dougleigh + meta-analysis   164

Too much screen time, too little horseplay for kids: study
Only one in 20 kids in the United States meets guidelines on sleep, exercise and screen time, and nearly a third are outside recommendations for all three, according to a study published Thursday.On average, children aged eight to 11 spent 3.
screen-time  research  meta-analysis 
11 weeks ago by dougleigh
Mindfulness-based Relapse Prevention for Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis | RAND
Substance use disorder (SUD) is a prevalent health issue with serious personal and societal consequences. This review aims to estimate the effects and safety of Mindfulness-based Relapse Prevention (MBRP) for SUDs.
research  systematic-review  meta-analysis 
august 2017 by dougleigh
Frontiers | Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Test of Underlying Mechanisms | Psychology
Based on social exchange theory, we examined and contrasted attitudinal mediators (affective organizational commitment, job satisfaction) and relational mediators (trust in leader, leader-member exchange; LMX) of the positive relationship between transformational leadership and organizational citiz
leadership  meta-analysis  research 
august 2017 by dougleigh
4 tips for parents with stressed kids - Futurity
New research has found the best coping strategies for stressed out kids and teens. Here are 4 tips from their work.
meta-analysis  research  parenting 
july 2017 by dougleigh
Assessment of national greenhouse gas mitigation targets for 2030 through meta-analysis of bottom-up energy and emission scenarios: A case of Japan.
This study conducted a comparative assessment and a meta-analysis of 48 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction scenarios based on bottom-up energy system analyses for 2030 reported in seven studies published between 2011 and 2015 to obtain insights into the ambition level of Japan's official mitigation target for 2030. First, the scenarios were categorised into four mitigation effort levels and assessed the GHG emissions range (excluding land use, land use change and forestry: LULUCF) as well as key underlying energy-related indicators for each effort level category. Second, a multiple regression equation was derived and applied to project GHG emissions with selected energy-related explanatory variables. Using the derived regression equation, we calculated the levels of low-carbon energy supply and end-use energy savings required to achieve different levels of GHG mitigation. In the first analysis, GHG emissions levels ranged between 16% and 39% below 1990 levels for scenarios that are categorised to have the highest level of mitigation efforts including those consistent with the 2 °C target, with the nuclear power share ranging at 0–29%. The second analysis indicated that regardless of the future nuclear share, GHG emissions reductions of more than 25% from 1990 levels may be considered a minimum effort required in the global efforts towards the 2 °C target. In this view, Japan's official 2030 target (15% below 1990 levels excluding LULUCF) is suggested to be insufficient, especially in light of the UNFCCC Paris Agreement. Strengthened pre-2020 targets and efforts to reduce energy end-use are essential to achieve such mitigation targets.

Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews; 09/15/2017
(AN 123630730); ISSN: 13640321
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  climate-change 
june 2017 by dougleigh
Effectiveness of peer-led interventions to increase HIV testing among men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
HIV testing constitutes a key step along the continuum of HIV care. Men who have sex with men (MSM) have low HIV testing rates and delayed diagnosis, especially in low-resource settings. Peer-led interventions offer a strategy to increase testing rates in this population. This systematic review and meta-analysis summarizes evidence on the effectiveness of peer-led interventions to increase the uptake of HIV testing among MSM. Using a systematic review protocol that was developeda priori, we searched PubMed, PsycINFO and CINAHL for articles reporting original results of randomized or non-randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental interventions, and pre- and post-intervention studies. Studies were eligible if they targeted MSM and utilized peers to increase HIV testing. We included studies published in or after 1996 to focus on HIV testing during the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. Seven studies encompassing a total of 6205 participants met eligibility criteria, including two quasi-experimental studies, four non-randomized pre- and-post intervention studies, and one cluster randomized trial. Four studies were from high-income countries, two were from Asia and only one from sub-Saharan Africa. We assigned four studies a “moderate” methodological rigor rating and three a “strong” rating. Meta-analysis of the seven studies found HIV testing rates were statistically significantly higher in the peer-led intervention groups versus control groups (pooled OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.74–2.31). Among randomized trials, HIV testing rates were significantly higher in the peer-led intervention versus control groups (pooled OR: 2.48, 95% CI 1.99–3.08). Among the non-randomized pre- and post-intervention studies, the overall pooled OR for intervention versus control groups was 1.71 (95% CI 1.42–2.06), with substantial heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 70%,p < 0.02). Overall, peer-led interventions increased HIV testing among MSM but more data from high-quality studies are needed to evaluate effects of peer-led interventions on HIV testing among MSM in low- and middle-income countries.

AIDS Care; 08/01/2017
(AN 123567799); ISSN: 09540121
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  AIDS  MSM  systematic-review 
june 2017 by dougleigh
Frailty as a predictor of disabilities among community-dwelling older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Background:Frailty has been shown to be associated with disability in the previous studies. However, it is not clear how consistently or to how much degree frailty is actually associated with the future disability risks. Methods:A systematic review of the literature was conducted using Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library for any prospective studies published from 2010 to September 2015 examining associations between baseline frailty status and subsequent risk of developing or worsening disabilities among community-dwelling older people. A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize pooled estimates. Results:Of 7012 studies identified through the systematic review, 20 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Twelve studies examined activities of daily living (ADL) disability risks, two studies examined instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability risks, and six studies examined both ADL and IADL disability risks. Overall, frail older people were more likely to develop or worsen disabilities in ADL (12 studies, pooled OR = 2.76, 95% CI = 2.23–3.44,p < 0.00001; 5 studies, pooled HR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.42–3.49,p < 0.00001) and IADL (6 studies, pooled OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 2.32–5.64,p < 0.00001; 2 studies, pooled HR = 4.24, 95% CI = 0.85–21.28,p = 0.08). Prefrailty was also associated with incident or worsening disability risks to a lesser degree in most pooled analyses. High heterogeneity observed among 12 studies with OR of ADL disability risks for frailty was explored using subgroup analyses, which suggested methodological quality and mean age of the cohort were the possible causes. Conclusion:This systematic review meta-analysis quantitatively showed that frail older people are at higher risks of disabilities. These results are important for all related parties given population aging worldwide. Interventions for frailty are important to prevent disability and preserve physical functions, autonomy, and quality of life.Implications for RehabilitationAlthough frailty has been shown to be associated with disability and considered as a precursor of disability, it is not clear how consistently or to how much degree frailty is actually associated with the future disability risks.This systematic review and meta-analysis quantitatively shows frailty is a significant predictor of incident and worsening ADL and IADL disabilities.It is a pressing priority to develop interventions for frailty to prevent disability and preserve older people’s physical functions, autonomy, and quality of life.

Disability & Rehabilitation; 09/01/2017
(AN 123567833); ISSN: 09638288
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  systematic-review  disability 
june 2017 by dougleigh
Beyond face-to-face individual counseling: A systematic review on alternative modes of motivational interviewing in substance abuse treatment and prevention.
This systematic review aimed to synthesize the evidence on the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI), delivered in modes other than face-to-face individual counseling, in preventing and treating substance abuse related behaviors.<bold>Methods: </bold>Four databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library) were searched for randomised clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness of alternative modes of MI (other than face-to-face individual counseling) in preventing and treating substance abuse. Eligible studies were rated on methodological quality and their findings were qualitatively synthesized.<bold>Results: </bold>A total of 25 articles (on 22 RCTs) were eligible for this review. Beyond face-to-face counseling, telephone was the most frequently used medium for delivering MI (11 studies), followed by Internet communication (4 studies) and short message service (SMS) (2 studies). Mail was incorporated as a supplement in one of the studies for telephone MI. In contrast to one-to-one individual counseling, group MI was adopted in 5 studies. The effectiveness of telephone MI in treating substance abuse was supported by all of the published RCTs we located. Internet-based MI was effective in preventing and treating alcoholism, but its outcome appeared to be inconsistent for smoking cessation and poor for abstinence from illicit drugs. SMS-based MI appeared to be useful for controlling tobacco and drinking. Group MI was attempted for quitting alcohol and drugs, with mixed findings on its outcomes.<bold>Conclusions: </bold>Collectively, the studies reviewed indicate that telephone MI is a promising mode of intervention in treating and preventing substance abuse. The effectiveness of other alternative modes (SMS-based MI, Internet-based MI and group MI) remains inconclusive given the controversial findings and a limited number of studies. By synthesizing the currently available evidence, this systematic review suggested that telephone MI might be considered as an alternative to face-to-face MI for treating and preventing substance abuse. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of SMS-based MI, Internet MI, group MI and other alternative modes. Studies with methodological rigor and incorporating MI fidelity measures have great potential to advance the understanding in this field.

Addictive Behaviors; 10/01/2017
(AN 123501594); ISSN: 03064603
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis 
june 2017 by dougleigh
A systematic review of factors associated with service user satisfaction with psychiatric inpatient services.
Background Satisfaction is seen as an indicator of the quality of mental health services and has been related to outcomes and compliance with treatment. The current review seeks to examine the factors relating to satisfaction with inpatient services. Method A search was conducted of PsycInfo, Web of Science, Cinahl, Embase and Medline databases. Screening resulted in 32 papers being included in the review. Papers were subject to quality assessment using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Results Review of the included papers suggested factors relating to satisfaction could be broadly classified as either service user or service/ward related. Service user related factors included findings that satisfaction was higher when service users were admitted voluntarily. Service related factors included findings that satisfaction was negatively associated with experiences of coercion and positively associated with being on an open ward. Conclusion It appears that coercion has a key role in ratings of satisfaction. Additionally, service users reported an impact of staff relationships, and the ward environment. Satisfaction is associated with a range of factors, an awareness of which will allow for the development of quality services that meet the needs of service users.

Journal of Psychiatric Research; 09/01/2017
(AN 123505341); ISSN: 00223956
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis 
june 2017 by dougleigh
Beyond face-to-face individual counseling: A systematic review on alternative modes of motivational interviewing in substance abuse treatment and prevention.
This systematic review aimed to synthesize the evidence on the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI), delivered in modes other than face-to-face individual counseling, in preventing and treating substance abuse related behaviors.<bold>Methods: </bold>Four databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library) were searched for randomised clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness of alternative modes of MI (other than face-to-face individual counseling) in preventing and treating substance abuse. Eligible studies were rated on methodological quality and their findings were qualitatively synthesized.<bold>Results: </bold>A total of 25 articles (on 22 RCTs) were eligible for this review. Beyond face-to-face counseling, telephone was the most frequently used medium for delivering MI (11 studies), followed by Internet communication (4 studies) and short message service (SMS) (2 studies). Mail was incorporated as a supplement in one of the studies for telephone MI. In contrast to one-to-one individual counseling, group MI was adopted in 5 studies. The effectiveness of telephone MI in treating substance abuse was supported by all of the published RCTs we located. Internet-based MI was effective in preventing and treating alcoholism, but its outcome appeared to be inconsistent for smoking cessation and poor for abstinence from illicit drugs. SMS-based MI appeared to be useful for controlling tobacco and drinking. Group MI was attempted for quitting alcohol and drugs, with mixed findings on its outcomes.<bold>Conclusions: </bold>Collectively, the studies reviewed indicate that telephone MI is a promising mode of intervention in treating and preventing substance abuse. The effectiveness of other alternative modes (SMS-based MI, Internet-based MI and group MI) remains inconclusive given the controversial findings and a limited number of studies. By synthesizing the currently available evidence, this systematic review suggested that telephone MI might be considered as an alternative to face-to-face MI for treating and preventing substance abuse. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of SMS-based MI, Internet MI, group MI and other alternative modes. Studies with methodological rigor and incorporating MI fidelity measures have great potential to advance the understanding in this field.

