nhaliday + judgement + capitalism + πŸ‘½   2

Educational Romanticism & Economic Development | pseudoerasmus


Did Nations that Boosted Education Grow Faster?: http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2012/10/did_nations_tha.html
On average, no relationship. The trendline points down slightly, but for the time being let's just call it a draw. It's a well-known fact that countries that started the 1960's with high education levels grew faster (example), but this graph is about something different. This graph shows that countries that increased their education levels did not grow faster.

Where has all the education gone?: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=




The Case Against Education: What's Taking So Long, Bryan Caplan: http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2015/03/the_case_agains_9.html

The World Might Be Better Off Without College for Everyone: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2018/01/whats-college-good-for/546590/
Students don't seem to be getting much out of higher education.
- Bryan Caplan

College: Capital or Signal?: http://www.economicmanblog.com/2017/02/25/college-capital-or-signal/
After his review of the literature, Caplan concludes that roughly 80% of the earnings effect from college comes from signalling, with only 20% the result of skill building. Put this together with his earlier observations about the private returns to college education, along with its exploding cost, and Caplan thinks that the social returns are negative. The policy implications of this will come as very bitter medicine for friends of Bernie Sanders.

Doubting the Null Hypothesis: http://www.arnoldkling.com/blog/doubting-the-null-hypothesis/

Is higher education/college in the US more about skill-building or about signaling?: https://www.quora.com/Is-higher-education-college-in-the-US-more-about-skill-building-or-about-signaling
ballpark: 50% signaling, 30% selection, 20% addition to human capital
more signaling in art history, more human capital in engineering, more selection in philosophy

Econ Duel! Is Education Signaling or Skill Building?: http://marginalrevolution.com/marginalrevolution/2016/03/econ-duel-is-education-signaling-or-skill-building.html
Marginal Revolution University has a brand new feature, Econ Duel! Our first Econ Duel features Tyler and me debating the question, Is education more about signaling or skill building?

Against Tulip Subsidies: https://slatestarcodex.com/2015/06/06/against-tulip-subsidies/




Most American public school kids are low-income; about half are non-white; most are fairly low skilled academically. For most American kids, the majority of the waking hours they spend not engaged with electronic media are at school; the majority of their in-person relationships are at school; the most important relationships they have with an adult who is not their parent is with their teacher. For their parents, the most important in-person source of community is also their kids’ school. Young people need adult mirrors, models, mentors, and in an earlier era these might have been provided by extended families, but in our own era this all falls upon schools.

Caplan gestures towards work and earlier labor force participation as alternatives to school for many if not all kids. And I empathize: the years that I would point to as making me who I am were ones where I was working, not studying. But they were years spent working in schools, as a teacher or assistant. If schools did not exist, is there an alternative that we genuinely believe would arise to draw young people into the life of their community?


It is not an accident that the state that spends the least on education is Utah, where the LDS church can take up some of the slack for schools, while next door Wyoming spends almost the most of any state at $16,000 per student. Education is now the one surviving binding principle of the society as a whole, the one black box everyone will agree to, and so while you can press for less subsidization of education by government, and for privatization of costs, as Caplan does, there’s really nothing people can substitute for it. This is partially about signaling, sure, but it’s also because outside of schools and a few religious enclaves our society is but a darkling plain beset by winds.

This doesn’t mean that we should leave Caplan’s critique on the shelf. Much of education is focused on an insane, zero-sum race for finite rewards. Much of schooling does push kids, parents, schools, and school systems towards a solution ad absurdum, where anything less than 100 percent of kids headed to a doctorate and the big coding job in the sky is a sign of failure of everyone concerned.

But let’s approach this with an eye towards the limits of the possible and the reality of diminishing returns.

The real reason the left would support Moander: the usual reason. because he’s an enemy.

I have a problem in thinking about education, since my preferences and personal educational experience are atypical, so I can’t just gut it out. On the other hand, knowing that puts me ahead of a lot of people that seem convinced that all real people, including all Arab cabdrivers, think and feel just as they do.

One important fact, relevant to this review. I don’t like Caplan. I think he doesn’t understand – can’t understand – human nature, and although that sometimes confers a different and interesting perspective, it’s not a royal road to truth. Nor would I want to share a foxhole with him: I don’t trust him. So if I say that I agree with some parts of this book, you should believe me.


Caplan doesn’t talk about possible ways of improving knowledge acquisition and retention. Maybe he thinks that’s impossible, and he may be right, at least within a conventional universe of possibilities. That’s a bit outside of his thesis, anyhow. Me it interests.

