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二零一八年最后一天的弓箭街
十二月三十一日的午后,窗外飘着暖冬的细雨,融掉了前几天的雪。小兔在睡午觉,我们两人膝上各自一只猫。这时空的一隅就都是我们的,似乎确定无疑,也没有什么忧惧。或者这就是度过年末理想的样子。…
from instapaper
17 days ago
域名更新
弓箭街 年年 如社燕 飄流瀚海 來寄修椽 12/30/18 重新试了一下,把WordPress三年(2014-17)的内容整合到这里。那边的广告和强制付费服务有点过分。 访问请使用新域名:www.bowarrowstreet.net 原地址bowarrowstreet.blogspot.com仍可用。 Posted…
from instapaper
18 days ago
搬家小启
弓箭街 年年 如社燕 飄流瀚海 來寄修椽 12/29/18 弓箭街与大观园合体啦! 敬请移步 https://prospectgarden.wordpress.com /。Blogger网站即日停止更新(说起来好像更新很勤快一样……)。正在探索独立域名的可能性。 期待在新居见到新老朋友们。 Posted by at…
from instapaper
19 days ago
好文!旅法30多年翻译详述法国目前社会动乱“黄马甲运动”及法国的现状!

欧盟为各国制定的未来发展方向是: 法国和意大利是专门旅游国, 西班牙和葡萄牙种菜和水果, 德国荷兰丹麦养猪牛, 波兰种粮食; 东欧各小国按人口总额交纳的欧共体分摊金少, 但领取的补助因货币比值差距大而实际受益最多。

俄和前南诸国向西欧贩卖军火, 大量投资滨海房产, 黑社会势力强大, 东欧的蛇头、娼妓、少年惯偷群, 波兰的长途运输业+电工和建筑工, 北非转来的毒品, 大量新老移民轻易获得法国(和西欧其他各国) 经过历史长期斗争而获得的社会福利, 诸多头疼问题导致各国极右翼迅速发展。

美中俄的威胁

法国的税项门类和总额, 被"世界经济发展与合作组织"排名为欧洲最高额国家之一(丹麦第一, 德国第二, 法国第三)。 在至少十多种赋税和社会分摊金以及行业分摊金中, 增值税 1° 收益最大, 其次是社会保险税 2°, 然后依次为: 收入所得税 3°, 公司所得税 4°, 土地税 5°, 居住税 6°, 烟草税 7°, 社会奉献普及税 8° (法文缩写CSG), 以及颇有争议的 巨富团结税 9° (法文缩写 ISF)。

该税始创于1791年大革命时期, 1953年以法律形式正式确定。 几十年来, 法国所有城镇的基建和福利费用所需: 道路修缮, 垃圾清理, 街心花园, 体育中心, 图书馆, 幼儿园, 中小学交通和食堂等, 全指靠国家对此税收的反还款。

跟世界各地的都市布局和建筑艺术相比, 看来看去, 总觉得法国别具一格: 建筑群内临近楼房的风格一致,建筑物本身的外貌与内部功能一致, 内部装饰物的质地和颜色格调一致, 当时利用与未来的长远发展一致, 一句话, 各个市镇的规划设计, 体现出法国人对美的欣赏水平, 整体上高于其他国家。这正如法国人的穿衣习惯,当今世界生活普遍以务实为主, 不管出身是何层次, 穿着是否品牌, 法国人都注意上衣下裤鞋袜的式样搭配和颜色协调。 跟生活水平差距并不大的南欧北欧和德国相比, 法国人的这一点比较突出, 从旅游团的穿戴就能断定是否来自法国。

** 美国飞机向法国空投了3000台钢琴, 几万份爵士乐谱, 意在传播美国生活方式。

左翼上台后根据他们对"社会主义"理念的理解, 实施人人平等, 全民自由, 对犯罪分子从轻判决, 相信他们能自身改造思想, 实际是放纵坏人罪人。 他们主张"不要隔绝罪犯, 使他们远离生活现实, 不利出狱后再融入社会"。 这种对一小撮人的自由, 势必造成社会紊乱, 人身安全无保障, 更谈不上全民自由! 法国的传统左派应当对此负主要责任。

1986年6月我来到法国, 那时社会比现在稳定, 在"巴黎高等翻译学校"上课, 有时晚上11点乘公交车返回郊区住处, 毫无安全问题; 物价呢, 过去50法朗(折合现在7欧元)能买很多东西, 可现在100欧元(折合过去700法朗) 却买不到啥。 由此可见法国的物价涨幅, 人民的普遍购买力和生活水平下降多大, 我深有体会, 所以同情支持。

有位法国老知识分子曾对我说, 美国人称呼新闻媒介为"第四权力" (西方是"三权"鼎立), 此次法国的"黄马甲"运动, 我深有感触。
The derivation of the term fourth estate arises from the traditional European concept of the three estates of the realm: the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners. The equivalent term fourth power is somewhat uncommon in English but is used in many European languages (see: es:Cuarto poder and fr:Quatrième pouvoir, for example) referring to the separation of powers in government into a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary.
analysis  france  anecdote  stereotype  media  2018  question  future  crisis  populism  history  français  from instapaper
27 days ago
Make American Politics Boring Again
TOKYO—Five years ago in a hipster coffee shop in Oakland, I met with a representative of Master Ryuho Okawa, a Japanese spiritualist who claims about 11 million…
from instapaper
5 weeks ago
Letter of Recommendation Stuffed Animals
It’s less infantile than you’d think. Like daydreams, playing with stuffed animals offers pure delight — a chance to doodle with your emotions.
from instapaper
5 weeks ago
燃烧的巴黎:从巴黎街头革命看法国的经济问题
巴黎在燃烧 最近一段时间,法国巴黎发生了一连串骚乱。黄背心们在巴黎街头燃起一团团火焰。这次骚乱已经演变成1968以来最大的一次骚乱。最开始是法国民众是抗议高税收、高油价的,后来则逐渐演变成暴力骚乱。…
france  bashing  numbers  from instapaper
5 weeks ago
The Seductive Enthusiasm of Kenneth Clark’s “Civilisation”
it raised an important question in his mind: how to fuse his erudite tastes in art and culture with the reach and power of broadcast television? In some respects, that remains a quixotic project. And yet Clark managed to pull it off, in ways that still seem surprising and even a little mysterious.

Clark is outrageously committed to the “great man” approach to history and to the concept of genius. “Above all, I believe in the God-given genius of certain individuals, and I value a society that makes their existence possible,” he says.

lets the camera have a leisurely look at whatever he’s been talking about. This is the use of television as a contemplative tool, something rarely attempted and, when done well, still remarkable.

He broke down with emotion on many other occasions during the filming of the series. This predilection for weeping comes through in the final product, in a good way: Clark’s just-under-the-surface emotion, his obvious feeling that the great art we’re being shown matters, gives the series a rare and subtle power.
bio  history  tv  art  civ  west  1960s  classic  from instapaper
5 weeks ago
The Enormous Life of Anthony Bourdain, According to Those Who Knew Him Best
Chris Bourdain is searching for a word that he cannot quite find. We're sitting together in a small café in Grand Central Terminal, drinking table wine and…
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5 weeks ago
Don't Shut Down the Internet's Biggest Jihadi Archive
If you discover that your neighbor—a decent guy and a known history buff—maintains a small collection of Nazi memorabilia, you might not think less of him,…
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5 weeks ago
渠敬东谈韦伯:韦伯真正给我们的,是迎接我们自身的命运_上海书评_澎湃新闻
渠敬东谈韦伯:韦伯真正给我们的,是迎接我们自身的命运_上海书评_澎湃新闻 下载APP 进入原新闻 进入原话题 下载APP 去提问 / 下载APP 打开澎湃客户端提问 视频 时事 财经 湃客 思想 生活 上直播 七环视频 温度计 一级视场 World湃 湃客科技 纪录湃 围观 @所有人 大都会 追光灯 运动装 健寻记…
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5 weeks ago
编剧莎漠(王冰)生平
作者:哈斯 王冰,笔名莎漠,男,汉族,1967年3月出生于山东省沾化县(今滨州市沾化区)双陈村,1991年4月参加工作,2018年12月1日13点29分,因病医治无效,与世长辞,享年51岁。 1987年入伍,曾在中国人民解放军海军潜艇42支队服役,1991年退役。…
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6 weeks ago
追忆王冰 怀念莎漠
刚刚参加完好友的追悼会,内心大恸,无以言表。 编剧莎漠和他的爱车–自由客 以前死亡发生在别人家的老人身上,渐渐地死亡的包围圈慢慢收窄,直到把认识的人偶尔夺取,不过我们依然并不在意,毕竟生活在世上就会有意外发生。直到它取走你好朋友的妻子,以及好朋友身上的欢笑和活力。但是,你依然认为死亡不会再进一步逼近。…
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6 weeks ago
柳智宇下山 - The Matters
写在前面:前两天看到学诚被免去全国政协民宗委副主任的新闻,想起订阅的《智族GQ》杂志11月刊里,有一篇叫做《柳智宇下山》的报道。柳智宇是曾经轰动一时的出家的数学天才,没想到在龙泉寺待了八年之后,他的故事有了新的篇章——他选择下山“普度众生”。花了两天时间把纸刊上的1.5万字转录上网,很长,但值得一看。…
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6 weeks ago
Prêts à des entreprises d'origines différentes
Sur October, vous pouvez prêter à des projets français, espagnols, italiens et néerlandais. Le processus est le même pour chacun d’eux, mais revenons sur les…
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6 weeks ago
Ces chinoises qui ont déjà tout compris à l’écologie
En ce dimanche d’octobre, un épais smog grisâtre voile la Grande Muraille qui serpente sur une ligne de crête au milieu d’une forêt de pins et de cyprès. Malgré…
from instapaper
7 weeks ago
Tyler Cowen's Stubborn Attachments—A Review - Quillette
A review of Stubborn Attachments: A Vision for a Society of Free, Prosperous, and Responsible Individuals by Tyler Cowen. Stripe Press (October 2018), 160…
from instapaper
7 weeks ago
The Woman Who Still Finds Louis C.K. Lovable
The French comedian Blanche Gardin is taking on all of feminism’s orthodoxies.
2018  female  feminism  français  movement  opinion  culture  comedy  artist  from instapaper
7 weeks ago
Sig Turbulence - OpenFOAMWiki
Contents [] 1 OpenFOAM Turbulence Working Group 2 Objectives 3 Guidelines 4 Work space 5 Current projects 6 Publications 1 OpenFOAM Turbulence Working Group…
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8 weeks ago
Why the Enlightenment was not the age of reason

However, the Enlightenment was a diverse phenomenon; most of its philosophy stood far apart from Kantianism, let alone from Hegel’s version of Kant. The truth is that Hegel and the 19th-century Romantics, who believed they were moved by a new spirit of beauty and feeling, summoned up the ‘age of reason’ to serve as a foil for their own self-conception. Their Kantian subject was a straw man, as was the dogmatic rationalism of their Enlightenment.
from instapaper
8 weeks ago
我最后记住的是你的笑脸
得到宋卫新去世的消息,我正在微信群里授课,讲的是和合本《圣经》之《路得记》里的一段话。 路得说,不要催我回去不跟随你,你往哪里去,我也往哪里去。你在哪里住宿,我也在哪里住宿。你的国就是我的国,你的神就是我的神。…
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9 weeks ago
What did the Anglo-Saxons ever do for us?

But the English never forgot 1066. Nor of course did the Welsh and, later, the Irish (the centuries-long assault on their culture began with an Anglo-Norman invasion in the 1170s). The Normans bequeathed wounds yet to heal. Even in the 21st century, we are trying to negotiate the legacy of these events: in Scottish and Welsh independence movements, and in the Irish border question. As the historian Eric John wrote in the 20th century: “It was the Anglo-Saxons who made England, the Normans who attempted to make Great Britain. And as yet they have not succeeded so well.”
history  england  uk  nation  from instapaper
9 weeks ago
The Power of Reading Books in WorkFlowy
I’ve read over a dozen books in WorkFlowy so far. But why ? Why in blue blazes would I do that? Simple, really: For the unparalleled flexibility WorkFlowy gives…
reading  notes  software  from instapaper
9 weeks ago
工业文明的奇迹,绅士世界的哀歌:铁路的文明意义
作者=高林 来源=2018年10月《经济观察报·书评》…
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9 weeks ago
荒野中的国家神话:一场思索美国未来的旅行
作者=刘波 来源=2018年10月《经济观察报·书评》…
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9 weeks ago
回不去的农村,进不去的城市:阶层夹缝中的中国农民工
作者=潘毅、任焰 来源=《农民工与新工人》 2008 年初雪灾来袭的时候,距离中国的农历春节还剩下一个星期,成百上千万的农民工带着回家的渴望和焦灼,滞留在火车站,进退两难。他们为何要背井离乡?又为何每至年关"死也要回家"?…
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9 weeks ago
欧洲为人类带来了什么?
旅法学者、法兰西学院院士程抱一先生的对话,在这篇对话里,程先生提到了一个非常有见证意义的观点:一个人正是在与他者进行最高度的交流时,他身上最优良的部分也才发挥出来;
europe  love  letter  from instapaper
9 weeks ago
郁达夫:日本的文化生活
作者=郁达夫 来源=《漫说文化·说东道西》 无论那一个中国人,初到日本的几个月中间,最感觉到苦痛的,当是饮食起居的不便。…
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9 weeks ago
距离2019还有52天,2018的答卷你写得还顺手吗?
微信ID:sanlianshutong 『生活需要读书和新知』 距离2019还有53天,2018的答卷我们写得还算顺手,你写得怎么样了? 在人人都是自媒体的时代,“记者”似乎成了一个被低估的职业。 不过今天,请允许我王婆卖瓜,夸一夸为什么我们最新的工作成果值得被你们买单。…
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9 weeks ago
刺杀伊藤博文
撰文:李洁 《东方历史评论》微信公号: ohistory 1909年10月26日,伊藤博文殒命于哈尔滨站的站台上,行刺者,乃装扮成日本侨民跻身于欢迎队列里的韩国人安重根。 不过,死于非命的伊藤博文,恰恰是反对本国兼并朝鲜的日本第一人。 1…
from instapaper
9 weeks ago
周六荐书|奥斯曼帝国六百年:土耳其帝国的兴衰

在整个奥斯曼帝国内部肆虐的还有另外一些具有破坏性的不稳定因素,这些因素在封建制的基督教欧洲存在已久:在苏莱曼的时代还不存在、后来却不停发展壮大的世袭体系,成为一个重要的不稳定因素,世袭封地的所有者数量也在迅速增长。
comparison  christendom  ottoman  turkey  history  book  from instapaper
9 weeks ago
World War I Relived Day by Day
Sometimes, it led to intriguing surprises, like photographs of dragon dances performed by some of the 140,000 Chinese laborers brought over to France to lend muscle to the Allied war effort.
ww1  experience  online  history  memory  instapaper_favs  daily  now  from instapaper
9 weeks ago
How Rembrandt Took Britain
National Gallery of Art, Washington/Widener Collection Rembrandt van Rijn: The Mill , 1645–1648 In Alfred Chalon’ s comical Rowlandson-like drawing, Students at…
from instapaper
10 weeks ago
岛上无事发生(下)
最好金杯换酒

大陆最终的优势在于它的纵深和复杂——即便是那种泥沙俱下的复杂也是生命力之所在。尤其是在北京,这里的人们更加多元,历史底蕴依然厚重,有更多更有趣的文化活动,也并非所有的事物都会被折算成金钱。忘了在哪儿看到有人说,北京像是纽约,一个人必须非主流才能入流(You have to be out to be in),而在上海,这个人必须入流才能入流(You have to be in to be in)。此处的上海也可换作香港。
beijing  shanghai  comparison  identity  environment  from instapaper
10 weeks ago
The AI Cold War With China That Threatens Us All
In the spring of 2016, an artificial intelligence system called AlphaGo defeated a world champion Go player in a match at the Four Seasons hotel in Seoul. In…
from instapaper
10 weeks ago
Letter of Recommendation Women’s Clothing
What’s labeled as for men or for women doesn’t have to be.

doing a kind of cross-shopping, which I later learned is defined as a type of anarchy: a single customer defying retailers’ marketing segmentation by shopping where he or she is not expected to.
retail  female  clothing  fashion  from instapaper
10 weeks ago
利器访谈:宝婷,记者、撰稿人、「不可理论」发起人 - 利器
Panasonic Lumix GF1:现在日常都是手机拍照了,旅行时才会带上这部微单相机。我买它的时候,GF 系列好像已经出到 GF5,GF5 的官配饼干头是 14mm/F2.5,远不如 GF1 的 20mm/F1.7 的定焦头。微博和豆瓣上一位曾在日本留学、画插画的小姐姐@林竹也是用的这部机器,样片可以在她的豆瓣相册看到,我的豆瓣相册里也有一些。当时还在香港读书的我,在二手买卖论坛找到卖家,花了 3800 港币入手了 95 新的 GF1。品相确实几乎全新,还配有多一块原装电池。续航能力也很棒,在巴黎旅行时每天拍大量艺术品,连续拍了 5、6 天,才用光一块电池的电量。它也非常适合拍人物。
podcast  writing  camera  from instapaper
10 weeks ago
Romanticism’s Unruly Hero

At a time when we are grappling with doubts and diminishments in so many areas of our social, cultural, and political life, museumgoers may find themselves nonplussed by the bulldozer Romanticism of some of his work. Delacroix’s grandest canvases, along with Hector Berlioz’s operatic and symphonic works and Victor Hugo’s plays, novels, and poems, have a sweep and an insistence that can strike us as not so much authoritative as authoritarian.

During a career that spanned more than forty years, Delacroix explored a phenomenal range of subjects: Old Testament and New Testament stories; scenes from Dante, Shakespeare, and Goethe; several centuries of French history; North African life; the political upheavals of his own moment; portraits, landscapes, seascapes, nudes, and studies of animals and flowers.

Delacroix’s canvas has nothing to do with the softcore fantasies that finicky Orientalist painters served up in the salons. As scholars have pointed out in recent years, he himself made the distinction with his title, which locates these women “in their apartment”—not “in a harem.” While Jean-Léon Gérôme painted scenes in which women were often quite literally being groomed for sex, Delacroix’s women, with their easy languorous authority,

Shakespeare, who discovered the wonderfully organic shape of his plays amid the competing personalities and destinies of his heroes and heroines, may have emboldened Delacroix as he broke with the rigid structures celebrated by French Classicism.

it is fortunate that of all Delacroix’s efforts to go head to head with the masters of the Renaissance and the Baroque, the greatest remains the most accessible. Anyone can walk into the Church of Saint-Sulpice on the Left Bank and linger over his Jacob Wrestling with the Angel.
painting  art  artist  love  letter  leader  français  from instapaper
10 weeks ago
Why Are Americans Still Uncomfortable with Atheism?

Lack of belief in God is still too often taken to mean the absence of any other meaningful moral beliefs, and that has made atheists an easy minority to revile. This is especially true in America, where an insistence on the idea that we are a Christian nation has tied patriotism to religiosity, leading to such strange paroxysms as the one produced by President Trump at last year’s Values Voter Summit: “In America, we don’t worship government—we worship God.”

the national prejudice against them long predates Daniel Seeger and his draft board. It has its roots both in the intellectual history of the country and in a persistent anti-intellectual impulse: the widespread failure to consider what it is that unbelievers actually believe.

From John Locke they inherited the idea that atheists cannot be good citizens and should not be brought into the social contract; in “A Letter Concerning Toleration,” Locke had written, “Those are not at all to be tolerated who deny the being of a God.”

Two centuries after the Founders wrote a godless constitution, the federal government got religion: between 1953 and 1957, a prayer breakfast appeared on the White House calendar, a prayer room opened in the Capitol, “In God We Trust” was added to all currency, and “under God” was inserted into the Pledge of Allegiance.

Like saying “God bless you” when someone sneezes, the courts concluded, these “under God”s and “In God We Trust”s are innocuous; they belong to the realm of patriotism, not prayer.

Much of the animosity and opprobrium directed at nonbelievers in America comes from the suspicion that those who do not believe in God could not possibly believe in anything else, moral or otherwise.

Unlike the linguist—and new atheist—Steven Pinker, Gray regards the idea that the world is getting better as self-evidently silly. “The cumulative increase of knowledge in science has no parallel in ethics or politics,” he points out. Religions are still thriving, as are wars between them, and secular regimes have wrought as much, if not more, havoc under the auspices of Jacobinism, Bolshevism, Nazism, and Maoism.
religion  law  usa  american  mentality  politics  atheism  from instapaper
11 weeks ago
陈乐民:此“封建”非彼“封建”_爱思想

改革开放后,有人提出我们反封建主义不彻底;这话说得一点儿不错。但这个“封建主义”必须指更加祸害严重的专制主义。因为中国历史在先秦封建之后是一以贯之的皇权专制制度,它的流毒影响才是我国政治文明身上的病灶,只一般说反封建主义容易打马虎眼;因为在我们一般人的了解,最容易的是把那些落后的风俗习惯称作“封建”,是很“泛化”的,如父母包办婚姻、上坟烧纸等等,不知不觉地“淡化”了专制的根本主题。

中国自身根本没有那么一个为近代作准备的“中世纪”。这个问题涉及中国历史上有没有“资本主义萌芽”的问题,我认为是没有的。
middle-age  fengjian  china  history  from instapaper
12 weeks ago
何谓“欧洲文明”?

陈乐民、周弘认为,促进欧洲社会发展和进步的文明,主要是指:以求真善美的希腊思想为源头的哲学、伦理学和美学;重视社会效能的政治学、经济学、法学;凝合人生、人性、人格至善本性的基督教精神;探索宇宙,改造自然,造福人类的科学实践。

马克思在分析希腊和罗马建立殖民地根源时非常精辟的一段论述:“在古代国家,在希腊和罗马,采取周期性地建立殖民地形式的强迫移民是社会制度的一个固定环节。这两个国家的整个制度都是建立在人口的一定限度上的,超过这个限度,古代文明就有毁灭的危险。……由于生产力不够发展,公民权要由一种不可违反的一定数量对比关系来决定。那时,惟一的出路就是强迫移民。”这种贸易和殖民的过程,也是希腊人开始走向文明的过程。
LOL

西欧文明之所以有深厚、持久的历史文化传统和创造性活力,其根本原因在于:西欧进入文明社会以来,在特定历史条件下,它经历了约两千五百年的奴隶制社会,一千多年的封建制社会,近四百年的资本主义社会,这些社会形态及其历史阶段都得到比较充分的发展,而且西欧文明在各历史阶段,又善于从周边的诸多外部文明中吸纳、摄取优秀文化成果,才使自身得以发展、壮大。
FRD Norbert Elias

刘文明认为,“文明”观念在欧洲经历了一个演变过程,它源于中世纪宫廷社会的“宫廷礼仪”,经文艺复兴时期的“礼貌”,最终于18世纪中叶出现“文明”这一名词,到19世纪发展成为具有“现代”意涵的“文明”概念。在这一过程中,通过自诩为“文明”群体的“自我”与被贬低为“野蛮”群体的“他者”之间的互动,欧洲人对“文明”的认知及自我“文明”的认同得到强化,并将“文明阶梯”的空间序列时间化,以欧洲经验为基础的“文明”概念被建构起来。
2000s  book  academia  chinese  europe  civ  origin  debate  greek  emigration  antiquity  from instapaper
12 weeks ago
科学网—CR929客机,中国为何要与俄罗斯合作(时评.科普.原创) - 沈海军的博文
沈海军 CR929 远程宽体客机是继C919研制成功后,中俄两国联合研制的新一代大型客机,从现有资料可知,CR929客机起飞总重220吨,拟采用2台推力为35吨级的发动机,采用双通道客舱布局,座级280座,升级型座级可达350座。…
from instapaper
12 weeks ago
Jared Diamond: ‘Humans, 150,000 years ago, wouldn’t figure on a list of the five most interesting species on Earth’

It was a painful thought for someone who recalled being told, by an admiring teacher at his Massachusetts school, that one day he would “unify the sciences and humanities”. Clearly, he needed a larger canvas. Even so, few could have predicted how large a canvas he would choose.

1997’s Guns, Germs and Steel – which ask the most sweeping questions it is possible to ask about human history.

Diamond, who describes himself as a biogeographer, answers them in translucent prose that has the effect of making the world seem to click into place, each fact assuming its place in an elegant arc of pan-historical reasoning.

Why? Because 8,000 years ago – to borrow from Guns, Germs and Steel – the geography of Europe and the Middle East made it easier to farm crops and animals there than elsewhere.

vicious jousting between Diamond and many anthropologists. They condemn him as a cultural imperialist, intent on excusing the horrors of colonialism while asserting the moral superiority of the west.

In person, Diamond is a fastidiously courteous 77-year-old with a Quaker-style beard sans moustache, and archaic New England vowels: “often” becomes “orphan”, “area” becomes “eerier”. There’s no computer: despite his children’s best efforts, he admits he’s never learned to use one.

What changed, Diamond argues, was a seemingly minor set of mutations in our larynxes, permitting control over spoken sounds, and thus spoken language; spoken language permitted much of the rest.

It won a Pulitzer prize and has sold more than 1.5m copies in 36 languages. Mitt Romney quoted it admiringly in his 2012 presidential campaign, garbling its message entirely.

he found himself accused of “geographic determinism”: in his critics’ opinion, his arguments squeeze out any role for human agency and decision-making, thereby sparing history’s colonisers – and today’s elites – any responsibility for having created our grotesquely unjust world.

Each of the two books has the unusual distinction of having another book dedicated largely to demolishing it: Yali’s Question, which offers a different answer from Diamond’s New Guinean acquaintance, and Questioning Collapse, which calls the Easter Island “ecocide” a myth.

Whenever I hear the phrase ‘geographic determinism’,” he says, “I know I’m about to waste time discussing with someone who has no right to be discussing [how human societies developed]. Because the fact is that geography has a strong influence on humans. It doesn’t determine everything, but it has a strong influence
bio  book  leader  human  development  inequality  world  history  biology  environment  debate  theory  geography  opinion  from instapaper
12 weeks ago
‘Why Nations Fail’

the geography hypothesis

our revisionist take on the Neolithic Revolution, based on the idea that sedentary life and social complexity came before farming, suffers from a complete absence of evidence when in fact it is now the conventional wisdom amongst archaeologists.

Diamond suggests that, by eschewing geographic determinism, our theory is as if institutions appeared randomly.

our book explains how institutional variation today is largely a systematic outcome of historical processes

characteristics of diamonds and oil notoriously promote corruption and civil wars more than do characteristics of iron and timber.

Although their letter describes institutional variation today as a systematic outcome of historical processes, much of their book is actually devoted to relating story after story purportedly explaining how institutional variation developed unsystematically and at random, as a result of particular events happening in particular places at critical junctures.

cannot account for differences in prosperity today, which are huge within Eurasia

Acemoglu and Robinson are correct that the timing of the Neolithic Revolution doesn’t account for prosperity differences within Eurasia today;
theory  debate  inequality  world  economy  from instapaper
12 weeks ago
从低谷爬出——记录我的恢复经历
目录 概述 我的 2018 年 知行合一 完美主义 沉浸幸福 饮食陷阱 如何睡醒 科学运动 结语 参考书籍 概述 本文基于笔者的读书笔记,结合 自身经历 重新书写修改而来。 文章的主题是 通过调整自己的思维方式、饮食、运动和作息习惯,优化生理和心理状态 。可能受益的读者拥有以下特征: 桥本氏甲状腺炎、肠漏症…
from instapaper
12 weeks ago
Release the Khashoggi Tapes
The soundtrack to Jamal Khashoggi’s beating, vivisection, and murder lasts just seven minutes, according to Turkish officials who spoke anonymously to several…
from instapaper
october 2018
政见访谈|刘擎:如何观察西方知识界 | 政见 CNPolitics.org
采访:政见团队成员 王菁 整理:邓哲远,黄文钰,彭肖茜,王春晖, Weiru,温心怡,一根路,云阳,张阳 【精彩观点集锦】 ◆人类正处在新的技术文明大突破的前夜,可能会改变我们的世界图景,改变自我理解的方式和存在方式。这对我们传统的社会、文化和政治安排,都有难以估量的影响。 ◆在今天全球化的时代,没有一桩纯粹的…
intelligentsia  west  china  humanities  from instapaper
october 2018
Letter of Recommendation Bandannas
Wearing a bandanna is like flying a flag — one that can mean almost anything you like.
from instapaper
october 2018
余晨: 我们为什么走到这一步-虎嗅网
第三本可能会虚一点,和大家的工作没什么太大关系。但我认为人总是要读一点没什么用的书,就像之前朱老师讲的,在阅读中构建一个属于自己的平行世界,也就是我们自己的栖身之所。这本书是金观涛、刘青峰两位老师写的。

第二点是因为这本书讲的是一种大历史。在今天后现代主义时期,我们大家的思想越来越多元化、越来越不确定性、越来越主观性、越来越碎片化,在今天这种后现代思潮的影响下,大多数人不敢去讲大理论、大历史,也不敢去讲所谓的元叙事,还有所谓的宏大叙事(meta-narrative),大家都认为所谓一统天下的大理论在某种程度上是扼杀自由的。

在中国上学的人,多多少少都有一点唯物主义的历史观。我们都会觉得底层的经济基础决定了所谓的上层建筑,你有什么样的经济制度,就有什么样的文化,什么样的政治,这是一个典型的科学革命以后唯物主义还原论的想法。我们可以把所有的上层建筑还原成所谓的经济活动,它当然有一定的道理,但这样的描述一定是不完备的。

《中国思想史十讲》的一个假设是,人类历史进程中的思想发展非常重要。用柯林伍德话来讲,“一切历史都是思想史”,思想史也反过来决定了经济基础和下层结构。这本书的另一个角度,它从一个宏大的历史角度追溯先秦的轴心文明。
book  reading  from instapaper
october 2018
Stretch Genes

the genomes of various human beings fall into several reasonably well-defined clusters when analyzed statistically, and these clusters generally correspond to continent of origin. In this statistical sense, races are real.

To Wade, the implications are big. While behavioral differences among races would surely be subtle, they can, he insists, become amplified at the level of entire societies. Slight differences in behavioral predisposition—to cooperation, aggression, trust, propensity to follow rules, and so on—probably pushed different races in directions that led to different social institutions. Indeed the seeds of difference between the world’s great civilizations were perhaps present from the first settlements.

the evolutionary psychologist Steven Pinker. (Evolutionary psychologists, while acknowledging that human behavior has a partly genetic basis, generally assume that all people share the same predispositions. They then try to explain these human universals.)

This sends Wade into paroxysms of righteous indignation and he declares that whether or not a thesis might be politically incendiary should have no bearing on the estimate of its scientific validity. What Wade doesn’t tell you is that this is what Pinker himself says in his very next sentence: The fact that a hypothesis is politically uncomfortable does not mean that it is false, but it does mean that we should consider the evidence very carefully before concluding that it is true.
book  critic  gene  human  race  biology  political  opinion  debate  society  evolution  racism  from instapaper
october 2018
梁文道:中國用不着窗口
为什么中央要这么做?难道他们不怕这个行动会在西方媒体和政界留下一个坏印象,让全世界更加相信「香港已死」的说法?难道他们没有想过在新冷战开打的今天,香港可以再度扮演国家对外窗口的角色吗?答案其实很简单,他们还真的不怕,而且也根本用不着香港再去做什么窗口了。

中国在这场新冷战早就做好了最坏打算,完全可以走上一条和西方对决的道路,同时以此对内激励民心,让他们知道未来几年的苦日子全是西方人搞鬼,从而凝聚向心力和稳定合法性。再大不了,也只是重新闭关锁国,靠着自己内部庞大的市场和政府在民间汲取的资源熬过去。而且别忘了中国早非吴下阿蒙,尽管「一带一路」陆续传来受挫的消息,但它无论如何也太不可能在国际上被彻底孤立到当年只能依靠香港的地步。
hongkong  diplomacy  future  from instapaper
october 2018
Three Theories on Jamal Khashoggi’s Fate

Why the bone saw, a piece of specialized surgical equipment? As a former butcher I can assure you that a saw from Home Depot will hack apart a mammal just as effectively, and is cheaper and much easier to explain

These official sources all portray the killing as cold-blooded (“like Pulp Fiction,” said one cinephile source), with every detail planned, to maximum psychopathic effect.

To drop Khashoggi to the floor in the first place, he said, would be easy. A big dose of ketamine—the club drug Special K, administered with the jab of a needle—would do the job. (There’s Pulp Fiction again.) Pediatric patients who threw tantrums on the way to the operating room, he said, used to get sedated unceremoniously in just such a fashion. Once he was out, they could give him an intravenous sedative, such as a benzodiazepine, and Khashoggi would be unconscious as long as they pleased.
from instapaper
october 2018
陈浩武:两个美国人与日本的两部宪法——日本明治维新150周年研讨会(2)
《明治宪法》的核心,是确立了天皇在日本政治权力中的核心地位,有极强的帝国特色。按照秦晖教授的观点,这是从“周制”走向“秦制”。秦老师所说的“周制”,是指的诸侯分封制;而“秦制”则是大一统的极权专制。1875年,木户孝允、大久保利通和伊藤博文在大阪举行了立宪会议,会议决定设立贵族组成的元老院,由元老院提供提案,授予天皇至高无上的绝对权力。按照历史学家的说法:比罗马元老院授予尼禄、凯撒和奥古斯都的权力还要绝对。正是普鲁士宪法中的强烈国家主义倾向,给日本未来的发展留下了潜在的专制政治病毒。

麦克阿瑟将军在给宪法起草小组的信件中,明确提出制宪三项原则:
第一,天皇处于国家元首地位,世袭,但天皇仅仅为国家的象征存在,天皇的职务和权能基于宪法行使;
第二,废止作为国家主权的战争权力,不批准成立日本陆海空军,日本军队不授予交战权;
第三,日本封建制度将终结,贵族的权利除天皇外,以现存一代为限,华族不再享有国民之外的政治权力,预算模式仿照英国。

1946年元旦,天皇发表《人间宣言》,在这个宣言中,天皇表示:
“维系朕与国民之纽带,为相互信赖与仲爱,非以野史神话为凭,亦非植根于天皇即神及日本民族优于异族而命定统治世界之虚伪观念”。
constitution  japan  american  history  from instapaper
october 2018
马勇:近代中日两国师生关系的转换——日本明治维新150周年研讨会(1)
中国通过战争失败打开国门和日本通过谈判打开国门对两国国民的心情造成了明显的差异,也带来了明显差异的结果。我过去讲中国人在接下来的170多年当中一直都处在失败的阴影中,而日本则没有这种影响。

光绪皇帝在1898年7月,派黄遵宪出使日本,黄遵宪被正式任命为驻日公使。他给黄遵宪交代了两个事情,第一个,能不能跟日本谈一谈,给日本天皇授个勋,看天皇能不能接受;第二个是能不能考虑“中日合邦”,这个思想、想法是非常伟大的,这个思想之后,中国学者和日本学者包括政治家学者又提出一个亚洲主义,后来叫大亚洲主义,这个思想的伟大性在哪儿,就是区域整合。我们看到欧盟后来整合,可以看到它的思想的渊源,就是光绪皇帝在1898年讲的中日合邦。
from instapaper
october 2018
荣剑:明治维新的正途与歧途——日本明治维新150周年研讨会(3)
简单地说,日本是持进化的历史观,他们每走完一段路,就把过去的历史一页翻过去了;中国还是持一个循环的历史观,每过了几十年甚至上百年还会再回过头来重新走历史走过的路。 今…
from instapaper
october 2018
Naomi Osaka, a New Governor and Me

When we moved back to California two years later, I entered fourth grade and suddenly, I was the Asian kid. Ching chong chang chong ching! boys chanted on the playground, tugging at the corners of their eyes. Classmates scrunched their noses at the onigiri — rice balls wrapped in dried seaweed — that my mother packed in my lunch bag. When our teacher mentioned Japan during a social studies lesson, every head in the class swiveled to stare at me.

Here we are known as hafu, which comes from the English word half, and our existence challenges the strain in Japanese society that conflates national identity with pure-blooded ethnicity.

Ms. Osaka delivered the best possible reply: I’m just me.

When I have been reserved or less assertive than people think a situation calls for, they have attributed it to my Japanese side.

when colleagues have mistaken me for another Asian employee in the newsroom, I realize some people still instinctively want to pigeonhole me as one, but not both.
japan  japanese  identity  gaijin  anecdote  society  self  conflict  from instapaper
october 2018
Opinion | In Praise of Mediocrity
In Praise of Mediocrity The pursuit of excellence has infiltrated and corrupted the world of leisure. Mr. Wu is the author of “The Attention Merchants: The Epic…
amateur  hobby  from instapaper
october 2018
当“无神论”的儒家遭遇“一神教”的基督教:中西文化之间的普世价值与多元主义

一神论的出现在宗教上导致过排他性,专断性。但是,一神论在人类认识发展史上导致了一种非常积极的成果,这就是对真理的无限向往和热烈追求。因为把所有的真理都归结为一个上帝,所以避免了认识上的混乱和相对。理性受信仰的支持而进步,而信仰也因理性的论证而稳定。
christianity  confucianism  ming  conflict  from instapaper
october 2018
专访余英时:中国现代学术“典范”的建立

在《余英时作品系列总序》中,余英时先生自陈:“我的专业是十九世纪以前的中国史,就已发表的专题论述而言,大致上起春秋、战国,下迄清代中期,所涉及的方面也很宽广:包括社会史、文化史、思想史、政治史、中外关系史汉代等。”但诚如其所言,他涉猎广泛的研究也不是无的放矢,“我自早年进入史学领域之后,便有一个构想,即在西方(主要是西欧)文化系统对照之下,怎样去认识中国文化传统的特色。”

微观相当于考证,即对于具体历史事实做最彻底的考察和阐释,但这样的工作往往只见个树木而不见森林。因此在历史研究中,宏观绝不可少。宏观相当于孟子所谓“观其大”,其涵义比宋学所谓“义理”要丰富得多,这是“见森林”的必经之路。但“见森林”又不能不看清楚林中一颗颗的树,否则便不免如傅斯年的名言所说,可能将天际浮云当作森林了。

有关我研究中国史的构想所在,简略概括:在西方现代文化及其发展出来的普世价值挑战之下,我们怎样才能认识中国传统文化的特色?我认为只有抓住了它的特色,我们才能够认识中、西文化的异同,并进一步追问,中国文化中有哪些成分和现代普世价值是互相冲突的?哪些是可以互相呼应的?

我研究中国史特别选择变革时代的独特动态。因为这种独特动态最能显示出精神价值的流变。

已故陈荣捷先生毕生在美国介绍中国哲学和思想。他曾说,如果用一个词字来概括全部中国哲学史的话,那个字便是“人文主义”。这句话在西方已被普遍地接受了。陈先生的人文主义当然是指中国文化对“人”的尊重,尤以儒家为最显著。孔子的“仁”便是“人道”,孟子强调人性善,又特别提醒“人之异于禽兽”,更是把人的尊严提升到最高的地位。所以“天地之性人为贵”成为中国人的共同信仰。稍稍认识西方近代文化史的人都知道,“人文主义”兴起于文艺复兴时期的意大利,当时人文主义者特别倡导人的尊严和人在宇宙中的独特地位。这种人文主义的精神稍后进入西方教育界,塑造了西方现代的独立人格,其影响一直延续到十九世纪。西方自由和民主的成长得力于人文主义教育,无人不知,就不用再说了。

中古时期,由于种种原因,希腊文学传统已在意大利地区消失无踪,既无人讲授,也无人研究。直到十三四世纪以后,意大利人文学者才逐渐从法国图书馆中发现希腊文稿,包括荷马史诗的原稿之类,终于酿成了“文艺复兴”运动。这是文化价值失而复得的一个最伟大的史证。中国经史子集的典籍俱在,何况,当年在传统精神价值中成长起来的先一辈人,早就在有意无意之间把他们的价值意识传到下一代身上。所以“守先待后”决不是一种幻想。

1949年以后的大错误,不在其为“进步史观”,而在其“定于一尊”。

西方的思想界是开放的,种种不同的史观都出现过,其中还有反“进步”的史观大行其道的,如斯宾格勒(Oswald Spengler 1880-1936)的《西方的没落》(The Decline of the West)和汤因比(Arnold J Toynbee 1889-1975)的《历史研究》(A Study of History)

今天很少人还相信有什么普遍规律为各民族或文化所共有;更不相信西方是先走上“现代”阶段,其他各民族落后了一步,但最后也会赶上来。换句话说,现在不存在什么“进步史观”足以构成“挑战”的对象了。
confucianism  chinese  tradition  culture  crisis  evolution  west  book  leader  intelligentsia  taiwan  dissident  instapaper_favs  from instapaper
october 2018
愤怒的民族,暴躁的皇帝:威廉二世与德意志帝国的战争之路

拿破仑的外交大臣瘸子塔列朗有一句名言,那天他看着一位战场上的英雄,拄着拐杖大踏步走向拿破仑皇帝,于是对身边的人说他只是生理上瘸,而我则是心理和生理上都瘸。
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october 2018
叶公好龙的皇帝:为什么热爱科学的康熙没有让中国提早进入现代化?
作者=李扬帆 来源=作者博客 传教士和欧洲思想家对康熙的误读…
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october 2018
天皇难道是朝鲜人?作为骑马民族的日本与民族神话
作者=尹敏志 来源=2018年9月《经济观察报·书评》…
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october 2018
Where Is Jamal Khashoggi
On Tuesday, a Saudi citizen named Jamal Khashoggi entered his country’s consulate in Istanbul, attempting to get a routine document relating to his impending…
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october 2018
托克维尔之后的魏斐德
撰文:向珂 《东方历史评论》微信公号: ohistory…
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Keyhole,Google Maps前传
2013年,德国新天鹅堡。 如今大家都知道Google Maps,但是你知道Google Maps的“前传”吗?它并不是Google内部的项目,而是Google收购来的,在那之前,Google并没做出过什么地图相关的成果。而被Google收购来做Google…
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