nhaliday + crypto   87

Ask HN: What's a promising area to work on? | Hacker News
hn  discussion  q-n-a  ideas  impact  trends  the-bones  speedometer  technology  applications  tech  cs  programming  list  top-n  recommendations  lens  machine-learning  deep-learning  security  privacy  crypto  software  hardware  cloud  biotech  CRISPR  bioinformatics  biohacking  blockchain  cryptocurrency  crypto-anarchy  healthcare  graphics  SIGGRAPH  vr  automation  universalism-particularism  expert-experience  reddit  social  arbitrage  supply-demand  ubiquity  cost-benefit  compensation  chart  career  planning  strategy  long-term  advice  sub-super  commentary  rhetoric  org:com  techtariat  human-capital  prioritizing  tech-infrastructure  working-stiff  data-science 
8 days ago by nhaliday
The Definitive Guide To Website Authentication | Hacker News
hn  commentary  q-n-a  stackex  programming  identification-equivalence  security  web  client-server  crypto  checklists  best-practices  objektbuch  api  multi  cheatsheet  chart  system-design  nitty-gritty  yak-shaving  comparison  explanation  summary  jargon  state  networking  protocol-metadata  time 
17 days ago by nhaliday
xkcd: Security
being serious for a moment the proper defense against this seems to be anonymity
comics  lol  security  crypto  opsec  tradecraft  pic  threat-modeling  pragmatic  the-world-is-just-atoms  software  anonymity  cynicism-idealism  embodied  peace-violence  crypto-anarchy 
july 2019 by nhaliday
Applied Cryptography Engineering — Quarrelsome
You should own Ferguson and Schneier’s follow-up, Cryptography Engineering (C.E.). Written partly in penance, the new book deftly handles material the older book stumbles over. C.E. wants to teach you the right way to work with cryptography without wasting time on GOST and El Gamal.
techtariat  books  recommendations  critique  security  crypto  best-practices  gotchas  programming  engineering  advice  hn 
may 2019 by nhaliday
Complexity no Bar to AI - Gwern.net
Critics of AI risk suggest diminishing returns to computing (formalized asymptotically) means AI will be weak; this argument relies on a large number of questionable premises and ignoring additional resources, constant factors, and nonlinear returns to small intelligence advantages, and is highly unlikely. (computer science, transhumanism, AI, R)
created: 1 June 2014; modified: 01 Feb 2018; status: finished; confidence: likely; importance: 10
ratty  gwern  analysis  faq  ai  risk  speedometer  intelligence  futurism  cs  computation  complexity  tcs  linear-algebra  nonlinearity  convexity-curvature  average-case  adversarial  article  time-complexity  singularity  iteration-recursion  magnitude  multiplicative  lower-bounds  no-go  performance  hardware  humanity  psychology  cog-psych  psychometrics  iq  distribution  moments  complement-substitute  hanson  ems  enhancement  parable  detail-architecture  universalism-particularism  neuro  ai-control  environment  climate-change  threat-modeling  security  theory-practice  hacker  academia  realness  crypto  rigorous-crypto  usa  government 
april 2018 by nhaliday
More arguments against blockchain, most of all about trust - Marginal REVOLUTION
Auditing software is hard! The most-heavily scrutinized smart contract in history had a small bug that nobody noticed — that is, until someone did notice it, and used it to steal fifty million dollars. If cryptocurrency enthusiasts putting together a $150m investment fund can’t properly audit the software, how confident are you in your e-book audit? Perhaps you would rather write your own counteroffer software contract, in case this e-book author has hidden a recursion bug in their version to drain your ethereum wallet of all your life savings?