He dismisses objections from educational psychologists who claim that studying a subject improves you in subtle ways even after you forget all of it. I too find that hard to believe. On the other hand, it looks to me as if poorly-digested fragments of information picked up in college have some effect on public policy later in life: it is no coincidence that most prominent people in public life (at a given moment) share a lot of the same ideas. People are vaguely remembering the same crap from the same sources, or related sources. It’s correlated crap, which has a much stronger effect than random crap.

These widespread new ideas are usually wrong. They come from somewhere – in part, from higher education. Along this line, Caplan thinks that college has only a weak ideological effect on students. I don’t believe he is correct. In part, this is because most people use a shifting standard: what’s liberal or conservative gets redefined over time. At any given time a population is roughly half left and half right – but the content of those labels changes a lot. There’s a shift.

I put it this way, a while ago: β€œWhen you think about it, falsehoods, stupid crap, make the best group identifiers, because anyone might agree with you when you’re obviously right. Signing up to clear nonsense is a better test of group loyalty. A true friend is with you when you’re wrong. Ideally, not just wrong, but barking mad, rolling around in your own vomit wrong.”
You just explained the Credo quia absurdum doctrine. I always wondered if it was nonsense. It is not.
Someone on twitter caught it first – got all the way to β€œsliding down the razor blade of life”. Which I explained is now called β€œtransitioning”

What Catholics believe: https://theweek.com/articles/781925/what-catholics-believe
We believe all of these things, fantastical as they may sound, and we believe them for what we consider good reasons, well attested by history, consistent with the most exacting standards of logic. We will profess them in this place of wrath and tears until the extraordinary event referenced above, for which men and women have hoped and prayed for nearly 2,000 years, comes to pass.

According to Caplan, employers are looking for conformity, conscientiousness, and intelligence. They use completion of high school, or completion of college as a sign of conformity and conscientiousness. College certainly looks as if it’s mostly signaling, and it’s hugely expensive signaling, in terms of college costs and foregone earnings.

But inserting conformity into the merit function is tricky: things become important signals… because they’re important signals. Otherwise useful actions are contraindicated because they’re β€œnot done”. For example, test scores convey useful information. They could help show that an applicant is smart even though he attended a mediocre school – the same role they play in college admissions. But employers seldom request test scores, and although applicants may provide them, few do. Caplan says ” The word on the street… [more]
econotariat  pseudoE  broad-econ  economics  econometrics  growth-econ  education  human-capital  labor  correlation  null-result  world  developing-world  commentary  spearhead  garett-jones  twitter  social  pic  discussion  econ-metrics  rindermann-thompson  causation  endo-exo  biodet  data  chart  knowledge  article  wealth-of-nations  latin-america  study  path-dependence  divergence  🎩  curvature  microfoundations  multi  convexity-curvature  nonlinearity  hanushek  volo-avolo  endogenous-exogenous  backup  pdf  people  policy  monetary-fiscal  wonkish  cracker-econ  news  org:mag  local-global  higher-ed  impetus  signaling  rhetoric  contrarianism  domestication  propaganda  ratty  hanson  books  review  recommendations  distribution  externalities  cost-benefit  summary  natural-experiment  critique  rent-seeking  mobility  supply-demand  intervention  shift  social-choice  government  incentives  interests  q-n-a  street-fighting  objektbuch  X-not-about-Y  marginal-rev  c:***  qra  info-econ  info-dynamics  org:econlib  yvain  ssc  politics  medicine  stories 
april 2017 by nhaliday
Trust, Trolleys and Social Dilemmas: A Replication Study
Overall, the present studies clearly confirmed the main finding of Everett et al., that deontologists are more trusted than consequentialists in social dilemma games. Study 1 replicates Everett et al.’s effect in the context of trust games. Study 2 generalizes the effect to public goods games, thus demonstrating that it is not specific to the type of social dilemma game used in Everett et al. Finally, both studies build on these results by demonstrating that the increased trust in deontologists may sometimes, but not always, be warranted: deontologists displayed increased cooperation rates but only in the public goods game and not in trust games.

The Adaptive Utility of Deontology: Deontological Moral Decision-Making Fosters Perceptions of Trust and Likeability: https://sci-hub.tw/http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40806-016-0080-6
Consistent with previous research, participants liked and trusted targets whose decisions were consistent with deontological motives more than targets whose decisions were more consistent with utilitarian motives; this effect was stronger for perceptions of trust. Additionally, women reported greater dislike for targets whose decisions were consistent with utilitarianism than men. Results suggest that deontological moral reasoning evolved, in part, to facilitate positive relations among conspecifics and aid group living and that women may be particularly sensitive to the implications of the various motives underlying moral decision-making.

