per doctor. How many healthy years of life did a typical doctor destroy (net) in past times?

...

It looks as if the average doctor (in Western medicine) killed a bunch of people over his career ( when contrasted with doing nothing). In the Charles Manson class.

Eventually the market saw through this illusion. Only took a couple of thousand years.

https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2018/01/22/dalys-per-doctor/#comment-100741
That a very large part of healthcare spending is done for non-health reasons. He has a chapter on this in his new book, also check out his paper “Showing That You Care: The Evolution of Health Altruism” http://mason.gmu.edu/~rhanson/showcare.pdf
--
I ran into too much stupidity to finish the article. Hanson’s a loon. For example when he talks about the paradox of blacks being more sentenced on drug offenses than whites although they use drugs at similar rate. No paradox: guys go to the big house for dealing, not for using. Where does he live – Mars?

I had the same reaction when Hanson parroted some dipshit anthropologist arguing that the stupid things people do while drunk are due to social expectations, not really the alcohol.
Horseshit.

I don’t think that being totally unable to understand everybody around you necessarily leads to deep insights.

https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2018/01/22/dalys-per-doctor/#comment-100744
What I’ve wondered is if there was anything that doctors did that actually was helpful and if perhaps that little bit of success helped them fool people into thinking the rest of it helped.
--
Setting bones. extracting arrows: spoon of Diocles. Colchicine for gout. Extracting the Guinea worm. Sometimes they got away with removing the stone. There must be others.
--
Quinine is relatively recent: post-1500. Obstetrical forceps also. Caesarean deliveries were almost always fatal to the mother until fairly recently.

Opium has been around for a long while : it works.

https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2018/01/22/dalys-per-doctor/#comment-100839
If pre-modern medicine was indeed worse than useless – how do you explain no one noticing that patients who get expensive treatments are worse off than those who didn’t?
--
were worse off. People are kinda dumb – you’ve noticed?
--
My impression is that while people may be “kinda dumb”, ancient customs typically aren’t.
Even if we assume that all people who lived prior to the 19th century were too dumb to make the rational observation, wouldn’t you expect this ancient practice to be subject to selective pressure?
--
Your impression is wrong. Do you think that there some slick reason for Carthaginians incinerating their first-born?

Theodoric of York, bloodletting: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yvff3TViXmY

details on blood-letting and hemochromatosis: https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2018/01/22/dalys-per-doctor/#comment-100746

Starting Over: https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2018/01/23/starting-over/
Looking back on it, human health would have … [more]
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august 2017 by nhaliday
Let George Do It | West Hunter
I was thinking about how people would have adapted to local differences in essential micronutrients, stuff like iodine, selenium, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, etc. Australia, for example,  hasn’t had much geological activity in ages and generally has mineral-poor soils. At first I thought that Aboriginals, who have lived in such places for a long time,  might have developed better transporters, etc – ways of eking out scarce trace elements.

Maybe they have, but on second thought, they may not have needed to.  Sure, the Aboriginals were exposed to these conditions for tens of thousands of years, but not nearly as long as kangaroos and wombats have been.  If those animals had effective ways of accumulating the necessary micronutrients,  hunter-gatherers could have solved their problems by consuming local fauna. Let George do it, and then eat George.

The real problems should occur in people who rely heavily on plant foods (European farmers) and in their livestock, which are generally not adapted to the mineral-poor environments. If I’m right, even in areas where sheep without selenium supplements get white muscle disease (nutritional muscular dystrophy), indigenous wildlife should not.
west-hunter  scitariat  discussion  ideas  speculation  sapiens  pop-diff  embodied  metabolic  nutrition  diet  food  farmers-and-foragers  agriculture  nature  tricks  direct-indirect 
august 2017 by nhaliday
Whole Health Source: Palatability, Satiety and Calorie Intake
The more palatable the food, the less filling per calorie, and the relationship was quite strong for a study of this nature. This is consistent with the evidence that highly palatable foods shut down the mechanisms in the brain that constrain food intake. Croissants had the lowest SI (47), while potatoes had the highest (323). Overall, baked goods and candy had the lowest SI. They didn't test sweet potatoes, but I suspect they would have been similar to potatoes. Other foods with a high SI include meat/fish, whole grain foods, fruit and porridge.
taubes-guyenet  org:health  fitsci  health  embodied  food  diet  nutrition  metabolic  constraint-satisfaction  wire-guided  correlation  emotion 
july 2017 by nhaliday
Reversal of Fortune | West Hunter
https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2012/12/03/reversal-of-fortune-2/#comment-5940
“particularly in the fetus”. You’d think so, but people have looked at Dutch draftees who were in the womb during the famine of 1944. They found no effects of famine exposure on Ravens scores at age 19. Schizophrenia doubled, though. Schiz also doubled in the Chinese cohort exposed to the Great Leap Forward famine.