Addictive Behaviors; 10/01/2017
(AN 123501594); ISSN: 03064603
Education Full Text (H.W. Wilson)
research  meta-analysis 
june 2017 by dougleigh
Executive functioning deficits among adults with Bipolar Disorder (types I and II): A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Executive functioning (EF) deficits contribute to a significant proportion of the burden of disease associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Yet, there is still debate in the literature regarding the exact profile of executive functioning in BD. The purpose of the present project was to assess whether EF deficits exist among adults suffering BD, and whether these deficits (if apparent) differ by BD subtype.<bold>Methods: </bold>A systematic search identified relevant literature. Randomised controlled trials that used neuropsychological assessment to investigate EF among adults 16-65 years) with a remitted DSM diagnosis of BD (type I or II) were included. Studies were published between 1994 and 2015. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken. For individual studies, standardised mean differences (Cohen's d) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and represented in forest plots to illustrate differences in executive performance between groups. Summary effects were produced and tests of heterogeneity employed to assess the dispersion and generalisability of results.<bold>Results: </bold>Thirty-six studies met criteria for inclusion. Six domains of EF were identified: Set-shifting (SS), inhibition (INH), planning (PLA), verbal fluency (VF), working memory (WM), and attention (ATT). BD1s performed worse than HCs in all domains. BD2s demonstrated impairment in VF, WM, SS, and ATT. The results were mixed for comparisons between BD1s and BD2s, but revealed that BD2s can experience similar (or sometimes greater) EF impairment.<bold>Limitations: </bold>Only a limited number of studies that included BD2 samples were available for inclusion in the current study. Subgroup analysis to elucidate potential moderators of within-study variance was not undertaken.<bold>Conclusion: </bold>This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to have compared the EF of remitted BD1s, BD2s, and HCs. The results provided useful insight into the EF profile of patients with BD, and offered commentary as to some of the contradictory results reported in the literature. A standardised methodological protocol for assessment of EF in BD was proposed. The information in this review could enhance our understanding of EF impairment inherent in BD, and the methods and efficacy with which clinicians assess and treat this population.

Journal of Affective Disorders; 08/15/2017
(AN 123464598); ISSN: 01650327
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis 
june 2017 by dougleigh
Can personality traits predict musical style preferences? A meta-analysis.
A meta-analysis was performed on the results of previous studies investigating the association between personality traits and music preferences. Regarding the categorization of personality traits, the Big Five and sensation seeking were used most often and were therefore chosen as the most appropriate categories in the meta-analysis. Regarding the categorization of musical style preferences, the five-dimensional MUSIC (mellow, unpretentious, sophisticated, intense, contemporary) model was used most often and was therefore employed in the meta-analysis. Hence, we included studies in the analysis when they had investigated the relationship between at least one of the Big Five personality traits or sensation seeking and at least one of the five MUSIC dimensions. In total, there were 30 subanalyses. All weighted averaged correlation coefficients were very small, with most of them near zero. Only 6 of the 30 coefficients exceeded 0.1 in magnitude (| r | ≥ 0.1). The largest effects were observed for the openness to experience personality trait, which exhibited small correlations with preference for three musical styles. Thus, personality traits barely account for interindividual differences in music preferences. Musical functions are discussed as an alternative explanation for these differences. The predictability of musical style preferences based on individual psychological variables is questioned in general.

Personality & Individual Differences; 10/01/2017
(AN 123466571); ISSN: 01918869
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  personality  music  big-five  individual-differences 
june 2017 by dougleigh
A meta-analysis of studies with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory in fibromyalgia patients.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) has been widely used to assess personality and psychopathology in patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia, and the results have been contradictory. This work aims primarily at analysing whether the available empirical results with this instrument allow for a conclusion about personality traits and psychopathology of patients with fibromyalgia. Complementary, we evaluated whether the MMPI was able to discriminate these patients from healthy control groups. We carried a search on Medline, PsycINFO and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, about studies evaluating personality and psychopathology of fibromyalgia patients with the MMPI, and the reference lists of retrieved studies were scanned for additional articles. A total of 11 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included. The hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria and schizophrenia scales were the more frequently elevated clinical scales across the included studies. A statistically significant heterogeneity was observed in all clinical scales. This meta-analysis confirmed the existence of a significant elevation in the neurotic triad. The considerable heterogeneity suggests that the fibromyalgia population is a heterogeneous group regarding personality and psychopathology profiles. The MMPI showed to be able to discriminate female patients with fibromyalgia from healthy volunteers.

Personality & Individual Differences; 10/01/2017
(AN 123466575); ISSN: 01918869
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  psychology  individual-differences  personality 
june 2017 by dougleigh
Empirical Retrocausality: Testing Physics Hypotheses With Parapsychological Experiments
In 2011, Daryl Bem published a report of nine parapsychological experiments showing evidence of retrocausal information transfer. Earlier in 2016, the team of Bem, Tressoldi, Rabeyron, and Duggan published the results of a meta-analysis containing 81 independent replications of the original Bem experiments (total of 90 with the originals).[1] This much larger database continues to show positive results of generally comparable effect size, thus demonstrating that the effects claimed by Bem can be replicated by independent researchers and greatly strengthening the case for empirically observed retrocausation. Earlier (2011) work by this author showed how a modification of one of Bem's original experiments could be used to test the mechanism implicitly proposed by Echeverria, Klinkhammer, and Thorne to explain how retrocausal phenomena can exist without any risk of self-contradictory event sequences (time paradoxes). In light of the new publication and new evidence, the current work generalizes the previous analysis which was restricted to only one of Bem's experimental genres (precognitive approach and avoidance). The current analysis shows how minor modifications can be made in Bem's other experimental genres of retroactive priming, retroactive habituation, and retroactive facilitation of recall to test the EKT anti-paradox mechanism. If the EKT hypothesis is correct, the modified experiments, while continuing to show replicable retrocausal phenomena, will also show a characteristic pattern of distortion in the statistics of the random selections used to drive the experiments

AIP Conference Proceedings; 07/22/2017
(AN 123350781); ISSN: 0094243X
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  parapsychology  causation  experimentation  precognition  priming 
june 2017 by dougleigh
What is meant by inclusion? An analysis of European and North American journal articles with high impact.
The purpose of this review is to further our knowledge about what is meant by inclusion in research addressing the topic. While it is common to remark that inclusion is defined in different ways in research, few attempts have been made to map and analyse different types of definitions and whether there are patterns to be find in how the concept is used. The 30 most cited journal articles from a North American and a European research arena were selected for analysis. Each article was analysed in relation to genre, theoretical tradition and inclusion concept used. The review yielded several important results. To name a few, a divide was identified between position articles, with developed discussions about and analyses of the meaning of inclusion, and empirical articles, where inclusion signifies that children with disabilities are placed in the mainstream. In addition, writing within a critical theoretical tradition was much more common among positional papers. Further, both arenas are dominated by Anglo-Saxon researchers. It is argued that the conceptual confusion characterising the field impedes its development.

European Journal of Special Needs Education; 08/01/2017
(AN 123288009); ISSN: 08856257
Education Full Text (H.W. Wilson)
research  meta-analysis  inclusion  disability 
may 2017 by dougleigh
The influence of leadership behavior on employee work-family outcomes: A review and research agenda.
Scholarly inquiries into the prominent role that leaders play in influencing their followers' work-family experiences have flourished in recent decades. Despite this encouraging progress, researchers have criticized the current state of the literature, lamenting that the study of leader behaviors in the work-family literature is either incomplete or oversimplified. To move the field forward, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to take stock of what we know, identify what is still unknown, and chart a path forward for future research. We organize the literature linking leadership to employees' work-family experience based on a four-category framework of leader behavior (task, relationship, change, and ethical/unethical). We summarize what effects leader behaviors may have on their followers, how such effects occur, and the boundary conditions of these effects. We conclude our review by identifying both theoretical and methodological gaps that can inform future leadership research in the work-family domain.

Human Resource Management Review; 09/01/2017
(AN 123194243); ISSN: 10534822
Business Source Premier
research  meta-analysis  leadership 
may 2017 by dougleigh
The use of portfolios to foster professionalism: attributes, outcomes, and recommendations.
The main objective of this research was to review the characteristics of portfolios and their outcomes for teaching professionalism to undergraduate medical students. A systematic review on the use of portfolios in teaching professionalism to medical students identified 1257 papers. Of these, 11 articles met all inclusion criteria. According to the papers, the use of portfolios for teaching professionalism shows versatility, supports learning strategies and has the potential to be used in different contexts, including for formative and summative purposes. The weaknesses were based on the artificiality of the reflections, deficient instructions, time-consuming processes and preference among students for other teaching methods. Students complained about feeling that the reflection was ‘forced’, and they tended to write based on social conventions rather than reveal their true thoughts. Reflection is a powerful component of the portfolio, but the method by which it is taught could easily ruin its potential to boost professionalism. Requiring reflection did not ensure its achievement; increased understanding by students regarding how and why they were doing it, the clarity of assessment methods and constructive feedback might strengthen the potential for success. A framework was designed to support faculty members in developing and applying portfolios with a clear and broad view of this teaching strategy.

Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education; 08/01/2017
(AN 123089261); ISSN: 02602938
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  portfolios 
may 2017 by dougleigh
Modification of appetite by bread consumption: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
The inclusion of different ingredients or the use of different baking technologies may modify the satiety response to bread, and aid in the control of food intake. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic search of randomized clinical trials on the effect of bread consumption on appetite ratings in humans. The search equation was (“Bread”[MeSH]) AND (“Satiation”[MeSH] OR “Satiety response”[MeSH]), and the filter “clinical trials.” As a result of this procedure, 37 publications were selected. The satiety response was considered as the primary outcome. The studies were classified as follows: breads differing in their flour composition, breads differing in ingredients other than flours, breads with added organic acids, or breads made using different baking technologies. In addition, we have revised the data related to the influence of bread on glycemic index, insulinemic index and postprandial gastrointestinal hormones responses. The inclusion of appropriate ingredients such as fiber, proteins, legumes, seaweeds and acids into breads and the use of specific technologies may result in the development of healthier breads that increase satiety and satiation, which may aid in the control of weight gain and benefit postprandial glycemia. However, more well-designed randomized control trials are required to reach final conclusions.

Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition; 09/22/2017
(AN 123089032); ISSN: 10408398
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  RCT 
may 2017 by dougleigh
Effectiveness of Psychotherapy-Based Interventions for Complicated Grief: A Systematic Review.
Grief is a normal, dynamic and multidimensional process, which relates to the individuality and uniqueness of reactions to loss. However, complicated grief is a syndrome where normal grief is unusually prolonged because of complications in the natural healing process. Approximately one third of grieving individuals develop complicated grief symptoms. The individuals suffering from complicated grief tend to report clinical complaints that refer to anxiety, depression, psychical symptoms and life-threatening behaviours. The aims of this study were: to identify which psychotherapy-based interventions were designed for the treatment of complicated grief; and to make an inference about the effect of these interventions.

Current Approaches in Psychiatry / Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar; 10/01/2017
(AN 123075638); ISSN: 13090658
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  grief  bereavement  psychiatry 
may 2017 by dougleigh
Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.
Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and −2.4 kg (−2.8; −2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with −2.6 kg (−3.9; −1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group.

Andrologia; 06/01/2017
(AN 122988479); ISSN: 03034569
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis 
may 2017 by dougleigh
A systematic review of the evidence for acute tolerance to alcohol – the “Mellanby effect”.
Objective:To review the evidence for “the Mellanby effect”, that is, whether the response to a given blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is more marked when BAC is rising than at the same concentration when BAC is falling. Methods:We systematically searched the databases EMBASE, Medline, and Scopus up to and including December 2016 using text words “tolerance”, “ascending”, “descending” or “Mellanby” with Medline term “exp *alcohol/” or “exp *drinking behavior/” or equivalent. Articles were identified for further examination by title or abstract; full text articles were retained for analysis if they dealt with acute (within dose) alcohol tolerance in human subjects and provided quantitative data on both the ascending and descending parts of the BAC–time curve. Reference lists of identified works were scanned for other potentially relevant material. We extracted and analyzed data on the subjective and objective assessment of alcohol effects. Results:We identified and screened 386 unique articles, of which 127 full-text articles were assessed; one provided no qualitative results, 62 involved no human study, 25 did not consider acute tolerance within dose, and 13 failed to provide data on both ascending and descending BAC. We extracted data from the 26 remaining articles. The studies were highly heterogeneous. Most were small, examining a total of 770 subjects, of whom 564 received alcohol and were analyzed in groups of median size 10 (range 5–38), sometimes subdivided on the basis of drinking or family history. Subjects were often young white men. Doses of alcohol and rates of administration differed. Performance was assessed by at least 26 different methods, some of which measured many variables. We examined only results of studies which compared results for a given alcohol concentration (C) measured on the ascending limb (Cup) and the descending limb (Cdown) of the BAC-time curve, whether in paired or parallel-group studies. When subjects were given alcohol in more than one session, we considered results from the first session only. Rating at Cdownwas better than at Cupfor some measures, as expected if the Mellanby effect were operating. For example, subjects rated themselves less intoxicated on the descending limb than at the same concentration on the ascending limb in 12/13 trials including 229 subjects that gave statistically significant results. In 9 trials with a total of 139 subjects, mean difference could be calculated; weighted for study size, it was 29% [range 24–74%]. Willingness to drive was significantly greater in 4 of 6 studies including a total of 105 subjects; weighted mean difference increased by 207% [range 79–300%]. By contrast, measure of driving ability in three groups of a total of 200 trials in 57 subjects showed worse performance by a weighted mean of 96% [range 3–566%]. In three trials that tested inhibitory control (cued go or no-go response times), weighted mean performance was 30% [range 14–65%] worse on the descending limb. Conclusions:The “Mellanby effect” has been demonstrated for subjective intoxication and willingness to drive, both of which are more affected at a stated ethanol concentration when BAC is rising than at the same concentration when BAC is falling. By contrast, objective measures of skills necessary for safe driving, such as response to inhibitory cues and skills measured on driving simulators, were generally worse on the descending part of the BAC-time curve for the same BAC .

Clinical Toxicology (15563650); 07/01/2017
(AN 122962888); ISSN: 15563650
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  alcohol 
may 2017 by dougleigh
Is Public Capital Productive? Evidence from a Meta-analysis.
Debate exists over the role that public investment must play in economic recovery and economic growth. The underlying idea behind this debate has much to do with the value of output elasticity of public capital. This article presents a meta-analysis of this elasticity, which was performed by considering almost 2,000 elasticities previously estimated from 145 papers. In addition, for each elasticity, we also take into account some 30 associated features relative to the methodology used for each case or relative to the characteristics of data samples. The obtained results reveal an average short-term elasticity of 0.13 (0.16 in the long term). We also find evidence of the importance of the methodology adopted for the obtained results, as well as the publication bias. Finally, we find a minor reduction in the value of the elasticity as public capital endowments increase. The results obtained highlight the positive and important effect of public investment on productivity. As a results of the value obtained, public investment will be self-financed in the long-term because of generated returns. But, we also find that the effectiveness of public investment has a clear influence of the institutional context

Applied Economic Perspectives & Policy; 06/01/2017
(AN 122938866); ISSN: 20405790
Business Source Premier
research  meta-analysis  economics 
may 2017 by dougleigh
Why do people file share unlawfully? A systematic review, meta-analysis and panel study.
Unlawful digital media sharing is common and believed to be extremely damaging to business. Understanding unlawful file sharers' motivations offers the opportunity to develop business models and behavioral interventions to maximize consumers' and businesses’ benefit. This paper uses a systematic review of unlawful file sharing research, and the Theory of Planned Behavior, to motivate a large-scale panel study in which initial determinants were used to predict subsequent behavior. A meta-analysis found Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioral Control were all associated with unlawful file sharing. Media type and demographic differences in the importance of Perceived Behavioral Control were found and attributed to more accurate evaluation of familiar activities, i.e., greater experience increases the influence of Perceived Behavioral Control but age does not. The panel study confirmed that greater past experience was associated with Perceived Behavioral Control and Intention. We conclude that past experience increases the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behavior and specifically Perceived Behavioral control in predicting behavior, contrary to some widely held beliefs about the role of experience. The role of experience is therefore crucial to understanding people's choices. Practically, improving social approval, positive evaluation and access to lawful media should reduce unlawful behavior.

Computers in Human Behavior; 07/01/2017
(AN 2017-19032-054); ISSN: 07475632
PsycINFO
research  meta-analysis 
may 2017 by dougleigh
Do interim assessments reduce the race and SES achievement gaps?
The authors examined differential effects of interim assessments on minority and low socioeconomic status students' achievement in Grades K–6. They conducted a large-scale cluster randomized experiment in 2009–2010 to evaluate the impact of Indiana's policy initiative introducing interim assessments statewide. The authors used 2-level models to analyze the single-grade data and determine whether interim assessments interacted with student ethnicity, socioeconomic status, gender, or school composition (i.e., percent of minority or disadvantaged students). The authors also combined estimates across grades using fixed effects meta-analysis. Results indicated little evidence about differential effects. The majority of interaction estimates were insignificant and close to zero. There is some indication that in Grades K–2 Indiana's interim assessment may have closed the Hispanic–White gap in reading. In kindergarten and Grade 3 the treatment may have widened the gap between schools with higher and lower percentages of minority students and may have reduced the gap between schools with higher and lower percentages of economically disadvantaged students in mathematics

Journal of Educational Research; 07/01/2017
(AN 122728397); ISSN: 00220671
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  SES  race  ethnicity 
may 2017 by dougleigh
Systematic literature review and empirical investigation of barriers to process improvement in global software development: Client–vendor perspective.
Context Increasingly, software development organizations are adopting global software development (GSD) strategies, mainly because of the significant return on investment they produce. However, there are many challenges associated with GSD, particularly with regards to software process improvement (SPI). SPI can play a significant role in the successful execution of GSD projects. Objective The aim of the present study was to identify barriers that can negatively affect SPI initiatives in GSD organizations from both client and vendor perspectives. Method A systematic literature review (SLR) and survey questionnaire were used to identify and validate the barriers. Results Twenty-two barriers to successful SPI programs were identified. Results illustrate that the barriers identified using SLR and survey approaches have more similarities However, there were significant differences between the ranking of these barriers in the SLR and survey approaches, as indicated by the results of t -tests (for instance, t  = 2.28, p  = 0.011 < 0.05). Our findings demonstrate that there is a moderate positive correlation between the ranks obtained from the SLR and the empirical study (rs (22) = 0.567, p  = 0.006). Conclusions The identified barriers can assist both client and vendor GSD organizations during initiation of an SPI program. Client-vendor classification was used to provide a broad picture of SPI programs, and their respective barriers. The top-ranked barriers can be used as a guide for GSD organizations prior to the initiation of an SPI program. We believe that the results of this study can be useful in tackling the problems associated with the implementation of SPI, which is vital to the success and progression of GSD organizations.

Information & Software Technology; 07/01/2017
(AN 122826179); ISSN: 09505849
Business Source Premier
research  meta-analysis 
may 2017 by dougleigh
Teachers as writers: a systematic review
This paper is a critical literature review of empirical work from 1990 to 2015 on teachers as writers. It interrogates the evidence on teachers’ attitudes to writing, their sense of themselves as writers and the potential impact of teacher writing on pedagogy or student outcomes in writing. The methodology was carried out in four stages. Firstly, educational databases keyword searches located 438 papers. Secondly, initial screening identified 159 for further scrutiny, 43 of which were found to specifically address teachers’ writing identities and practices. Thirdly, these sources were screened further using inclusion/exclusion criteria. Fourthly, the 22 papers judged to satisfy the criteria were subject to in-depth analysis and synthesis. The findings reveal that the evidence base in relation to teachers as writers is not strong, particularly with regard to the impact of teachers’ writing on student outcomes. The review indicates that teachers have narrow conceptions of what counts as writing and being a writer and that multiple tensions exist, relating to low self-confidence, negative writing histories, and the challenge of composing and enacting teacher and writer positions in school. However, initial training and professional development programmes do appear to afford opportunities for reformulation of attitudes and sense of self as writer

Research Papers in Education; 07/01/2017
(AN 122833899); ISSN: 02671522
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  teaching  writing 
may 2017 by dougleigh
Constructability: Outline of Past, Present, and Future Research
Constructability has been researched for the last five decades, along with relevant connotations such as buildability and constructability programs. Definitions and concepts, assessment, computation and implementation methodologies, and techniques and tools have been qualitatively and quantitatively defined for constructability. A systematic and thorough review and standardization of key construction management concepts, such as constructability, could be the foundation for confronting issues primarily regarding: (1) the increasing complexity of construction projects, (2) the vast information and big data disseminated and accessed by engineers of different disciplines, and (3) the rapid development and increasing impact of tools such as building information modeling (BIM) and collective project management software. This paper presents a thorough literature review of the conceptualization and use of constructability and outlines the relative past and ongoing research trends and implementation tools, in order to contribute to its reevaluation in contemporary construction management. Constructability's value is discussed specifically in connection with risk analysis, and their integration toward the establishment of an inclusive methodology for the holistic management of technical projects

Constructability: Outline of Past, Present, and Future Research.: Journal of Construction Engineering & Management; 08/01/2017
(AN 122726033); ISSN: 07339364
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  construction 
april 2017 by dougleigh
Virtual reality exposure therapy in flight anxiety: A quantitative meta-analysis
Background Flight anxiety and the fear-related avoidance draw serious personal and financial negative consequences. Although classical exposure techniques for flight anxiety are widely used, they involve significant limits. Efforts to develop the benefits and access to evidence-based psychotherapies have led to a new method of delivering exposure technique, namely virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET). Until now, there has been no meta-analysis which assumed as a primary objective the analysis of VRET effectiveness in flight anxiety. Methods The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy of VRET interventions for flight anxiety compared to various control conditions, at post-test and follow-up. We conducted a quantitative review of 11 randomized studies, we examined potential moderators of the efficacy of interventions and we investigated the presence and the degree of publication bias. Results Results pointed out significant overall efficiency of VRET in flight anxiety at post-test and follow-up. Analysis highlighted the superiority of VRET vs. control conditions at post-test and follow-up and the superiority of VRET vs. classical evidence-based interventions at post-test and follow-up. Results revealed similar efficacy between VRET and exposure based interventions at post-test, and showed better treatment gains over time when using VRET vs. exposure based interventions. Moderation analyses revealed that low quality trials, with smaller and younger samples led to a larger effect size of VRET for flight anxiety. Also, outcome types, the number of exposure sessions and follow-up intervals were significant moderators of the efficiency of VRET in this disorder. Conclusions The present meta-analysis supports the efficiency of VRET in flight anxiety and encourages the use of this type of exposure both in clinical practice and research field.

Virtual reality exposure therapy in flight anxiety: A quantitative meta-analysis.: Computers in Human Behavior; 07/01/2017
(AN 122721659); ISSN: 07475632
Education Full Text (H.W. Wilson)
research  meta-analysis  anxiety  virtual-reality 
april 2017 by dougleigh
Why do people file share unlawfully? A systematic review, meta-analysis and panel study
Unlawful digital media sharing is common and believed to be extremely damaging to business. Understanding unlawful file sharers' motivations offers the opportunity to develop business models and behavioral interventions to maximize consumers' and businesses’ benefit. This paper uses a systematic review of unlawful file sharing research, and the Theory of Planned Behavior, to motivate a large-scale panel study in which initial determinants were used to predict subsequent behavior. A meta-analysis found Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioral Control were all associated with unlawful file sharing. Media type and demographic differences in the importance of Perceived Behavioral Control were found and attributed to more accurate evaluation of familiar activities, i.e., greater experience increases the influence of Perceived Behavioral Control but age does not. The panel study confirmed that greater past experience was associated with Perceived Behavioral Control and Intention. We conclude that past experience increases the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behavior and specifically Perceived Behavioral control in predicting behavior, contrary to some widely held beliefs about the role of experience. The role of experience is therefore crucial to understanding people's choices. Practically, improving social approval, positive evaluation and access to lawful media should reduce unlawful behavior.

Why do people file share unlawfully? A systematic review, meta-analysis and panel study.: Computers in Human Behavior; 07/01/2017
(AN 122721687); ISSN: 07475632
Education Full Text (H.W. Wilson)
research  meta-analysis  systematic-review  filesharing 
april 2017 by dougleigh
Trust and risk in consumer acceptance of e-services
Consumers' risk perception and trust are considered among the most important psychological states that influence online behavior. Despite the number of empirical studies that have explored the effects of trust and risk perceptions on consumer acceptance of e-services, the field remains fragmented and the posited research models are contradictory. To address this problem, we examined how trust and risk influence consumer acceptance of e-services through a meta-analysis of 67 studies, followed by tests of competing causal models. The findings confirm that trust and risk are important to e-services acceptance but that trust has a stronger effect size. We found that certain effect sizes were moderated by factors such as the consumer population under study, the type of e-service, and the object of trust under consideration. The data from the meta-analysis best supports the causal logic that positions trust as antecedent to risk perceptions. Risk partially mediates the effects of trust on acceptance

Trust and risk in consumer acceptance of e-services.: Electronic Commerce Research; 06/01/2017
(AN 122710600); ISSN: 13895753
Business Source Premier
research  meta-analysis  trust  risk  business 
april 2017 by dougleigh
Individual Differences in Interpersonal Accuracy: A Multi-Level Meta-Analysis to Assess Whether Judging Other People is One Skill or Many
Research into individual differences in interpersonal accuracy (IPA; the ability to accurately judge others' emotions, intentions, traits, truthfulness, and other social characteristics) has a long tradition and represents a growing area of interest in psychology. Measuring IPA has proved fruitful for uncovering correlates of this skill. However, despite this tradition and a considerable volume of research, very few efforts have been made to look collectively at the nature of the tests involved in assessing IPA, leaving questions of the broader structure of IPA unresolved. Is IPA a single skill or a clustering of many discrete skills or some combination of partially overlapping skills? In a multi-level meta-analysis of 103 published and unpublished participant samples (13,683 participants), we analyzed 622 correlations between pairs of IPA tests (135 different IPA tests altogether). The overall correlation between IPA tests was r = .19, corrected for the nesting of correlations within the studies that administered more than two IPA tests and reported several correlations for the same participant sample. Test domain and characteristics were evaluated to explain differences in effect sizes; in general, tests in similar domains and using similar methodologies were more highly correlated with each other, suggesting that there are domains within which individual differences cluster. Implications for future research and IPA measurement were discussed.

Individual Differences in Interpersonal Accuracy: A Multi-Level Meta-Analysis to Assess Whether Judging Other People is One Skill or Many.: Journal of Nonverbal Behavior; 06/01/2017
(AN 122634740); ISSN: 01915886
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  individual-differences  demographics  personality 
april 2017 by dougleigh
Social media for environmental sustainability awareness in higher education
The explosion of social media use such as Facebook among higher education students is deemed to have great potential in widely disseminating environmental sustainability awareness. The paper aims to capture, summarise, synthesise and comment on the role of social media to garner interest of students and staff on environmental sustainability issues.Design/methodology/approach Systematic literature review technique is adopted, and three selected online databases were searched for relevant papers for review. Specific data were extracted from each paper, and the discussion section was based on the developed research questions.Findings Higher education needs to fully leverage the ubiquity of social media to extend how environmental sustainability is viewed by the students and staff. Sustainability practices conducted at the university level such as recycling, reduction of electricity and water consumptions and paper reduction in classroom and used to engage students on environmental matters. For staff, social media can be leveraged as to convey the university policy and assist in their quest to become full-fledged green universities.Research limitations/implications Some of the limitations of this research include the lack of keyword search using synonyms or related terms equivalent to the term “awareness”, lack of forward and backward searches, and the papers were searched until end of 2013 only. Future research needs to take advantage of the current limitations to investigate this topic and be empirically supported by theories using quantitative, qualitative or mixed-method-based research. Future studies could also develop relevant frameworks to propose an effective use of social media for creating environmental sustainability awareness in higher education.Practical implications Propagations of environmental sustainability awareness in higher education would be more effective with the use of social media.Social implications In principle, the increase of environmental awareness level would increase the students’ good behavioural conduct on environmental sustainability.Originality/value While the broad topic of environmental sustainability in higher education is widely discussed, the role of social media in shaping environmental sustainability awareness is still under researched. This situation provides a significant potential for exploration by sustainability researchers to craft their investigation on the effective role of social media in creating environmental awareness in higher education.

Social media for environmental sustainability awareness in higher education.: International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education; 07/01/2017
(AN 122609837); ISSN: 14676370
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  social-media  highered 
april 2017 by dougleigh
Predictive Sustainability Control: A review assessing the potential to transfer big data driven ‘predictive policing’ to corporate sustainability management
This article discusses the potential to transfer big data algorithms developed for ‘predictive policing’ to the field of corporate sustainability. To do so the paper starts with the thought experiment asking if major corporate scandals with disastrous environmental (BP Oil spill) or social (Rana Plaza building collapse) consequences, or global warming and floods could be prevented if big data driven predictive algorithms were in place. The article reviews first efforts to utilize big data for promoting sustainability and for reducing harm. By analogy the concept of ‘predictive policing’ is identified to be transferred to a concept called “Predictive Sustainability Control”. A systematic literature review on predictive policing is conducted. In a next step all parameters, characteristics, functional areas and processes, as well as legal and ethical issues of predictive policing were clustered and presented. Subsequently the concept is developed out of the clustered themes and criteria (Table 1) and a definition is provided: Predictive Sustainability Control is the use of analytical techniques to identify subjects for mutual deliberation, supervision and intervention with the goal of preventing future harm related to environmental, social and governance issues, solving past scandals, and identifying potential actors/corporations of unsustainable activities and their stakeholders in the near future. Furthermore three functional areas ( sustainability management, stakeholder partnership and regulatory integration ) are defined and the concept is operationalized in a big data driven environment (Fig. 1). In the operationalization the concept of a digital ‘planetary nervous system’ is proposed and eXtensible Business Reporting Language data repositories used in corporate data management and Corporate Social Responsibility reporting were integrated to arrive at a data set, where predictive analytics could be applied to prevent future harm and reduce current unsustainability. In conclusion the question of governance, data protection and privacy is discussed critically and future research avenues for theory advancement and empirical testing are presented. In closing limitations of legality and functionality are discussed. The overall scientific value can be seen in the potential, which big data and algorithms have also for promoting and enforcing sustainable development based on rigorous data management leading to the predictive identification of likely unsustainable events.

Predictive Sustainability Control: A review assessing the potential to transfer big data driven ‘predictive policing’ to corporate sustainability management.: Journal of Cleaner Production; 06/01/2017
(AN 122587780); ISSN: 09596526
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  big-five  sustainability  big-data 
april 2017 by dougleigh
An updated meta-analysis: Short-term therapeutic effects of repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder
<bold>Background: </bold>This study was conducted to evaluate the short-term therapeutic effects of using repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to examine potential influencing factors.<bold>Method: </bold>We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Wanfang, CNKI, and Sinomed databases on September 18, 2016 and reviewed the references of previous meta-analyses. Sham-controlled, randomized clinical trials using rTMS to treat OCD were included. Hedge's g was calculated for the effect size. Subgroup analyses and univariate meta-regressions were conducted.<bold>Results: </bold>Twenty studies with 791 patients were included. A large effect size (g=0.71; 95%CI, 0.55-0.87; P<0.001) was found for the therapeutic effect. Targeting the supplementary motor area (SMA) (g=0.56; 95%CI, 0.12-1.01; P<0.001), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (g=0.47; 95%CI, 0.02-0.93; P=0.02), bilateral DLPFC (g=0.65; 95%CI, 0.38-0.92; P<0.001) and right DLPFC (g=0.93; 95%CI, 0.70-1.15; P<0.001), excluding the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) (g=0.56; 95%CI, -0.05-1.18; P=0.07), showed significant improvements over sham treatments. Both low-frequency (g=0.73; 95%CI, 0.50-0.96; P<0.001) and high-frequency (g=0.70; 95%CI, 0.51-0.89; P<0.001) treatments were significantly better than sham treatments, with no significant differences between the effects of the two frequencies. The subgroup analyses indicated that patients who were non-treatment resistant, lacked concurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) and received threshold-intensity rTMS showed larger therapeutic effects than the corresponding subgroups. The subgroup analysis according to sham strategy showed that tilted coils yielded larger effects than sham coils. Meta-regression analyses revealed that none of the continuous variables were significantly associated with the therapeutic effects.<bold>Limitations: </bold>Only short-term therapeutic effects were assessed in this study.<bold>Conclusions: </bold>Based on this study, the short-term therapeutic effects of rTMS are superior to those of sham treatments. The site of stimulation, stimulation frequency and intensity and sham condition were identified as potential factors modulating short-term therapeutic effects. The findings of this study may inspire future research.

An updated meta-analysis: Short-term therapeutic effects of repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder.: Journal of Affective Disorders; 06/01/2017
(AN 122585051); ISSN: 01650327
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  TMS 
april 2017 by dougleigh
E-cigarettes and Urologic Health: A Collaborative Review of Toxicology, Epidemiology, and Potential Risks
Context Use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) is on the rise in most high-income countries. Smoking conventional cigarettes is a known risk factor for urologic malignancy incidence, progression, and mortality, as well as for other urologic health indicators. The potential impact of EC use on urologic health is therefore of clinical interest to the urology community. Objective To review the available data on current EC use, including potential benefits in urologic patients, potential issues linked to toxicology of EC constituents, and how this might translate into urologic health risks. Evidence acquisition A Medline search was carried out in August 2016 for studies reporting urologic health outcomes and EC use. Snowballing techniques were also used to identify relevant studies from recent systematic reviews. A narrative synthesis of data around EC health outcomes, toxicology, and potential use in smoking cessation and health policy was carried out. Evidence synthesis We found no studies to date that have been specifically designed to prospectively assess urologic health risks, even in an observational setting. Generating such data would be an important contribution to the debate on the role of ECs in public health and clinical practice. There is evidence from a recent Cochrane review of RCTs that ECs can support smoking cessation. There are emerging data indicating that potentially harmful components of ECs such as tobacco-specific nitrosamines, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals could be linked to possible urologic health risks. Conclusions ECs might be a useful tool to encourage cessation of conventional cigarette smoking. However, data collection around the specific impact of ECs on urologic health is needed to clarify the possible patient benefits, outcomes, and adverse events. Patient summary While electronic cigarettes might help some people to stop smoking, their overall impact on urologic health is not clear.

E-cigarettes and Urologic Health: A Collaborative Review of Toxicology, Epidemiology, and Potential Risks.: European Urology; 06/01/2017
(AN 122588316); ISSN: 03022838
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  e-cigarettes  vape 
april 2017 by dougleigh
Efficacy of mindfulness meditation for smoking cessation: A systematic review and meta-analysis
<bold>Background: </bold>Smokers increasingly seek alternative interventions to assist in cessation or reduction efforts. Mindfulness meditation, which facilitates detached observation and paying attention to the present moment with openness, curiosity, and acceptance, has recently been studied as a smoking cessation intervention.<bold>Aims: </bold>This review synthesizes randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness meditation (MM) interventions for smoking cessation.<bold>Methods: </bold>Five electronic databases were searched from inception to October 2016 to identify English-language RCTs evaluating the efficacy and safety of MM interventions for smoking cessation, reduction, or a decrease in nicotine cravings. Two independent reviewers screened literature using predetermined eligibility criteria, abstracted study-level information, and assessed the quality of included studies. Meta-analyses used the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random-effects models. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach.<bold>Findings: </bold>Ten RCTs of MM interventions for tobacco use met inclusion criteria. Intervention duration, intensity, and comparison conditions varied considerably. Studies used diverse comparators such as the American Lung Association's Freedom from Smoking (FFS) program, quitline counseling, interactive learning, or treatment as usual (TAU). Only one RCT was rated as good quality and reported power calculations indicating sufficient statistical power. Publication bias was detected. Overall, mindfulness meditation did not have significant effects on abstinence or cigarettes per day, relative to comparator groups. The small number of studies and heterogeneity in interventions, comparators, and outcomes precluded detecting systematic differences between adjunctive and monotherapy interventions. No serious adverse events were reported.<bold>Conclusions: </bold>MM did not differ significantly from comparator interventions in their effects on tobacco use. Low-quality evidence, variability in study design among the small number of existing studies, and publication bias suggest that additional, high-quality adequately powered RCTs should be conducted.

Efficacy of mindfulness meditation for smoking cessation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.: Addictive Behaviors; 06/01/2017
(AN 121452063); ISSN: 03064603
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  systematic-review  mindfulness  RCT 
april 2017 by dougleigh
Meta-analysis muddle: reviews of evidence are too often flawed | New Scientist
Meta-analysis muddle: reviews of evidence are too often flawed:

Weighing up ever more studies doesn’t move us forward if some are flawed
Saul Gravy/Ikon Images/Getty

Sound decisions should look at all the scientific evidence, whether we are considering healthcare, policy, business strategy or research priorities. That often means putting together many studies, often with conflicting results and with many biases, to try to get a better idea of which way they point overall.

How do we do this? Or if someone does it for us, how can we make sure that they will not be biased and will not pile more errors upon already questionable evidence?

With data and

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research  meta-analysis 
april 2017 by dougleigh
Social presence in relation to students' satisfaction and learning in the online environment: A meta-analysis
Social presence, the ability to perceive others in an online environment, has been shown to impact student motivation and participation, actual and perceived learning, course and instructor satisfaction, and retention in online courses; yet very few researchers have attempted to look across contexts, disciplinary areas, or measures of social presence. This meta-analysis allowed us to look across these variables of the primary studies and identify the pattern of student outcomes (e.g., perceived learning and satisfaction) in relation to social presence through scrutiny of differences between the studies. The results showed a moderately large positive average correlation between social presence and satisfaction (r = 0.56, k = 26) and social presence and perceived learning (r = 0.51, k = 26). Large variation among correlations (86.7% for satisfaction and 92.8% for perceived learning, respectively) also indicated systematic differences among these correlations due to online course settings. We found that (a) the strength of the relationship between social presence and satisfaction was moderated by the course length, discipline area, and scale used to measure social presence; and (b) the relationship between social presence and perceived learning was moderated by the course length, discipline area, and target audience of the course. Implications and future research are discussed

Social presence in relation to students' satisfaction and learning in the online environment: A meta-analysis.: Computers in Human Behavior; 06/01/2017
(AN 2017-14666-043); ISSN: 07475632
PsycINFO
research  meta-analysis  elearning 
april 2017 by dougleigh
Why do people buy virtual goods: A meta-analysis
During the last decade, virtual goods have become an important target of consumption online (especially in games, virtual worlds and social networking services) amongst physical and digital goods. In this study we investigate the question of why do people purchase virtual goods by conducting a meta-analysis (random effects model) of the existing quantitative body of literature (24 studies) on the topic. The meta-analysis revealed an important aspect of value of virtual goods: contrary to traditional goods, the reasons why people purchase virtual goods are tightly connected to the platform where they are sold in. These findings underline the significance of service design and its relationship to the formation of value of virtual goods: the value of virtual goods is context-bound, and therefore, bound to the environment where they are usable in. Most factors that were found to be significant predictors of purchase behavior (such as network effects, self-presentation, enjoyment, ease of use, flow and use of the platform) are directly related to the aspects and design of the platform beyond the general attitudes towards virtual goods themselves. Moreover, we found that enjoyment and prolonged use of the platform were more important predictors for purchases in virtual worlds than in games.

Why do people buy virtual goods: A meta-analysis.: Computers in Human Behavior; 06/01/2017
(AN 2017-14666-008); ISSN: 07475632
PsycINFO
research  meta-analysis 
april 2017 by dougleigh
Agreements and disagreements between children and their parents in health-related assessments
Purpose:To systematically review research concerning parent–child agreement in health-related assessments to reveal overall agreement, directions of agreement, and the factors that affect agreement in ratings. Method:The Uni-Search and five additional databases were searched. Children’s health issues were grouped into psychosocial issues including autism and ADHD, and physical and performance issues including pain. Measures used for comparison were those addressing (a) psychosocial functioning, (b) physical and performance functioning, and (c) health-related quality of life. Results:Totally, 39 studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising 44 analyses in all since four studies contained more than one analyses. Moderate child–parent agreement was demonstrated in 23 analyses and poor agreement in 20 analyses. Several analyses found more agreement on observable/external than on non-observable/internal domains. Overall, parents considered their children had more difficulties than did the children themselves, although there were indications that for children with physical performance issues, parents may underreport their children’s difficulties in emotional functioning and pain. There were no consistencies in differences between children’s and parent’s ratings on levels of agreement with respect to the children’s health issue, age or gender. Conclusions:Discrepancies between child and parent reports seem to reflect their different perspectives and not merely inaccuracy or bias.Implications for RehabilitationIn general, parents consider their children to have more difficulties – or more extensive difficulties – than the children themselves think they have.The perspectives of the child and his or her parents should be sought whenever possible since both constitute important information concerning the child´s health and well-being.Children with physical and performance issues reported more difficulties than their parents concerning the children’s emotional functioning and pain.Clinicians should prioritize obtaining children’s views on subjective aspects such as emotional issues as well as on pain

Agreements and disagreements between children and their parents in health-related assessments.: Disability & Rehabilitation; 06/01/2017
(AN 122253796); ISSN: 09638288
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis 
april 2017 by dougleigh
Why do people play games? A meta-analysis
During the last decade games have arguably become the largest form of leisure information systems (IS). However, today games are also increasingly being employed for a variety of instrumental purposes. Although games have garnered a substantial amount of research attention during the last decade, research literature is scattered and there is still a lack of a clear and reliable understanding of why games are being used, and how they are placed in the established utilitarian-hedonic continuum of information systems. To address this gap, we conducted a meta-analysis of the quantitative body of literature that has examined the reasons for using games (48 studies). Additionally, we compared the findings across games that are intended for either leisure or instrumental use. Even though games are generally regarded as a pinnacle form of hedonically-oriented ISs, our results show that enjoyment and usefulness are equally important determinants for using them (though their definitive role varies between game types). Therefore, it can be posited that games are multi-purpose ISs which nevertheless rely on hedonic factors, even in the pursuit of instrumental outcomes. The present study contributes to and advances our theoretical and empirical understanding of multi-purpose ISs and the ways in which they are used.

Why do people play games? A meta-analysis.: International Journal of Information Management; 06/01/2017
(AN 122117705); ISSN: 02684012
Business Source Premier
research  meta-analysis  games  gaming  play 
march 2017 by dougleigh
The Paradox of Plenty: A Meta-Analysis.
Since Sachs and Warner’s seminal article in 1995, numerous studies have addressed the link between natural resources and economic growth. Although the “resource curse” effect was commonly accepted at first, many articles have challenged its existence, and the results found in the literature are ambiguous. In this paper, we aim to quantitatively review this literature in order to (i) identify the sources of heterogeneity and (ii) assess the impact of natural resources on economic growth. A meta-analysis is performed on 69 empirical studies on the resource curse, totaling 1,419 estimates. Our findings show that (i) only developing countries suffer from the resource curse although it is soft; (ii) the way natural resources are taken into account is crucial to understand the heterogeneity found in the literature; (iii) the negative impact of the volatility of the terms-of-trade on growth should be qualified. An additional MRA performed on indirect effects size also indicate that when institutions are at their best level, the resource curse disappears and may be turned into a blessing.

The Paradox of Plenty: A Meta-Analysis.: World Development; 06/01/2017
(AN 122040481); ISSN: 0305750X
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  natural-resources  economics 
march 2017 by dougleigh
The misdirection of public policy: comparing and combining standardised effect sizes
Increased attention on ‘what works’ in education has led to an emphasis on developing policy from evidence based on comparing and combining a particular statistical summary of intervention studies: the standardised effect size. It is assumed that this statistical summary provides an estimate of the educational impact of interventions and combining these through meta-analyses and meta-meta-analyses results in more precise estimates of this impact which can then be ranked. From these, it is claimed, educational policy decisions can be driven. This paper will demonstrate that these assumptions are false: standardised effect size is open to researcher manipulations which violate the assumptions required for legitimately comparing and combining studies in all but the most restricted circumstances. League tables of types of intervention, which governments point to as an evidence base for effective practice may, instead, be hierarchies of openness to research design manipulations. The paper concludes that public policy and resources are in danger of being misdirected.

The misdirection of public policy: comparing and combining standardised effect sizes.: Journal of Education Policy; 07/01/2017
(AN 122049586); ISSN: 02680939
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  effect-size 
march 2017 by dougleigh
Punishment can support cooperation even when punishable
Do opportunities to punish non-punishers help to stabilize cooperation? Or do opportunities to punish punishers harm cooperation and its benefits by deterring first order punishment and wasting resources? We compare treatments of a decision experiment without peer punishment and with one order of punishment to ones in which subjects can be punished for punishing or for failing to punish. Our treatments with higher-order punishment achieve as much improvement in cooperation as those with only one punishment stage. We see evidence of social norms in action, but no evidence of punishing failure to punish. These results suggest that higher-order punishment is neither critical to nor a major deterrent to cooperation.

Punishment can support cooperation even when punishable.: Economics Letters; 05/01/2017
(AN 122008540); ISSN: 01651765
Business Source Premier
research  meta-analysis  punishment 
march 2017 by dougleigh
Why do people buy virtual goods: A meta-analysis
During the last decade, virtual goods have become an important target of consumption online (especially in games, virtual worlds and social networking services) amongst physical and digital goods. In this study we investigate the question of why do people purchase virtual goods by conducting a meta-analysis (random effects model) of the existing quantitative body of literature (24 studies) on the topic. The meta-analysis revealed an important aspect of value of virtual goods: contrary to traditional goods, the reasons why people purchase virtual goods are tightly connected to the platform where they are sold in. These findings underline the significance of service design and its relationship to the formation of value of virtual goods: the value of virtual goods is context-bound, and therefore, bound to the environment where they are usable in. Most factors that were found to be significant predictors of purchase behavior (such as network effects, self-presentation, enjoyment, ease of use, flow and use of the platform) are directly related to the aspects and design of the platform beyond the general attitudes towards virtual goods themselves. Moreover, we found that enjoyment and prolonged use of the platform were more important predictors for purchases in virtual worlds than in games.

Why do people buy virtual goods: A meta-analysis.. Computers in Human Behavior; 06/01/2017
(AN 122009950); ISSN: 07475632
Education Full Text (H.W. Wilson)
research  meta-analysis  apps  business 
march 2017 by dougleigh
A meta-analysis of the relationship between anxiety and telomere length
<bold>Background and Objectives: </bold>Telomeres are protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, and shorter telomeres are associated with poor physical health. The present study set out to consolidate the varying effect sizes found so far in studies of anxiety and telomere length.<bold>Design and Methods: </bold>A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between anxiety and telomere length used information from 17 different samples comprising a total of 19,424 participants.<bold>Results: </bold>The results showed a small but significant association, r = -.06, between higher anxiety and shorter telomeres. Studies comparing individuals diagnosed with an anxiety disorder with other individuals had a significant effect size, and studies that did not use this comparison threshold did not have a significant effect size.<bold>Conclusions: </bold>Anxiety is associated with an important biomarker related to health. Future experimental studies that examine the impact of interventions intended to reduce anxiety in conjunction with measurement of telomere length can further clarify the impact of anxiety on telomere length.

A meta-analysis of the relationship between anxiety and telomere length.. Anxiety, Stress & Coping; 05/01/2017
(AN 122014677); ISSN: 10615806
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  neuroscience  brain  anxiety 
march 2017 by dougleigh
Similarity-based interference in sentence comprehension: Literature review and Bayesian meta-analysis
We report a comprehensive review of the published reading studies on retrieval interference in reflexive-/reciprocal-antecedent and subject-verb dependencies. We also provide a quantitative random-effects meta-analysis of eyetracking and self-paced reading studies. We show that the empirical evidence is only partly consistent with cue-based retrieval as implemented in the ACT-R-based model of sentence processing by Lewis and Vasishth (2005) (LV05) and that there are important differences between the reviewed dependency types. In non-agreement subject-verb dependencies, there is evidence for inhibitory interference in configurations where the correct dependent fully matches the retrieval cues. This is consistent with the LV05 cue-based retrieval account. By contrast, in subject-verb agreement as well as in reflexive-/reciprocal-antecedent dependencies, no evidence for inhibitory interference is found in configurations with a fully cue-matching subject/antecedent. In configurations with only a partially cue-matching subject or antecedent, the meta-analysis reveals facilitatory interference in subject-verb agreement and inhibitory interference in reflexives/reciprocals. The former is consistent with the LV05 account, but the latter is not. Moreover, the meta-analysis reveals that (i) interference type (proactive versus retroactive) leads to different effects in the reviewed dependency types and (ii) the prominence of the distractor strongly influences the interference effect. In sum, the meta-analysis suggests that the LV05 needs important modifications to account for the unexplained interference patterns and the differences between the dependency types. More generally, the meta-analysis provides a quantitative empirical basis for comparing the predictions of competing accounts of retrieval processes in sentence comprehension

Similarity-based interference in sentence comprehension: Literature review and Bayesian meta-analysis.. Journal of Memory & Language; 06/01/2017
(AN 121938539); ISSN: 0749596X
Education Full Text (H.W. Wilson)
research  meta-analysis  Bayes  language 
march 2017 by dougleigh
(De)contaminating product preferences: A multi-method investigation into pathogen threat's influence on used product preferences
How does being motivated to avoid infectious disease affect the kinds of products people value and buy? Using population-level and experimental data, six studies converge to indicate that infectious disease cues can negatively impact evaluation of secondhand, but not new, products. Studies 1–2 demonstrate that used merchandise retailer revenues are lower in states with elevated pathogen prevalence. Studies 3a–3b echo this relation on an individual level, showing that experimental manipulation of infectious disease threat weakens interest in used products. Such effects are eliminated when sellers are known to buyers and when buyers engage in a behavior (hand-washing) associated with infection prevention (Studies 4–5). Internal meta-analyses reveal that disease threat consistently decreased used goods preferences and elevated valuation of new products across our experimental studies. This research advances our understanding of how disease avoidance motivation changes reactions to everyday objects, thereby highlighting how infectious disease psychology influences important domains of individual and societal life.

(De)contaminating product preferences: A multi-method investigation into pathogen threat's influence on used product preferences.. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology; 05/01/2017
(AN 2017-10841-017); ISSN: 00221031
PsycINFO
research  meta-analysis  marketing 
march 2017 by dougleigh
A meta-analysis and systematic literature review of virtual reality rehabilitation programs
A recent advancement in the study of physical rehabilitation is the application of virtual reality rehabilitation (VRR) programs, in which patients perform practice behaviors while interacting with the computer-simulation of an environment that imitates a physical presence in real or imagined worlds. Despite enthusiasm, much remains unknown about VRR programs. Particularly, two important research questions have been left unanswered: Are VRR programs effective? And, if so, why are VRR programs effective? A meta-analysis is performed in the current article to determine the efficacy of VRR programs, in general, as well as their ability to develop four specific rehabilitation outcomes: motor control, balance, gait, and strength. A systematic literature review is also performed to determine the mechanisms that may cause VRR program success or failure. The results demonstrate that VRR programs are more effective than traditional rehabilitation programs for physical outcome development. Further, three mechanisms have been proposed to cause these improved outcomes: excitement, physical fidelity, and cognitive fidelity; however, empirical research has yet to show that these mechanisms actually prompt better rehabilitation outcomes. The implications of these results and possible avenues for future research and practice are discussed.

A meta-analysis and systematic literature review of virtual reality rehabilitation programs.. Computers in Human Behavior; 05/01/2017
(AN 2017-10968-036); ISSN: 07475632
PsycINFO
research  meta-analysis  systematic-review  virtual-reality 
march 2017 by dougleigh
On the pursuit of desired attitudes: Wanting a different attitude affects information processing and behavior
Recent work suggests that in addition to actual attitudes, people often have desired attitudes that can vary in their congruence with their actual attitudes. We explored whether desired attitudes motivate goal-congruent outcomes by impacting people's evaluative responses over the effects of actual attitudes. Across four studies, we demonstrated that desired attitudes independently predicted behavioral intentions (Study 1), information seeking (Study 2), information processing (Study 3), and overt behavior (Study 4). Further, consistent with the idea that desired attitudes reflect attitudinal goals, these effects were strongest among people who reported that they were highly committed to the pursuit of their desired attitudes (Studies 3 and 4). Last, meta-analyses of the effects of desired attitudes and the desired × commitment to desired attitudes interaction revealed significant evidence for these effects across the four studies. Implications of the results for research on attitudes and persuasion, motivated reasoning, and goal pursuit are discussed.

On the pursuit of desired attitudes: Wanting a different attitude affects information processing and behavior.. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology; 05/01/2017
(AN 2017-10841-016); ISSN: 00221031
PsycINFO
research  meta-analysis  attitudes  persuasion  motivation  decision-making  best 
march 2017 by dougleigh
Are immigrants healthier than native-born Canadians? A systematic review of the healthy immigrant effect in Canada
Objectives:Immigrants are typically healthier than the native-born population in the receiving country and also tend to be healthier than non-migrants in the countries of origin. This foreign-born health advantage has been referred to as the healthy immigrant effect (HIE). We examined evidence for the HIE in Canada. Design:We employed a systematic search of the literature on immigration and health and identified 78 eligible studies. We used a narrative method to synthesize the HIE across different stages of the life-course and different health outcomes within each stage. We also examined the empirical evidence for positive selection and duration effects – two common explanations of migrants’ health advantage and deterioration, respectively. Results:We find that the HIE appears to be strongest during adulthood but less so during childhood/adolescence and late life. A foreign-born health advantage is also more robust for mortality but less so for morbidity. The HIE is also stronger for more recent immigrants but further research is needed to determine the critical threshold for when migrants’ advantage disappears. Positive selection as an explanation for the HIE remains underdeveloped. Conclusions:There is an absence of a uniform foreign-born health advantage across different life-course stages and health outcomes in Canada. Nonetheless, it remains the case that the HIE characterizes the majority of contemporary migrants since Canada’s foreign-born population consists mostly of core working age adults.

Are immigrants healthier than native-born Canadians? A systematic review of the healthy immigrant effect in Canada.. Ethnicity & Health; 06/01/2017
(AN 121926058); ISSN: 13557858
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  immigration  Canada 
march 2017 by dougleigh
Does a future-oriented temporal perspective relate to body mass index, eating, and exercise? A meta-analysis
Objective: The present study aimed to quantify the magnitude of the association between future temporal perspective and Body Mass Index (BMI), diet, and exercise, respectively, and to clarify whether subjective future-focus scales or delay-discounting tasks are a more robust predictor of health behaviors. Methods: A systematic search was conducted for studies that included a dispositional measure of future temporal perspective and a measure of BMI, eating, and/or exercise behavior. Effect sizes for BMI, eating, and exercise were calculated using a random-effects model. Results: The aggregate effect sizes for BMI (r = 0.14, k = 36, 95% CI = 0.10-0.18, p < 0.001), eating (r = 0.16, k = 18, 95% CI = 0.12–0.21, p < 0.001), and exercise (r = 0.12, k = 18, 95% CI = 0.09–0.14, p < 0.001) were significant and small in magnitude. Neither the type of future temporal perspective task (delay-discounting vs. subjective future-focus scale) nor the percentage of obese participants moderated the effect of temporal perspective on BMI, eating, or exercise. Conclusions: Although small in magnitude, the association between temporal perspective and health outcomes is comparable to other individual differences, such as personality and temperament. Future research is needed to examine how increasing the value placed on future outcomes can be integrated into long-term health behavior change interventions.

Does a future-oriented temporal perspective relate to body mass index, eating, and exercise? A meta-analysis.. Appetite; 05/01/2017
(AN 2017-10840-031); ISSN: 01956663
PsycINFO
research  meta-analysis 
march 2017 by dougleigh
Biases in research: risk factors for non-replicability in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy research
Replicability of findings is an essential prerequisite of research. For both basic and clinical research, however, low replicability of findings has recently been reported. Replicability may be affected by research biases not sufficiently controlled for by the existing research standards. Several biases such as researcher allegiance or selective reporting are well-known for affecting results. For psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy research, specific additional biases may affect outcome (e.g. therapist allegiance, therapist effects or impairments in treatment implementation). For meta-analyses further specific biases are relevant. In psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy research these biases have not yet been systematically discussed in the context of replicability. Using a list of 13 biases as a starting point, we discuss each bias's impact on replicability. We illustrate each bias by selective findings of recent research, showing that (1) several biases are not yet sufficiently controlled for by the presently applied research standards, (2) these biases have a pernicious effect on replicability of findings. For the sake of research credibility, it is critical to avoid these biases in future research. To control for biases and to improve replicability, we propose to systematically implement several measures in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy research, such as adversarial collaboration (inviting academic rivals to collaborate), reviewing study design prior to knowing the results, triple-blind data analysis (including subjects, investigators and data managers/statisticians), data analysis by other research teams (crowdsourcing), and, last not least, updating reporting standards such as CONSORT or the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR).

Biases in research: risk factors for non-replicability in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy research.. Psychological Medicine; 04/15/2017
(AN 121854054); ISSN: 00332917
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  bias  replication 
march 2017 by dougleigh
Needle Acupuncture for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A Systematic Review | RAND
Needle Acupuncture for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

RAND researchers conducted a systematic review that synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of needle acupuncture — used adjunctively or as monotherapy — to provide estimates of its efficacy and safety for treating adults diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Outcomes of interest included PTSD symptoms (primary outcome), health-related quality of life, functional status, anxiety and depression symptoms, sleep quality, and adverse events. Meta-analyses were conducted using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random-effects models. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.

Seven studies with 709 total participants were included. We identified potential benefits of acupuncture for PTSD and depression symptoms compared with control groups in the months following treatment, although the quality of the evidence underpinning these estimates is limited. Few minor adverse events and no serious adverse events were reported, but safety assessments were limited. Additional well-designed, rigorous, and large RCTs have the potential to further develop the evidence base to provide more-conclusive evidence.

This research was sponsored by the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury and conducted within the Forces and Resources Policy Center of the RAND National Defense Research Institute, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Staff, the Unified Combatant Commands, the Navy, the Marine Corps, the defense agencies, and the defense Intelligence Community.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation research report series. RAND reports present research findings and objective analysis that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors. All RAND reports undergo rigorous peer review to ensure high standards for research quality and objectivity.

Permission is given to duplicate this electronic document for personal use only, as long as it is unaltered and complete. Copies may not be duplicated for commercial purposes. Unauthorized posting of RAND PDFs to a non-RAND Web site is prohibited. RAND PDFs are protected under copyright law. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit the RAND Permissions page.

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.
research  systematic-review  meta-analysis 
march 2017 by dougleigh
Impact of ambient temperature on morbidity and mortality: An overview of reviews
The objectives were (i) to conduct an overview of systematic reviews to summarize evidence from and evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews assessing the impact of ambient temperature on morbidity and mortality; and (ii) to reanalyse meta-analyses of cold-induced cardiovascular morbidity in different age groups. The registration number is PROSPERO-CRD42016047179. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Global Health were systematically searched to identify systematic reviews. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed quality. The Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklist was used to assess the methodological quality of included systematic reviews. Estimates of morbidity and mortality risk in association with heat exposure, cold exposure, heatwaves, cold spells and diurnal temperature ranges (DTRs) were the primary outcomes. Twenty-eight systematic reviews were included in the overview of systematic reviews. (i) The median (interquartile range) AMSTAR scores were 7 (1.75) for quantitative reviews and 3.5 (1.75) for qualitative reviews. (ii) Heat exposure was identified to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and respiratory mortality, but was not found to have an impact on cardiovascular or cerebrovascular morbidity. (iii) Reanalysis of the meta-analyses indicated that cold-induced cardiovascular morbidity increased in youth and middle-age (RR = 1.009, 95% CI: 1.004–1.015) as well as the elderly (RR = 1.013, 95% CI: 1.007–1.018). (iv) The definitions of temperature exposure adopted by different studies included various temperature indicators and thresholds. In conclusion, heat exposure seemed to have an adverse effect on mortality and cold-induced cardiovascular morbidity increased in the elderly. Developing definitions of temperature exposure at the regional level may contribute to more accurate evaluations of the health effects of temperature.

Impact of ambient temperature on morbidity and mortality: An overview of reviews.. Science of the Total Environment; 05/15/2017
(AN 121754129); ISSN: 00489697
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  death  mortality 
march 2017 by dougleigh
Heterogeneity in meta-analyses. Comparing apples and oranges?
The article provides an answer to a question concerning a meta-analysis on the analgesic effects of propofol total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) compared with inhalational anesthetics.


Heterogeneity in meta-analyses. Comparing apples and oranges?. Anaesthesia; 04/01/2017
(AN 121774943); ISSN: 00032409
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis 
march 2017 by dougleigh
Temperature change between neighboring days and mortality in United States: A nationwide study
Background Temperature change between neighboring days (TCN), an indicator to reflect sudden temperature variation, has been identified as an independent risk factor for human health by small-scale studies. However, the adverse impact of TCN on mortality and effect modification are insufficiently studied, and a larger multi-cities analysis at national level is needed to provide an insightful knowledge. Methods Using daily mortality and meteorological data from 106 communities of United States during 1987 to 2000, we employed a quasi-Poisson regression with distributed lag non-linear model to quantitatively estimate the effect of TCN on mortality for each community and a multivariate meta-analysis to pool the community-specific estimates. Results At national level, a monotonic increasing curve of TCN–mortality association was observed, which indicated that negative TCN (temperature decrease from the previous day) was associated with reduced mortality and positive TCN (temperature increase) elevated the risk of mortality. The relative risk for lag 0–21 days was 0.63 (95% confidence interval: 0.59–0.68) for extremely negative TCN (1st percentile) and 1.46 (1.39–1.54) for extremely positive TCN (99th percentile) on non-accidental mortality. We also found prominent effects of extreme TCNs on mortality for cardiovascular, respiratory, pneumonia, and COPD diseases. People ≥ 75 years and those with respiratory disease, especially pneumonia-deaths, were identified as a particularly vulnerable population to TCN. The TCN–mortality association was modified by season and region. Conclusions A positive TCN was associated with an elevated risk of mortality in United States, with different effect patterns by region and season. Identification of the effect modifiers presented a significantly stronger influence on older adults and those with respiratory disease.

Temperature change between neighboring days and mortality in United States: A nationwide study.. Science of the Total Environment; 04/15/2017
(AN 121672574); ISSN: 00489697
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  mortality  death 
march 2017 by dougleigh
Does a future-oriented temporal perspective relate to body mass index, eating, and exercise?
<bold>Objective: </bold>The present study aimed to quantify the magnitude of the association between future temporal perspective and Body Mass Index (BMI), diet, and exercise, respectively, and to clarify whether subjective future-focus scales or delay-discounting tasks are a more robust predictor of health behaviors.<bold>Methods: </bold>A systematic search was conducted for studies that included a dispositional measure of future temporal perspective and a measure of BMI, eating, and/or exercise behavior. Effect sizes for BMI, eating, and exercise were calculated using a random-effects model.<bold>Results: </bold>The aggregate effect sizes for BMI (r = 0.14, k = 36, 95% CI = 0.10 - 0.18, p < 0.001), eating (r = 0.16, k = 18, 95% CI = 0.12-0.21, p < 0.001), and exercise (r = 0.12, k = 18, 95% CI = 0.09-0.14, p < 0.001) were significant and small in magnitude. Neither the type of future temporal perspective task (delay-discounting vs. subjective future-focus scale) nor the percentage of obese participants moderated the effect of temporal perspective on BMI, eating, or exercise.<bold>Conclusions: </bold>Although small in magnitude, the association between temporal perspective and health outcomes is comparable to other individual differences, such as personality and temperament. Future research is needed to examine how increasing the value placed on future outcomes can be integrated into long-term health behavior change interventions.

Does a future-oriented temporal perspective relate to body mass index, eating, and exercise? A meta-analysis.. Appetite; 05/01/2017
(AN 121558960); ISSN: 01956663
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis 
march 2017 by dougleigh
What is the place of lecture in higher education
The article presents a meta-analysis of 225 studies which examined the effectiveness of traditional lectures compared to active learning in undergraduate science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) courses. It showed that lecturing rose failure rates by 55%, while teaching methods or active learning which are more interactive than traditional lectures led in a 36% decline in class failure rates and better grades.

What is the place of lecture in higher education?. Communication Education; 04/01/2017
(AN 121504707); ISSN: 03634523
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  teaching  learning  highered  academia  lecture  STEM 
march 2017 by dougleigh
What is the place of lecture in higher education
The article presents a meta-analysis of 225 studies which examined the effectiveness of traditional lectures compared to active learning in undergraduate science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) courses. It showed that lecturing rose failure rates by 55%, while teaching methods or active learning which are more interactive than traditional lectures led in a 36% decline in class failure rates and better grades.

What is the place of lecture in higher education?. Communication Education; 04/01/2017
(AN 121504707); ISSN: 03634523
Education Full Text (H.W. Wilson)
research  meta-analysis  teaching  learning  highered  academia  lecture  STEM 
march 2017 by dougleigh
Mindfulness treatment for substance misuse: A systematic review and meta-analysis
High rates of relapse following substance misuse treatment highlight an urgent need for effective therapies. Although the number of empirical studies investigating effects of mindfulness treatment for substance misuse has increased dramatically in recent years, few reviews have examined findings of mindfulness studies. Thus, this systematic review examined methodological characteristics and substantive findings of studies evaluating mindfulness treatments for substance misuse published by 2015. The review also includes the first meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of mindfulness treatments for substance misuse. Comprehensive bibliographic searches in PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Science, identified 42 pertinent studies. Meta-analytic results revealed significant small-to-large effects of mindfulness treatments in reducing the frequency and severity of substance misuse, intensity of craving for psychoactive substances, and severity of stress. Mindfulness treatments were also effective in increasing rates of posttreatment abstinence from cigarette smoking compared to alternative treatments. Mindfulness treatment for substance misuse is a promising intervention for substance misuse, although more research is needed examining the mechanisms by which mindfulness interventions exert their effects and the effectiveness of mindfulness treatments in diverse treatment settings.

Mindfulness treatment for substance misuse: A systematic review and meta-analysis.. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment; 04/01/2017
(AN 121403357); ISSN: 07405472
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  systematic-review  mindfulness 
february 2017 by dougleigh
Ethical Dilemmas at the End of Life: Islamic Perspective
Many Muslim patients and families are often reluctant to accept fatal diagnoses and prognoses. Not infrequently, aggressive therapy is sought by the patient or his/her family, to prolong the life of the patient at all costs. A series of searches were conducted of Medline databases published in English between January 2000 and January 2015 with the following Keywords: End-of-life, Ethics and Islam. Islamic law permits the withdrawal of futile treatment, including all kinds of life support, from terminally ill patients leaving death to take its natural course. However, such decision should only take place when the physicians are confident that death is inevitable. All interventions ensuring patient's comfort and dignity should be maintained. This topic is quite challenging for the health care providers of Muslim patients in the Western World.

Ethical Dilemmas at the End of Life: Islamic Perspective.. Journal of Religion & Health; 04/01/2017
(AN 121367151); ISSN: 00224197
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  ethics  islam  death 
february 2017 by dougleigh
The surprisingly modest relationship between SES and educational achievement
Measures of socioeconomic status (SES) are routinely used in analyses of achievement data to increase statistical power, statistically control for the effects of SES, and enhance causality arguments under the premise that the SES-achievement relationship is moderate to strong. Empirical evidence characterizing the strength of the SES-achievement relationship and its moderators suggests that this relationship is surprisingly modest, with an average SES-achievement correlation of .22, although it appears to have strengthened in the past 3 decades. The modest SES-achievement relationship has important implications for using SES measures in educational data analyses. We provide evidence of this relationship and of the need to use theoretical models to guide the construction and selection of SES measures in analyses of achievement data.

The surprisingly modest relationship between SES and educational achievement.. Journal of Experimental Education; 04/01/2017
(AN 2017-02951-003); ISSN: 00220973
PsycINFO
research  meta-analysis  SES  education 
february 2017 by dougleigh
Evaluation of Research Ethics Committees: Criteria for the Ethical Quality of the Review Process
Repeatedly, adequacy, performance and quality of Ethics Committees that oversee medical research trials are being discussed. Although they play a crucial role in reviewing medical research and protecting human subjects, it is far from clear to what degree they fulfill the task they have been assigned to. This eventuates in the call for an evaluation of their activity and, in some places, led to the establishment of accreditation schemes. At the same time, IRBs have become subject of detailed legislation in the process of the ongoing global juridification of medical research. Unsurprisingly, there is a tendency to understand the evaluation of RECs as a question of controlling their legal compliance. This paper discusses the need for a quality evaluation of IRBs from an ethical point of view and, by systematically reviewing the major ethical guidelines for IRBs, proposes a system of criteria that should orientate any evaluation of IRBs.

Evaluation of Research Ethics Committees: Criteria for the Ethical Quality of the Review Process.. Accountability in Research: Policies & Quality Assurance; 05/01/2017
(AN 121307265); ISSN: 08989621
Business Source Premier
research  meta-analysis  ethics  IRB 
february 2017 by dougleigh
Imagery rescripting as a clinical intervention for aversive memories: A meta-analysis
<bold>Background and Objectives: </bold>Literature suggests that imagery rescripting (ImRs) is an effective psychological intervention.<bold>Methods: </bold>We conducted a meta-analysis of ImRs for psychological complaints that are associated with aversive memories. Relevant publications were collected from the databases Medline, PsychInfo, and Web of Science.<bold>Results: </bold>The search identified 19 trials (including seven randomized controlled trials) with 363 adult patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (eight trials), social anxiety disorder (six trials), body dysmorphic disorder (two trials), major depression (one trial), bulimia nervosa (one trial), or obsessive compulsive disorder (one trial). ImRs was administered over a mean of 4.5 sessions (range, 1-16). Effect size estimates suggest that ImRs is largely effective in reducing symptoms from pretreatment to posttreatment and follow-up in the overall sample (Hedges' g = 1.22 and 1.79, respectively). The comparison of ImRs to passive treatment conditions resulted in a large effect size (g = 0.90) at posttreatment. Finally, the effects of ImRs on comorbid depression, aversive imagery, and encapsulated beliefs were also large.<bold>Limitations: </bold>Most of the analyses involved pre-post comparisons and the findings are limited by the small number of randomized controlled trials.<bold>Conclusions: </bold>Our findings indicate that ImRs is a promising intervention for psychological complaints related to aversive memories, with large effects obtained in a small number of session.

Imagery rescripting as a clinical intervention for aversive memories: A meta-analysis.. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry; 06/01/2017
(AN 121259931); ISSN: 00057916
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  memory  Psychology 
february 2017 by dougleigh
Learning Styles in the e-Learning Environment: The Approaches and Research on Longitudinal Changes
The paper focuses on the field of learning styles in e-learning. The study is structured in two main parts: (1) a brief overview of traditional approaches to learning styles is presented and their role in the process of instruction is set; this part results in the reflection of current state, when learning styles are considered within e-learning; (2) results of meta-analysis dealing with learning styles in the e-learning environment are introduced focusing on two periods (2001-2007, 2008-2014) and journals in selected databases ProQuest Central, Elsevier Science Direct and ERIC. Totally 5,361 papers were collected and structured according to three criteria: (1) time period, (2) relevancy of information sources and (3) relevant key words. Collected data underwent the chí-squared test for independence and the analysis of adjusted residuals on the significance level α=0.05. No statistically significant changes were discovered in the research sample, however, some shifts were detected in this field. Finally, the results were discussed and relating conclusions provided

Learning Styles in the e-Learning Environment: The Approaches and Research on Longitudinal Changes.. International Journal of Distance Education Technologies; 04/01/2017
(AN 121219988); ISSN: 15393100
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  learning-styles  elearning  best 
february 2017 by dougleigh
The Forgiveness Implicit Association Test.
Across nine studies involving N = 1174 participants, we report the development and testing of the Forgiveness Implicit Association Test (IAT). We identify appropriate contrast categories and word content (Studies 1–3); address issues related to implicit-explicit convergence (Studies 4 and 5); and test a double dissociation model to examine the conditions under which the Forgiveness IAT predicts transgression-specific forgiveness (Studies 6–9). We also conducted meta-analyses to examine the extent to which the Forgiveness IAT is resistant to socially desirable responding, relative to self-report measures; and the extent to which individuals implicitly prefer forgiveness to several punitive alternatives (e.g., revenge). The Forgiveness IAT appears to be a good complementary measure to existing trait-level self-report forgiveness measures.

The Forgiveness Implicit Association Test.. Personality and Individual Differences; 04/01/2017
(AN 2017-04113-018); ISSN: 01918869
PsycINFO
research  meta-analysis  forgiveness  assessment  implicit-associations 
february 2017 by dougleigh
The Surprisingly Modest Relationship Between SES and Educational Achievement
Measures of socioeconomic status (SES) are routinely used in analyses of achievement data to increase statistical power, statistically control for the effects of SES, and enhance causality arguments under the premise that the SES-achievement relationship is moderate to strong. Empirical evidence characterizing the strength of the SES-achievement relationship and its moderators suggests that this relationship is surprisingly modest, with an average SES-achievement correlation of .22, although it appears to have strengthened in the past 3 decades. The modest SES-achievement relationship has important implications for using SES measures in educational data analyses. We provide evidence of this relationship and of the need to use theoretical models to guide the construction and selection of SES measures in analyses of achievement data.

The Surprisingly Modest Relationship Between SES and Educational Achievement.. Journal of Experimental Education; 04/01/2017
(AN 121040060); ISSN: 00220973
Education Full Text (H.W. Wilson)
research  meta-analysis  SES  education 
february 2017 by dougleigh
The Surprisingly Modest Relationship Between SES and Educational Achievement
Measures of socioeconomic status (SES) are routinely used in analyses of achievement data to increase statistical power, statistically control for the effects of SES, and enhance causality arguments under the premise that the SES-achievement relationship is moderate to strong. Empirical evidence characterizing the strength of the SES-achievement relationship and its moderators suggests that this relationship is surprisingly modest, with an average SES-achievement correlation of .22, although it appears to have strengthened in the past 3 decades. The modest SES-achievement relationship has important implications for using SES measures in educational data analyses. We provide evidence of this relationship and of the need to use theoretical models to guide the construction and selection of SES measures in analyses of achievement data.

The Surprisingly Modest Relationship Between SES and Educational Achievement.. Journal of Experimental Education; 04/01/2017
(AN 121040060); ISSN: 00220973
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  SES  education 
february 2017 by dougleigh
The Effect of Stake Size in Experimental Bargaining and Distribution Games: A Survey
We review the literature on bargaining and distribution experiments to investigate whether changes in stake size have significant effects on behaviour in laboratory/field settings. We conclude that experiments in this field do not lead to clear/common results. The joint presence of opposing factors (e.g., increasing relative risk aversion and increasing cost of fairness) might be one reason contributing to this. Moreover, we argue that variables such as subjects' financial conditions, cognitive abilities, risk attitudes, loss-aversion, justice orientations, and relevant personality characteristics should be controlled in laboratory experiments to understand the effect of stake size on behaviour, more clearly. Finally, quasi-experiments using data from (very) high-stake games/events and meta-analysis studies should complement (individual) controlled experiments.

The Effect of Stake Size in Experimental Bargaining and Distribution Games: A Survey.. Group Decision & Negotiation; 03/01/2017
(AN 121002904); ISSN: 09262644
Business Source Premier
research  meta-analysis  game-theory 
january 2017 by dougleigh
The Effect of Stake Size in Experimental Bargaining and Distribution Games: A Survey
We review the literature on bargaining and distribution experiments to investigate whether changes in stake size have significant effects on behaviour in laboratory/field settings. We conclude that experiments in this field do not lead to clear/common results. The joint presence of opposing factors (e.g., increasing relative risk aversion and increasing cost of fairness) might be one reason contributing to this. Moreover, we argue that variables such as subjects' financial conditions, cognitive abilities, risk attitudes, loss-aversion, justice orientations, and relevant personality characteristics should be controlled in laboratory experiments to understand the effect of stake size on behaviour, more clearly. Finally, quasi-experiments using data from (very) high-stake games/events and meta-analysis studies should complement (individual) controlled experiments.

The Effect of Stake Size in Experimental Bargaining and Distribution Games: A Survey.. Group Decision & Negotiation; 03/01/2017
(AN 121002904); ISSN: 09262644
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  game-theory 
january 2017 by dougleigh
Metacognitive beliefs in the at-risk mental state: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs are common among people with psychosis. In this meta-analysis we examined whether these are also present in people meeting at-risk mental state (ARMS) criteria. We also explored the relationship between metacognitive beliefs and symptoms in the ARMS group. An electronic database search of Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase from inception until August 2016 was conducted using keyword search terms synonymous with ARMS and metacognition. Eligible studies were original research articles that examined metacognitive beliefs using the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ) among people meeting ARMS criteria. Studies included in the meta-analyses also reported comparison MCQ data acquired from healthy controls, help-seeking individuals, or people with psychotic disorders. Eleven eligible studies were identified, reporting data from six unique ARMS samples. People with ARMS did not differ from those with established psychotic disorders on any MCQ subscale, but they reported significantly more dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs than healthy or help-seeking controls. Maladaptive metacognitive beliefs were associated with a range of symptoms in ARMS individuals, but evidence for associations with specific subthreshold psychotic phenomena was inconsistent. This evidence indicates how valuable assessment and treatment of dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs may be but suggests that specific aspects of methodology should be addressed.

Metacognitive beliefs in the at-risk mental state: A systematic review and meta-analysis.. Behaviour Research & Therapy; 03/01/2017
(AN 120925485); ISSN: 00057967
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  systematic-review  metacognition 
january 2017 by dougleigh
Evidence of a metacognitive benefit to memory?
Studies of the memory-control framework have contrasted free-report and forced-report recall, with little regard to the order of these two tests. The present experiment sought to demonstrate that test order is crucial, and that this suggests a potential role for metacognitive monitoring on memory retrieval. Participants undertook tests of episodic and semantic memory in both free- and forced-report format, in one of the two potential response orders. This showed that free-report performance was more accurate if conducted prior to forced-report, rather than after it, with no cost to memory quantity. Additionally, there was a trend towards higher forced-report performance if it was preceded by an initial free-report test, a pattern revealed by a meta-analysis to be consistent with previous studies in the literature. These findings suggest a reciprocal relationship between metacognitive monitoring and early retrieval processes in memory that results in higher memory performance when monitoring is encouraged.

Evidence of a metacognitive benefit to memory?. Memory; 03/01/2017
(AN 120932109); ISSN: 09658211
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  metacognition  memory  testing 
january 2017 by dougleigh
A review of (almost) 20 years of regional innovation systems research
The literature on regional innovation systems (RISs) has grown impressively in the last two decades. The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive assessment of all RIS articles published in scholarly journals between 1998 and 2015. It aims to inform researchers of the empirical results obtained so far and highlight areas that need further work. This review describes how the RIS field has developed, charts the current body of RIS research and discusses recommendations for moving the RIS field forward.

A review of (almost) 20 years of regional innovation systems research.. European Planning Studies; 03/01/2017
(AN 120895772); ISSN: 09654313
Academic Search Complete
research  meta-analysis  innovation 
january 2017 by dougleigh
Efficacy of Mindfulness Meditation for Smoking Cessation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis | RAND
Efficacy of Mindfulness Meditation for Smoking Cessation.

Background

Smokers increasingly seek alternative interventions to assist in cessation or reduction efforts. Mindfulness meditation, which facilitates detached observation and paying attention to the present moment with openness, curiosity, and acceptance, has recently been studied as a smoking cessation intervention.

Aims

This review synthesizes randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness meditation (MM) interventions for smoking cessation.

Methods

Five electronic databases were searched from inception to October 2016 to identify English-language RCTs evaluating the efficacy and safety of MM interventions for smoking cessation, reduction, or a decrease in nicotine cravings. Two independent reviewers screened literature using predetermined eligibility criteria, abstracted study-level information, and assessed the quality of included studies. Meta-analyses used the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random-effects models. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach.

Findings

Ten RCTs of MM interventions for tobacco use met inclusion criteria. Intervention duration, intensity, and comparison conditions varied considerably. Studies used diverse comparators such as the American Lung Association's Freedom from Smoking (FFS) program, quitline counseling, interactive learning, or treatment as usual (TAU). Only one RCT was rated as good quality and reported power calculations indicating sufficient statistical power. Publication bias was detected. Overall, mindfulness meditation did not have significant effects on abstinence or cigarettes per day, relative to comparator groups. The small number of studies and heterogeneity in interventions, comparators, and outcomes precluded detecting systematic differences between adjunctive and monotherapy interventions. No serious adverse events were reported.

Conclusions

MM did not differ significantly from comparator interventions in their effects on tobacco use. Low-quality evidence, variability in study design among the small number of existing studies, and publication bias suggest that additional, high-quality adequately powered RCTs should be conducted.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation external publication series. Many RAND studies are published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals, as chapters in commercial books, or as documents published by other organizations.

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.
research  systematic-review  meta-analysis 
january 2017 by dougleigh
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