Inference of Trustworthiness From Intuitive Moral Judgments: https://sci-hub.tw/10.1037/xge0000165

Exposure to moral relativism compromises moral behavior: https://sci-hub.tw/http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022103113001339

Is utilitarian sacrifice becoming more morally permissible?: http://cushmanlab.fas.harvard.edu/docs/Hannikainanetal_2017.pdf

Disgust and Deontology: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1948550617732609
Trait Sensitivity to Contamination Promotes a Preference for Order, Hierarchy, and Rule-Based Moral Judgment

We suggest that a synthesis of these two literatures points to one specific emotion (disgust) that reliably predicts one specific type of moral judgment (deontological). In all three studies, we found that trait disgust sensitivity predicted more extreme deontological judgment.

The Influence of (Dis)belief in Free Will on Immoral Behavior: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00020/full

Beyond Sacrificial Harm: A Two-Dimensional Model of Utilitarian Psychology.: http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2017-57422-001
Recent research has relied on trolley-type sacrificial moral dilemmas to study utilitarian versus nonutilitarian modes of moral decision-making. This research has generated important insights into people’s attitudes toward instrumental harmβ€”that is, the sacrifice of an individual to save a greater number. But this approach also has serious limitations. Most notably, it ignores the positive, altruistic core of utilitarianism, which is characterized by impartial concern for the well-being of everyone, whether near or far. Here, we develop, refine, and validate a new scaleβ€”the Oxford Utilitarianism Scaleβ€”to dissociate individual differences in the β€˜negative’ (permissive attitude toward instrumental harm) and β€˜positive’ (impartial concern for the greater good) dimensions of utilitarian thinking as manifested in the general population. We show that these are two independent dimensions of proto-utilitarian tendencies in the lay population, each exhibiting a distinct psychological profile. Empathic concern, identification with the whole of humanity, and concern for future generations were positively associated with impartial beneficence but negatively associated with instrumental harm; and although instrumental harm was associated with subclinical psychopathy, impartial beneficence was associated with higher religiosity. Importantly, although these two dimensions were independent in the lay population, they were closely associated in a sample of moral philosophers. Acknowledging this dissociation between the instrumental harm and impartial beneficence components of utilitarian thinking in ordinary people can clarify existing debates about the nature of moral psychology and its relation to moral philosophy as well as generate fruitful avenues for further research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

A breakthrough in moral psychology: https://nintil.com/2017/12/28/a-breakthrough-in-moral-psychology/

Gender Differences in Responses to Moral Dilemmas: A Process Dissociation Analysis: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25840987
The principle of deontology states that the morality of an action depends on its consistency with moral norms; the principle of utilitarianism implies that the morality of an action depends on its consequences. Previous research suggests that deontological judgments are shaped by affective processes, whereas utilitarian judgments are guided by cognitive processes. The current research used process dissociation (PD) to independently assess deontological and utilitarian inclinations in women and men. A meta-analytic re-analysis of 40 studies with 6,100 participants indicated that men showed a stronger preference for utilitarian over deontological judgments than women when the two principles implied conflicting decisions (d = 0.52). PD further revealed that women exhibited stronger deontological inclinations than men (d = 0.57), while men exhibited only slightly stronger utilitarian inclinations than women (d = 0.10). The findings suggest that gender differences in moral dilemma judgments are due to differences in affective responses to harm rather than cognitive evaluations of outcomes.
study  psychology  social-psych  morality  ethics  things  trust  GT-101  coordination  hmm  adversarial  cohesion  replication  cooperate-defect  formal-values  public-goodish  multi  evopsych  gender  gender-diff  philosophy  values  decision-making  absolute-relative  universalism-particularism  intervention  pdf  piracy  deep-materialism  new-religion  stylized-facts  🌞  🎩  honor  trends  phalanges  age-generation  religion  theos  sanctity-degradation  correlation  order-disorder  egalitarianism-hierarchy  volo-avolo  organizing  impro  dimensionality  patho-altruism  altruism  exploratory  matrix-factorization  ratty  unaffiliated  commentary  summary  haidt  scitariat  reason  emotion  randy-ayndy  liner-notes  latent-variables  nature  autism  πŸ‘½  focus  systematic-ad-hoc  analytical-holistic  expert-experience  economics  markets  civil-liberty  capitalism  personality  psych-architecture  cog-psych  psychometrics  tradition  left-wing  right-wing  ideology  politics  environment  big-peeps  old-anglo  good-evil  ends-means  nietzschean  effe 
march 2017 by nhaliday