Cohort Profile: The Dutch Hunger Winter Families Study: https://academic.oup.com/ije/article/36/6/1196/814573
Nutrition and Mental Performance: https://sci-hub.bz/10.1126/science.178.4062.708
Schizophrenia after prenatal exposure to the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944-1945: https://sci-hub.bz/10.1001/archpsyc.1992.01820120071010
Prenatal famine exposure and cognition at age 59 years: https://sci-hub.bz/10.1093/ije/dyq261

https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2012/12/03/reversal-of-fortune-2/#comment-5960
You might be right. There is reason to suspect that prenatal exposure to alcohol is far riskier in some populations than others – in particular populations that have limited historical exposure to alcohol. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is very rare in France, for example – yet they drink, I’m told.

https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2012/12/03/reversal-of-fortune-2/#comment-5961
The kind of conservatism that shows up politically doesn’t have any predictive value. In other words, liars and morons. They’re why God made baseball bats. Once upon a time, I said this: “The American right doesn’t have room for anyone who knows jack shit about anything, or whose predictions have ever come true.” I’ll stick with that.

full quote here: http://www.rpgcodex.net/forums/index.php?threads/planescape-torment-problems.9208/
The American right doesn't have room for anyone who knows jack shit about anything, or whose predictions have ever come true. Of course they're all liars. In the words of one of their semi-prominent members, himself plenty despicable: "Science, logic, rational inquiry, thoughtful reflection, mean nothing to them. It's all posturing and moral status games and sucking up to halfwits like GWB and clinging to crackpot religion, and of course amoral careerism. " I think my correspondent forgot to mention their propensity for eating shit and rolling around in their own vomit, but nobody's perfect.

lol:
https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2012/12/03/reversal-of-fortune-2/#comment-6045
I’ve mused that it’s generally believed that iodine benefits females more than males, and the timing of iodization in the US matches up reasonably well with the rise of feminism…
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may 2017 by nhaliday
Vegetables | Examine.com
I really wonder if eating 2 servings of Brassica, 2 servings of the Onion family, 2 servings of Garlic, 2 servings of mushrooms, and 2 'other' plants (dark berries?) is as magical as I am imagining it right now. You pretty much have a high dose of everything.
org:health  top-n  links  health  nutrition  diet  fitsci  low-hanging  prepping  metabolic  minimum-viable 
may 2017 by nhaliday
Is soy good or bad for me? | Examine.com
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3076650/
The estimated per capita consumption of soybean oil increased >1000-fold from 1909 to 1999.
https://twitter.com/evolutionarypsy/status/892489043446988800 (increase started during 60s)

Clinical studies show no effects of soy protein or isoflavones on reproductive hormones in men: results of a meta-analysis: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19524224
No significant effects of soy protein or isoflavone intake on T, SHBG, free T, or FAI were detected regardless of statistical model.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/?term=soy+phytoestrogen+men
some good ones:
pros and cons: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3074428/
reproductive consequences: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3443604/
visuospatial memory: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC64558/
reject (in humans)t: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19524224