It’s a complicated way to buy a book! It’s not trustless, you’re trusting in the software (and your ability to defend yourself in a software-driven world), instead of trusting other people.
econotariat  marginal-rev  links  commentary  quotes  bitcoin  cryptocurrency  blockchain  crypto  trust  money  monetary-fiscal  technology  software  institutions  government  comparison  cost-benefit  primitivism  eden-heaven 
april 2018 by nhaliday
Sex, Drugs, and Bitcoin: How Much Illegal Activity Is Financed Through Cryptocurrencies? by Sean Foley, Jonathan R. Karlsen, Tālis J. Putniņš :: SSRN
Cryptocurrencies are among the largest unregulated markets in the world. We find that approximately one-quarter of bitcoin users and one-half of bitcoin transactions are associated with illegal activity. Around $72 billion of illegal activity per year involves bitcoin, which is close to the scale of the US and European markets for illegal drugs. The illegal share of bitcoin activity declines with mainstream interest in bitcoin and with the emergence of more opaque cryptocurrencies. The techniques developed in this paper have applications in cryptocurrency surveillance. Our findings suggest that cryptocurrencies are transforming the way black markets operate by enabling “black e-commerce.”
study  economics  law  leviathan  bitcoin  cryptocurrency  crypto  impetus  scale  markets  civil-liberty  randy-ayndy  crime  criminology  measurement  estimate  pro-rata  money  monetary-fiscal  crypto-anarchy  drugs  internet  tradecraft  opsec  security  intel 
february 2018 by nhaliday
Merkle tree - Wikipedia
In cryptography and computer science, a hash tree or Merkle tree is a tree in which every non-leaf node is labelled with the hash of the labels or values (in case of leaves) of its child nodes.
concept  cs  data-structures  bitcoin  cryptocurrency  blockchain  atoms  wiki  reference  nibble  hashing  ideas  crypto  rigorous-crypto  protocol-metadata 
june 2017 by nhaliday
bmoney.txt
I am fascinated by Tim May's crypto-anarchy. Unlike the communities
traditionally associated with the word "anarchy", in a crypto-anarchy the
government is not temporarily destroyed but permanently forbidden and
permanently unnecessary. It's a community where the threat of violence is
impotent because violence is impossible, and violence is impossible
because its participants cannot be linked to their true names or physical
locations.

Until now it's not clear, even theoretically, how such a community could
operate. A community is defined by the cooperation of its participants,
and efficient cooperation requires a medium of exchange (money) and a way
to enforce contracts. Traditionally these services have been provided by
the government or government sponsored institutions and only to legal
entities. In this article I describe a protocol by which these services
can be provided to and by untraceable entities.
ratty  unaffiliated  crypto-anarchy  crypto  cryptocurrency  coordination  contracts  money  institutions  org:junk  bitcoin  smart-contracts  ideas  blockchain  allodium  protocol-metadata 
june 2017 by nhaliday
Asking the question | West Hunter
Sometimes simply asking the question in the first place is a key step, even when it takes a genius to actually solve the problem. So, even though he couldn’t calculate his way out of a paper bag, Antoine Gombaud, Chevalier de Méré , played an important role in birthing probability theory – by asking Pascal and Fermat to solve the the problem of points – how to divide the stakes of an unfinished series of games. Of course asking the right people is also part of the goodness.

Franciszek Pokorny, who headed the Polish General Staff’s Cipher bureau after World War I, was the first to realize that cryptography and cryptanalysis are essentially mathematical in nature – and that you therefore want to hire mathematicians, rather than classical scholars or members of the band of the battleship California. He recruited Marian Rejewski, Henryk Zygalski and Jerzy Różycki: they weren’t considered world-beaters by other Polish mathematicians – not like Arne Beurling – but they broke Enigma.
west-hunter  scitariat  discussion  history  mostly-modern  science  innovation  discovery  the-trenches  curiosity  info-dynamics  ideas  individualism-collectivism  stories  early-modern  eastern-europe  crypto  probability  low-hanging  alt-inst  organizing  creative 
may 2017 by nhaliday
Information Processing: Big, complicated data sets
This Times article profiles Nick Patterson, a mathematician whose career wandered from cryptography, to finance (7 years at Renaissance) and finally to bioinformatics. “I’m a data guy,” Dr. Patterson said. “What I know about is how to analyze big, complicated data sets.”

If you're a smart guy looking for something to do, there are 3 huge computational problems staring you in the face, for which the data is readily accessible.

1) human genome: 3 GB of data in a single genome; most data freely available on the Web (e.g., Hapmap stores patterns of sequence variation). Got a hypothesis about deep human history (evolution)? Test it yourself...

2) market prediction: every market tick available at zero or minimal subscription-service cost. Can you model short term movements? It's never been cheaper to build and test your model!

3) internet search: about 10^3 Terabytes of data (admittedly, a barrier to entry for an individual, but not for a startup). Can you come up with a better way to index or search it? What about peripheral problems like language translation or picture or video search?

The biggest barrier to entry is, of course, brainpower and a few years (a decade?) of concentrated learning. But the necessary books are all in the library :-)

Patterson has worked in 2 of the 3 areas listed above! Substituting crypto for internet search is understandable given his age, our cold war history, etc.
hsu  scitariat  quotes  links  news  org:rec  profile  giants  stories  huge-data-the-biggest  genomics  bioinformatics  finance  crypto  history  britain  interdisciplinary  the-trenches  🔬  questions  genetics  dataset  search  web  internet  scale  commentary  apollonian-dionysian  magnitude  examples  open-problems  big-surf  markets  securities  ORFE  nitty-gritty  quixotic  google  startups  ideas  measure  space-complexity  minimum-viable  move-fast-(and-break-things) 
february 2017 by nhaliday
6.896: Essential Coding Theory
- probabilistic method and Chernoff bound for Shannon coding
- probabilistic method for asymptotically good Hamming codes (Gilbert coding)
- sparsity used for LDPC codes
mit  course  yoga  tcs  complexity  coding-theory  math.AG  fields  polynomials  pigeonhole-markov  linear-algebra  probabilistic-method  lecture-notes  bits  sparsity  concentration-of-measure  linear-programming  linearity  expanders  hamming  pseudorandomness  crypto  rigorous-crypto  communication-complexity  no-go  madhu-sudan  shannon  unit  p:**  quixotic  advanced 
february 2017 by nhaliday
The Membrane – spottedtoad
All of which is to say that the Internet, which shares many qualities in common with an assemblage of living things except for those clear boundaries and defenses, might well not trend toward increased usability or easier exchange of information over the longer term, even if that is what we have experienced heretofore. The history of evolution is every bit as much a history of parasitism and counterparasitism as it is any kind of story of upward movement toward greater complexity or order. There is no reason to think that we (and still less national or political entities) will necessarily experience technology as a means of enablement and Cool Stuff We Can Do rather than a perpetual set of defenses against scammers of our money and attention. There’s the respect that makes Fake News the news that matters forever more.

THE MADCOM FUTURE: http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/images/publications/The_MADCOM_Future_RW_0926.pdf
HOW ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE WILL ENHANCE COMPUTATIONAL PROPAGANDA, REPROGRAM HUMAN CULTURE, AND THREATEN DEMOCRACY... AND WHAT CAN BE DONE ABOUT IT.

https://twitter.com/toad_spotted/status/984065056437653505
https://archive.is/fZLyb
ai robocalls/phonetrees/Indian Ocean call centers~biologicalization of corporations thru automation&global com tech

fly-by-night scams double mitotically,covered by outer membrane slime&peptidoglycan

trillion $ corps w/nonspecific skin/neutrophils/specific B/T cells against YOU

https://warontherocks.com/2019/08/the-coming-automation-of-propaganda/
ratty  unaffiliated  contrarianism  walls  internet  hacker  risk  futurism  speculation  wonkish  chart  red-queen  parasites-microbiome  analogy  prediction  unintended-consequences  security  open-closed  multi  pdf  white-paper  propaganda  ai  offense-defense  ecology  cybernetics  pessimism  twitter  social  discussion  backup  bio  automation  cooperate-defect  coordination  attention  crypto  money  corporation  accelerationism  threat-modeling  alignment  cost-benefit  interface  interface-compatibility 
december 2016 by nhaliday
Enigma | West Hunter
The modern consensus is that breaking Enigma shortened the war by at least a year.