bundles : dismality ‧ econ ‧ guvnor ‧ soft ‧ stars

related tags

2016-election βŠ•  :/ βŠ•  ability-competence βŠ•  absolute-relative βŠ•  academia βŠ•  adversarial βŠ•  advertising βŠ•  africa βŠ•  age-generation βŠ•  agri-mindset βŠ•  alt-inst βŠ•  altruism βŠ•  analogy βŠ•  analytical-holistic βŠ•  anglo βŠ•  anglosphere βŠ•  antidemos βŠ•  aphorism βŠ•  arbitrage βŠ•  article βŠ•  asia βŠ•  audio βŠ•  autism βŠ•  automation βŠ•  axelrod βŠ•  axioms βŠ•  backup βŠ•  behavioral-econ βŠ•  big-peeps βŠ•  biodet βŠ•  biotech βŠ•  books βŠ•  branches βŠ•  britain βŠ•  broad-econ βŠ•  business βŠ•  c:*** βŠ•  capitalism βŠ–  causation βŠ•  charity βŠ•  chart βŠ•  christianity βŠ•  civic βŠ•  civil-liberty βŠ•  class βŠ•  coalitions βŠ•  cog-psych βŠ•  cohesion βŠ•  coming-apart βŠ•  commentary βŠ•  communism βŠ•  community βŠ•  comparison βŠ•  competition βŠ•  contrarianism βŠ•  convexity-curvature βŠ•  cooperate-defect βŠ•  coordination βŠ•  corporation βŠ•  correlation βŠ•  cost-benefit βŠ•  counter-revolution βŠ•  counterfactual βŠ•  cracker-econ βŠ•  crime βŠ•  criminology βŠ•  critique βŠ•  crooked βŠ•  current-events βŠ•  curvature βŠ•  darwinian βŠ•  data βŠ•  death βŠ•  debate βŠ•  debt βŠ•  decision-making βŠ•  deep-materialism βŠ•  defense βŠ•  definite-planning βŠ•  democracy βŠ•  developing-world βŠ•  developmental βŠ•  dimensionality βŠ•  discussion βŠ•  distribution βŠ•  divergence βŠ•  domestication βŠ•  douthatish βŠ•  drama βŠ•  duty βŠ•  early-modern βŠ•  econ-metrics βŠ•  econometrics βŠ•  economics βŠ•  econotariat βŠ•  education βŠ•  effect-size βŠ•  efficiency βŠ•  egalitarianism-hierarchy βŠ•  elections βŠ•  elite βŠ•  embodied βŠ•  emotion βŠ•  empirical βŠ•  endo-exo βŠ•  endogenous-exogenous βŠ•  ends-means βŠ•  environment βŠ•  equilibrium βŠ•  error βŠ•  essay βŠ•  estimate βŠ•  ethics βŠ•  europe βŠ•  evidence-based βŠ•  evopsych βŠ•  expert-experience βŠ•  exploratory βŠ•  expression-survival βŠ•  externalities βŠ•  farmers-and-foragers βŠ•  fermi βŠ•  fiction βŠ•  finance βŠ•  fitness βŠ•  flexibility βŠ•  flux-stasis βŠ•  focus βŠ•  foreign-lang βŠ•  foreign-policy βŠ•  formal-values βŠ•  garett-jones βŠ•  gender βŠ•  gender-diff βŠ•  genetics βŠ•  germanic βŠ•  gibbon βŠ•  gnon βŠ•  good-evil βŠ•  google βŠ•  government βŠ•  grad-school βŠ•  gray-econ βŠ•  group-selection βŠ•  growth-econ βŠ•  GT-101 βŠ•  GWAS βŠ•  gwern βŠ•  haidt βŠ•  hanson βŠ•  hanushek βŠ•  hard-tech βŠ•  harvard βŠ•  health βŠ•  heterodox βŠ•  higher-ed βŠ•  history βŠ•  hive-mind βŠ•  hmm βŠ•  homo-hetero βŠ•  honor βŠ•  housing βŠ•  human-capital βŠ•  humility βŠ•  ideology βŠ•  iidness βŠ•  illusion βŠ•  impact βŠ•  impetus βŠ•  impro βŠ•  incentives βŠ•  individualism-collectivism βŠ•  industrial-org βŠ•  info-dynamics βŠ•  info-econ βŠ•  innovation βŠ•  input-output βŠ•  insight βŠ•  institutions βŠ•  integrity βŠ•  intelligence βŠ•  interests βŠ•  internet βŠ•  intervention βŠ•  interview