https://discourse.soylent.com/t/soy-in-soylent-2-0/22826/

https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/09/27/ask-well-is-it-safe-to-eat-soy/
A: yes
org:health  q-n-a  explanation  summary  endocrine  science-anxiety  regularizer  nutrition  health  fitsci  metabolic  study  medicine  food  hypochondria  🐸  mena4  public-health  links  search  list  database  multi  meta-analysis  model-organism  human-study  developmental  discussion  poast  gnon  org:rec  data  trivia  scale  pro-rata  trends  rot  visuo  spatial  retention  null-result  twitter  social  commentary  pic  time-series 
may 2017 by nhaliday
No one ever says it, but in many ways global warming will be a good thing
Our climate conversation is lopsided. There is ample room to suggest that climate change has caused this problem or that negative outcome, but any mention of positives is frowned upon. We have known for decades that increasing CO₂ and precipitation from global warming will make the world much greener – by the end of the century, it is likely that global biomass will have increased by forty percent.

hmm:
The great nutrient collapse: http://www.politico.com/agenda/story/2017/09/13/food-nutrients-carbon-dioxide-000511
The atmosphere is literally changing the food we eat, for the worse. And almost nobody is paying attention.
news  org:rec  org:anglo  environment  climate-change  agriculture  culture-war  debate  cost-benefit  temperature  unintended-consequences  multi  org:mag  investigative-journo  longform  trends  nutrition  diet  metabolic  atmosphere  hmm  regularizer 
may 2017 by nhaliday
Assessing the calorific significance of episodes of human cannibalism in the Palaeolithic : Scientific Reports
Results show that humans have a comparable nutritional value to those faunal species that match our typical body weight, but significantly lower than a range of fauna often found in association with anthropogenically modified hominin remains. This could suggest that the motivations behind hominin anthropophagy may not have been purely nutritionally motivated. It is proposed here that the comparatively low nutritional value of hominin cannibalism episodes support more socially or culturally driven narratives in the interpretation of Palaeolithic cannibalism.

http://www.nature.com/articles/srep44707/tables/1
study  org:nat  anthropology  sapiens  history  antiquity  food  death  horror  nutrition  metabolic  embodied  :/  phys-energy  multi  data  objektbuch  ethnography  ritual  nihil  prepping 
april 2017 by nhaliday
Meta-analysis: Impact of carbohydrate vs. fat calories on energy expenditure and body fatness
They identified 28 studies that met their criteria for energy expenditure.  Combining the data of these 28 studies, they found that calorie-matched diets predominating in fat vs. carbohydrate have almost identical effects, but higher-carbohydrate diets do lead to a slightly higher energy expenditure.  This difference was statistically significant but of little medical or practical relevance, since it only amounted to 26 Calories per day.  This slightly higher energy expenditure is consistent with the fact that the metabolism of carbohydrate is slightly less efficient than the metabolism of fat, meaning that a bit more energy is wasted*.

Examining the data, the paper’s result is not hard to believe because only 8 of the 28 studies reported that lower-carbohydrate diets led to a higher energy expenditure than higher-carbohydrate diets, and among those 8, the results were only statistically significant in four.  In contrast, 20 studies reported higher energy expenditure with higher-carbohydrate diets, and that was statistically significant in 14.  One can choose individual studies that support either belief, but the overall evidence suggests that the relative carbohydrate and fat content of the diet has little impact on energy expenditure.

Onward to body fatness.  Hall and Guo identified 20 controlled feeding studies that reported changes in body fatness on equal-calorie diets differing in fat and carbohydrate content.  Echoing the energy expenditure finding, they found that diets predominating in carbohydrate or fat have similar effects on body fatness.  Yet higher-carbohydrate diets do lead to a slightly greater loss of body fat per calorie, amounting to a 16 gram per day difference.  This is actually a larger difference than one would predict from the difference in energy expenditure, which would only be 2.8 g/day.
taubes-guyenet  org:health  health  diet  nutrition  fitsci  commentary  study  summary  meta-analysis  field-study  intervention  obesity  comparison  metabolic 
march 2017 by nhaliday
Centum and Satem | West Hunter
Here’s my current best guess concerning the Indo-European expansion.

interesting tidbit about horse milk being richer than cow milk
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march 2017 by nhaliday
Adaptation of the FADS gene family in Europe: Variation across time, geography and subsistence | bioRxiv
The FADS gene family encodes rate-limiting enzymes for the biosynthesis of omega-6 and omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), which is essential for individuals subsisting on LCPUFAs-poor diets (e.g. plant-based).
...
Here, with analyses of ancient and modern DNA, we demonstrated positive selection acted on variants centered on FADS1 and FADS2 both before and after the advent of farming in Europe, but adaptive alleles in these two periods are opposite.
study  preprint  bio  sapiens  genetics  genomics  history  antiquity  agriculture  farmers-and-foragers  biodet  tradeoffs  metabolic  recent-selection  aDNA 
february 2017 by nhaliday
How do food manufacturers calculate the calorie count of packaged foods? - Scientific American
The original method used to determine the number of kcals in a given food directly measured the energy it produced.The food was placed in a sealed container surrounded by water--an apparatus known as a bomb calorimeter. The food was completely burned and the resulting rise in water temperature was measured. This method is not frequently used today.
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february 2017 by nhaliday
Neurodiversity | West Hunter
Having an accurate evaluation of a syndrome as a generally bad thing isn’t equivalent to attacking those with that syndrome. Being a leper is a bad thing, not just another wonderful flavor of humanity [insert hot tub joke] , but that doesn’t mean that we have to spend our spare time playing practical jokes on lepers, tempting though that is.. Leper hockey. We can cure leprosy, and we are right to do so. Preventing deafness through rubella vaccination was the right thing too – deafness sucks. And so on. As we get better at treating and preventing, humans are going to get more uniform – and that’s a good thing. Back to normalcy!

focus: https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2017/02/22/neurodiversity/#comment-88691
interesting discussion of mutational load: https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2017/02/22/neurodiversity/#comment-88793

https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2013/04/30/blurry/
I was thinking again about the consequences of having more small-effect deleterious mutations than average. I don’t think that they would push hard in a particular direction in phenotype space – I don’t believe they would make you look weird, but by definition they would be bad for you, reduce fitness. I remembered a passage in a book by Steve Stirling, in which our heroine felt as if her brain ‘was moving like a mechanism of jewels and steel precisely formed.’ It strikes me that a person with an extra dollop of this kind of genetic load wouldn’t feel like that. And of course that heroine did have low genetic load, being the product of millennia of selective breeding, not to mention an extra boost from the Invisible Crown.

https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2013/04/30/blurry/#comment-12769
Well, what does the distribution of fitness burden by frequency look like for deleterious mutations of a given fitness penalty?
--
It’s proportional to the mutation rate for that class. There is reason to believe that there are more ways to moderately or slightly screw up a protein than to really ruin it, which indicates that mild mutations make up most load in protein-coding sequences. More of the genome is made up of conserved regulatory sequences, but mutations there probably have even milder effects, since few mutations in non-coding sequences cause a serious Mendelian disease.

https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2013/04/30/blurry/#comment-12803
I have wondered if there was some sort of evolutionary tradeoff between muscles and brains over the past hundred thousand years through dystrophin’s dual role. There is some evidence of recent positive selection among proteins that interact with dystrophin, such as DTNBP1 and DTNA.

Any novel environment where higher intelligence can accrue more caloric energy than brute strength alone (see: the invention of the bow) should relax the selection pressure for muscularity. The Neanderthals didn’t fare so well with the brute strength strategy.
--
Sure: that’s what you might call an inevitable tradeoff, a consequence of the laws of physics. Just as big guys need more food. But because of the way our biochemistry is wired, there can be tradeoffs that exist but are not inevitable consequences of the laws of physics – particularly likely when a gene has two fairly different functions, as they often do.
west-hunter  discussion  morality  philosophy  evolution  sapiens  psychology  psychiatry  disease  neuro  scitariat  ideology  rhetoric  diversity  prudence  genetic-load  autism  focus  👽  multi  poast  mutation  equilibrium  scifi-fantasy  rant  🌞  paternal-age  perturbation  nibble  ideas  iq  quotes  aphorism  enhancement  signal-noise  blowhards  dysgenics  data  distribution  objektbuch  tradeoffs  embodied  speculation  metabolic  volo-avolo  degrees-of-freedom  race  africa  genetics  genomics  bio  QTL  population-genetics  stylized-facts  britain  history  early-modern  pre-ww2  galton  old-anglo  giants  industrial-revolution  neuro-nitgrit  recent-selection  selection  medicine  darwinian  strategy  egalitarianism-hierarchy  CRISPR  biotech  definition  reflection  poetry  deep-materialism  EGT  discrimination  conceptual-vocab 
february 2017 by nhaliday
Why is testosterone immunosuppressive? - Quora
There are two questions masquerading as one here. The first one is about the theoretical basis for why testosterone could be immunosuppressive and the second one is whether testosterone is indeed immunosuppressive. Since this story is based on the theory, let's start with that.

...

Extant Data Does not Support the notion that Testosterone is Indeed Immunosuppressive
q-n-a  qra  trivia  embodied  disease  evolution  evopsych  endocrine  immune  metabolic  sapiens 
february 2017 by nhaliday
Ten Putative Contributors to the Obesity Epidemic
The obesity epidemic is a global issue and shows no signs of abating, while the cause of this epidemic remains unclear. Marketing practices of energy-dense foods and institutionally-driven declines in physical activity are the alleged perpetrators for the epidemic, despite a lack of solid evidence to demonstrate their causal role. While both may contribute to obesity, we call attention to their unquestioned dominance in program funding and public efforts to reduce obesity, and propose several alternative putative contributors that would benefit from equal consideration and attention. Evidence for microorganisms, epigenetics, increasing maternal age, greater fecundity among people with higher adiposity, assortative mating, sleep debt, endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical iatrogenesis, reduction in variability of ambient temperatures, and intrauterine and intergenerational effects, as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic are reviewed herein. While the evidence is strong for some contributors such as pharmaceutical-induced weight gain, it is still emerging for other reviewed factors.
study  meta-analysis  survey  obesity  health  hypochondria  assortative-mating  sleep  model-organism  human-study  🐸  endocrine  metabolic  biodet  epigenetics  epidemiology  sociology  public-health  recent-selection 
january 2017 by nhaliday
Population attributable risks and costs of diabetogenic chemical exposures in the elderly -- Trasande et al. -- Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health
Reduction of chemical exposures was associated with a 13% (95% CI 2% to 22%) reduction in prevalent diabetes, compared with 40% resulting from an identical (25%) reduction in body mass index (BMI) in cross-sectional analyses.
study  embodied  hypochondria  health  fitness  disease  obesity  🐸  medicine  embodied-street-fighting  prediction  human-study  metabolic  biodet  epidemiology  intervention  comparison  effect-size  public-health 
december 2016 by nhaliday
Metabolic costs and evolutionary implications of human brain development
We find that the brain’s metabolic requirements peak in childhood, when it uses glucose at a rate equivalent to 66% of the body’s resting metabolism and 43% of the body’s daily energy requirement, and that brain glucose demand relates inversely to body growth from infancy to puberty. Our findings support the hypothesis that the unusually high costs of human brain development require a compensatory slowing of childhood body growth
study  neuro  sapiens  intelligence  bio  developmental  metabolic  org:nat  brain-scan  longitudinal  tradeoffs  piracy  pdf 
november 2016 by nhaliday
Rabbit starvation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
need fat (and maybe not too much protein?) to survive, rabbit meat too lean
embodied  safety  disease  nutrition  wiki  reference  metabolic  survival  short-circuit  prepping  outdoors 
september 2016 by nhaliday
Intermittent Fasting - Gwern.net
Our intuitive mental models are Aristotelian - strength or health are intrinsic qualities which can be developed by certain actions. But the reality is that exercise offers no intrinsic benefit to the body, no more than driving 10,000 miles in a car makes it more fuel-efficient or its tires more robust. Things wear down, in cars and cells. So why is exercise recommended? Because of the biological response to the damage caused by the exercise. Chemical pathways are activated, secretions unleashed, formerly silenced genes suddenly start expressing themselves, and things happen. Chemical cascades can be modified or interrupted by other chemicals, of course. We see proof of this in startling studies, like the consumption of antioxidants destroying the health benefits of exercise; why do antioxidants do that? Because the damage caused by exercise takes, in part, the form of oxidants, and the oxidants trigger some of those chemical pathways; the antioxidants neutralize & eliminate the oxidants, and so those pathways are muted or suppressed.

So much for exercise. Something similar is theorized about the much ballyhooed caloric restriction. It is not the number of calories that has any intrinsic meaning, which finesses any law of physics to enable greater longevity - it is the body’s reactions to the restriction that matters, the changing levels of sirtuin proteins. (Why would evolution not make this reaction the default reaction and would permit the organism to die before it absolutely had to? There are a number of models where aging helps genetic fitness, actually; just another reminder that Nature does not have our best interests at heart.) Presumably some of the pathways could be directly controlled by injecting additional enzymes even as calorie consumption remains intact, and for that reason a number of biotech/pharmacorps have been interested in the sirtuins and other chemicals linked to caloric restriction. All that matters is that the pathways get triggered. A little like a computer - it doesn’t care what a command or file means, it just cares whether the input satisfies whatever entirely arbitrary (from its point of view) criteria the computer holds at that moment.
longevity  health  food  analysis  gwern  aging  ratty  cardio  c:**  nutrition  fitsci  faq  diet  metabolic  chart  guide 
july 2016 by nhaliday
Lead: America's Real Criminal Element | Mother Jones
crime  longform  trends  usa  hypochondria  org:mag  biodet  news  roots  history  mostly-modern  embodied  embodied-cognition  criminology  public-health  multi  left-wing  policy  medicine  health  developmental  critique  rhetoric  org:data  org:lite  wonkish  investigative-journo  maps  data  visualization  anomie  midwest  hmm  california  parenting  planning  sv  urban  housing  current-events  bio  neuro  metabolic  org:edu  org:health  government  study  epidemiology  twitter  social  commentary  ratty  unaffiliated  spock  demographics  race  org:rec  urban-rural 
july 2016 by nhaliday
Links 7/16: Peter Linklage | Slate Star Codex
interesting results on sugar and intermittent fasting

Oh God oh God oh God functional brain imaging studies are awful – “If the whole-brain across-subject correlation analysis with 16 subjects considers 1000 possible correlations (considerably less than the number of voxels in a whole-brain analysis) the peak correlation coefficient is expected to be about 0.75, even if the true correlation is actually 0.” Best read alongside the old study that replicated various results about the brain in a dead salmon to show how easy it was to fake.

“Nominal agreement between initial studies and meta-analyses regarding the presence of a significant effect was not better than chance in psychiatry, whereas it was somewhat better in neurology and somatic diseases.”

China plans to cut meat consumption by 50%.

Everyone knows that “millennials” are far left, but the truth is more complicated – really into gays, marijuana, and immigration, but not much different than older generations on support for the poor or on racial issues (wait, really?)

Economists are very pessimistic about (one version of) universal basic income.

Company that handles tech company interviews makes a feature that changes what gender an interviewee’s voice sounds like, to see if women get more tech jobs when the company thinks that they’re men. To the surprise of nobody who is paying attention, there is no anti-woman bias found and in fact women do slightly better when they are known to be female.

Two new studies conclusively determine that the apparent “obesity paradox” – the finding that sometimes overweight people had lower death rates than normal weight people – was an error and that in fact being normal weight is healthier.

Intermittent fasting is no better than just dieting the normal way. I hate to gloat, but this concludes an almost ten-year argument I’ve been having with an acquaintance who said that the failure of doctors to immediately endorse intermittent fasting proves that the medical profession are all quacks who don’t care about their patients.

Also, how do we reconcile behavioral genetics with attachment theory?
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july 2016 by nhaliday
Compound Interest Is The Least Powerful Force In The Universe | Slate Star Codex
some summary of Gregory Clark's arguments

SLAVERY AND THE INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF HUMAN CAPITAL: http://www.j-bradford-delong.net/movable_type/refs/Mozilla_Scrapbook/w9227.pdf
Using a variety of different comparisons, (e.g. within versus across regions) I find that it took roughly two generations for the descendants of slaves to "catch up" to the descendants of free black men and women.

The lasting effect of intergenerational wealth transfers: Human capital, family formation, and wealth: http://sci-hub.tw/http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X17302788
https://twitter.com/bswud/status/910470548601413635
Jargon aside, their results show that bequests tend not to benefit people much unless they have high human capital

The Intergenerational Effects of a Large Wealth Shock: White Southerners After the Civil War: https://www.nber.org/papers/w25700
The nullification of slave-based wealth after the US Civil War (1861-65) was one of the largest episodes of wealth compression in history. We document that white southern households with more slave assets lost substantially more wealth by 1870 relative to households with otherwise similar pre-War wealth levels. Yet, the sons of these slaveholders recovered in income and wealth proxies by 1880, in part by shifting into white collar positions and marrying into higher status families. Their pattern of recovery is most consistent with the importance of social networks in facilitating employment opportunities and access to credit.

Shocking Behavior : Random Wealth in Antebellum Georgia and Human Capital Across Generations: https://www.nber.org/papers/w19348
We track descendants of those eligible to win in Georgia's Cherokee Land Lottery of 1832, which had nearly universal participation among adult white males. Winners received close to the median level of wealth - a large financial windfall orthogonal to parents' underlying characteristics that might have also affected their children's human capital. Although winners had slightly more children than non-winners, they did not send them to school more. Sons of winners have no better adult outcomes (wealth, income, literacy) than the sons of non-winners, and winners' grandchildren do not have higher literacy or school attendance than non-winners' grandchildren. This suggests only a limited role for family financial resources in the transmission of human capital across generations and a potentially more important role for other factors that persist through family lines.

Lottery Winners Don't Get Healthier: http://marginalrevolution.com/marginalrevolution/2016/06/politically-incorrect-paper-of-the-day-3.html
http://marginalrevolution.com/marginalrevolution/2011/08/lottery-winners-do-not-avoid-bankruptcy.html
N.B. the result is not that most lottery winners go bankrupt or that winning money doesn’t help people–the result, as Robin Hanson might say, is that bankruptcy isn’t about money.

https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2015/04/22/the-lottery/
Low leverage of wealth on your children’s traits is something that exists in a particular society, with a particular kind of technology. Back in medieval times, a windfall could have kept your kids alive in a famine, and that certainly had a long-term positive effect on their cognitive skills. Dead men take no tests. The most effective medical interventions today are cheap – everyone in Sweden and the US already has them – but there are places where those interventions are not universally available. Some families in Mozambique can afford artemisin, some can’t – this must make a difference.

...

It is not just wealth that has a small effect on your kid’s potential: playing Mozart doesn’t help either. Other than locking away the ball-peen hammers, it’s hard to think of any known approach that does have much effect – although we don’t know everything, and maybe there are undiscovered effective approaches (other than genetic engineering). For example, iodine supplements have a good effect in areas that are iodine-deficient. We now know (since 2014) that bromine is an essential trace element – maybe people in some parts of the world would benefit from bromine supplementation.

What about the social interventions that people are advocating, like Pre-K ? Since shared family effects (family environment surely matters more than some external social program) are small by adulthood, I think they’re unlikely to have any lasting effect. We might also note that the track record isn’t exactly encouraging. If there was a known and feasible way of boosting academic performance, you’d think that those teachers in Atlanta would have tried it. Sure beats prison.

Maybe there’s an effective approach using fmri and biofeedback – wouldn’t hurt to take a look. But even if it did work, it might simply boost everyone equally, and obviously nobody gives a shit about that.

https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2015/04/22/the-lottery/#comment-68758
They can read simple things. Useful things. If you want to talk about higher levels of literacy, or the lack thereof (functional illiteracy), you need to define your terms. And you should act fast, before I define functional illiteracy – which would include anyone who wasn’t reading Anna Karenina in middle school.
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june 2016 by nhaliday
Buy The Best Nootropics Online Today at Nootropics Depot
high quality, cheap staples, run by u/MisterYouAreSoDumb
nootropics  drugs  neuro  store  brands  metabolic 
june 2016 by nhaliday

bundles : embodied

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