Although a number of highly-placed people knew the story, some because they had been personally involved during WWII, the successful decryption of Enigma was kept secret until 1974, when F. W. Winterbotham published The Ultra Secret.

Most historians didn’t know about it. Without that information, the course of World War II can’t really have made sense. Why didn’t anyone notice?

various WW2 trivia in the comments/corrections

high school:
https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2012/03/15/enigma/#comment-2417
They couldn’t hide an anomalous level of success. In fact, the Germans came to realize that the Allies had some kind of intelligence edge, but never managed to figure out what it was. When your opponent anticipates your moves, you must eventually notice.

Professional historians, after the war, don’t seem to have noticed anything anomalous. I find this revealing because _I_ noticed that things had gone weirdly smoothly while I was still in high school. I wrote an essay about it.

https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2017/01/05/subsocieties/#comment-86828
I wish I still had it around. I didn’t manage to guess how many rotors Enigma had, for sure. I only talked about how mysteriously well things had gone, didn’t know why. I remember the conclusion: God protects drunks, babies, and the United States of America.
west-hunter  rant  history  social-science  war  intel  mostly-modern  error  bounded-cognition  contradiction  descriptive  realness  being-right  scitariat  info-dynamics  track-record  great-powers  world-war  questions  truth  multi  poast  canon  alt-inst  thick-thin  open-closed  trivia  ability-competence  letters  expert-experience  explanans  inference  technology  crypto  people  theos  religion  aphorism  reflection 
november 2016 by nhaliday
Cryptpad: Zero Knowledge, Collaborative Real Time Editing | Hacker News
comments have interesting discussion of use of "zero-knowledge" in practice
commentary  hn  project  software  tools  crypto  privacy  hmm  engineering 
september 2016 by nhaliday
Cryptography at STOC/FOCS | in theory
On Sunday I also attended a cryptography session. One thing that impressed me was the lively discussion at the end of the talks, very different from the stunned silence that usually follows when the session chair asks if there are any questions. The other thing I noticed was that the session was attended almost exclusively by cryptographers.

Why is that? A first guess is that the field has become very technical. But this cannot be the point; after all, a typical paper on PCP is also very technical, but the audience is not made exclusively of PCP technicians. Maybe the point is that even, or especially, definitions are very technical in cryptography. One can go to a talk showing that sparsest cut does not have a constant-factor approximation assuming the Unique Games Conjecture, and be fairly satisfied that he understands what it would mean for sparsest cut to have a constant-factor approximation and what it would mean for the Unique Games Conjecture to be false. Then one sees some slides with clouds of vertices connected in various ways, one hears mentions of Gaussian distributions, influence of variables, and invariance principles, and one gets lost, but with an idea that there is a reduction that needs certain complicated mathematical techniques to be analyzed.

In a cryptography talk, however, one may get started with the problem of realizing primitive X under assumptions Y1 and Y2, according to security requirement Z, with no set-up assumptions, and it would require quite some expertise to realize that requirement Z is considerably harder to achieve than similarly sounding Z’, which was known to be achievable under assumptions of Y1 and Y’2, where Y’2 is incomparable to Y2, but intuitively stronger, and so on. Consider the recent breakthrough on the long-standing very clear-cut question to achieve statistically hiding commitments assuming only one-way functions. This is a statement that is an order of magnitude simpler than the typical result in cryptography, probably the most basic question that was still open in the 2000s, but even to unpack such a statement is not easy and requires to see various examples, discussion of applications and so on.
crypto  rigorous-crypto  research  thinking  tcs  critique  reflection  tcstariat  conference  lens  UGC  boolean-analysis  reduction  conceptual-vocab  ground-up  luca-trevisan  nibble  org:bleg  stoc  focs 
june 2016 by nhaliday
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