βŠ•  iq βŠ•  japan βŠ•  judgement βŠ–  kinship βŠ•  knowledge βŠ•  labor βŠ•  latent-variables βŠ•  latin-america βŠ•  learning βŠ•  left-wing βŠ•  legibility βŠ•  leviathan βŠ•  life-history βŠ•  liner-notes βŠ•  links βŠ•  local-global βŠ•  lol βŠ•  macro βŠ•  malaise βŠ•  management βŠ•  marginal βŠ•  marginal-rev βŠ•  markets βŠ•  math βŠ•  matrix-factorization βŠ•  meaningness βŠ•  measurement βŠ•  medicine βŠ•  mediterranean βŠ•  mena4 βŠ•  meta-analysis βŠ•  meta:medicine βŠ•  methodology βŠ•  microfoundations βŠ•  military βŠ•  mobility βŠ•  monetary-fiscal βŠ•  money βŠ•  morality βŠ•  mostly-modern βŠ•  multi βŠ•  n-factor βŠ•  nascent-state βŠ•  nationalism-globalism βŠ•  natural-experiment βŠ•  nature βŠ•  neurons βŠ•  new-religion βŠ•  news βŠ•  nietzschean βŠ•  nihil βŠ•  nonlinearity βŠ•  nordic βŠ•  null-result βŠ•  objektbuch βŠ•  old-anglo βŠ•  opioids βŠ•  optimate βŠ•  optimism βŠ•  optimization βŠ•  order-disorder βŠ•  org:anglo βŠ•  org:econlib βŠ•  org:mag βŠ•  organizing βŠ•  orwellian βŠ•  parenting βŠ•  path-dependence βŠ•  patho-altruism βŠ•  pdf βŠ•  people βŠ•  personality βŠ•  pessimism βŠ•  phalanges βŠ•  philosophy βŠ•  pic βŠ•  piracy βŠ•  planning βŠ•  poast βŠ•  podcast βŠ•  policy βŠ•  politics βŠ•  pragmatic βŠ•  preference-falsification βŠ•  presentation βŠ•  privacy βŠ•  problem-solving βŠ•  propaganda βŠ•  proposal βŠ•  protestant-catholic βŠ•  pseudoE βŠ•  psych-architecture βŠ•  psychology βŠ•  psychometrics βŠ•  public-goodish βŠ•  q-n-a βŠ•  qra βŠ•  quantitative-qualitative βŠ•  quotes βŠ•  randy-ayndy βŠ•  ranking βŠ•  rant βŠ•  rationality βŠ•  ratty βŠ•  realness βŠ•  reason βŠ•  recommendations βŠ•  recruiting βŠ•  regulation βŠ•  religion βŠ•  rent-seeking βŠ•  replication βŠ•  retention βŠ•  review βŠ•  rhetoric βŠ•  right-wing βŠ•  rigidity βŠ•  rindermann-thompson βŠ•  rot βŠ•  s:*** βŠ•  sanctity-degradation βŠ•  science βŠ•  scifi-fantasy βŠ•  scitariat βŠ•  shift βŠ•  sib-study βŠ•  signal-noise βŠ•  signaling βŠ•  skeleton βŠ•  skunkworks βŠ•  social βŠ•  social-capital βŠ•  social-choice βŠ•  social-psych βŠ•  social-science βŠ•  social-structure βŠ•  spatial βŠ•  spearhead βŠ•  sports βŠ•  ssc βŠ•  stat-power βŠ•  statesmen βŠ•  stats βŠ•  stories βŠ•  street-fighting βŠ•  study βŠ•  studying βŠ•  stylized-facts βŠ•  sulla βŠ•  summary βŠ•  supply-demand βŠ•  systematic-ad-hoc βŠ•  theos βŠ•  things βŠ•  thinking βŠ•  time-series βŠ•  toolkit βŠ•  track-record βŠ•  tradition βŠ•  transportation βŠ•  trends βŠ•  tribalism βŠ•  troll βŠ•  trust βŠ•  truth βŠ•  twitter βŠ•  unaffiliated βŠ•  universalism-particularism βŠ•  urban-rural βŠ•  us-them βŠ•  usa βŠ•  values βŠ•  vampire-squid βŠ•  video βŠ•  visuo βŠ•  volo-avolo βŠ•  war βŠ•  wealth-of-nations βŠ•  west-hunter βŠ•  westminster βŠ•  wisdom βŠ•  within-without βŠ•  wonkish βŠ•  world βŠ•  world-war βŠ•  X-not-about-Y βŠ•  yvain βŠ•  🌞 βŠ•  🎩 βŠ•  🐸 βŠ•  πŸ‘½ βŠ– 

Copy this bookmark: