Painting, Capture of H.M. Frigate Java by American Frigate Constitution - Artifact
Painting, Capture of H.M. Frigate Java by American Frigate Constitution - Artifact
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Designed by Joshua Humphreys, Constitution was built in Boston in 1797. It measured 174 feet 10 inches in length, 43 feet 6 inches in beam, 14 feet 3 inches in depth of hold, and 1,576 tons. It was also known as Old Ironsides. The Constitution is still in commission at the Charlestown Navy Yard in Boston, making it the oldest ship in the United States Navy.
Java was originally a French frigate named Renommée. It measured 1,073 tons. The British ships Astrae, Phoebe, Galatea, and Racehorse, under the command of Captain Charles Schomberg, captured Java near Madagascar in May 1811.
The painting by Thomas Whitcombe shows the two ships engaged in combat on December 29, 1812 off the coast of Brazil. Several sailors can be seen clinging to wreckage floating to the right of the battle scene. The two-hour battle was a victory for the United States and did much to increase the prestige of the country. The American Captain William Bainbridge was badly wounded and the British Captain Henry Lambert was mortally wounded. Thomas Whitcombe (1752-1824) was a British marine painter. After the battle, Java was deemed unfit for repair and burned.
ARTIFACT 
january 2013
Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coins: Line Art - JPG
Gold Obverse
Designer: Donna Weaver
Engraver: Joseph Menna
Description: Depicts a naval battle scene from the War of 1812, with an American sailing ship in the foreground and a damaged and fleeing British ship in the background. Inscriptions are IN GOD WE TRUST, LIBERTY and 1812 – 2012.
ARTIFACT 
may 2012
War of 1812 - Video
For two and a half years, Americans fought Against the British, Canadian colonists, and native nations. In the years to come, the War of 1812 would be celebrated in some places and essentially forgotten in others. But it is a war worth remembering—a struggle that threatened the existence of Canada, then divided the United States so deeply that the nation almost broke apart. Some of its battles and heroes became legendary, yet its blunders and cowards were just as prominent. The film shows how the glories of war became enshrined in history – how failures are quickly forgotten – how inconvenient truths are ignored forever.
VIDEO 
may 2012
Cane made of wood from the USS Constitution presented to former president James Madison (detail) - JPG
The United States fought against Britain in the War of 1812, also known as the Second War for Independence, to protect maritime rights, end trade restrictions, settle boundary issues, and curtail the allied British and Indian threat to westward expansion. After declaring victory, Americans turned to nation building and began the march west in fulfillment of what many believed to be the country’s “manifest destiny.”
ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Cane made of wood from the USS Constitution presented to former president James Madison - JPG
The United States fought against Britain in the War of 1812, also known as the Second War for Independence, to protect maritime rights, end trade restrictions, settle boundary issues, and curtail the allied British and Indian threat to westward expansion. After declaring victory, Americans turned to nation building and began the march west in fulfillment of what many believed to be the country’s “manifest destiny.”
ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Flag Maker: Susan Campbell Bartoletti: Illustrated by Claire A. Nivola - LIBRARY OF RESOURCES
On September 14, 1814, U.S. soldiers at Baltimore’s Fort McHenry raised a huge American flag to celebrate an important victory over British forces during the War of 1812. The sight of those "broad stripes and bright stars" inspired Francis Scott Key to write a song that eventually became the United States national anthem. Key’s words gave new significance to a national symbol and started a tradition through which generations of Americans have invested the flag with their own meanings and memories.

The Flag Maker is a story about Caroline Pickersgill helping her mother, Mary Pickersgill, create the Star-Spangled Banner and her emotions as she sees that the flag has survived the Battle of Baltimore.

For two and a half years, Americans fought Against the British, Canadian colonists, and native nations. In the years to come, the War of 1812 would be celebrated in some places and essentially forgotten in others. But it is a war worth remembering—a struggle that threatened the existence of Canada, then divided the United States so deeply that the nation almost broke apart. Some of its battles and heroes became legendary, yet its blunders and cowards were just as prominent.
LIBRARY-OF-RESOURCES 
april 2012
Sailor's Story: Jesse Williams, Ordinary Seaman - PDF
USS Constitution’s sailors returned victorious three times during the War of 1812. Sailors enjoyed their success and were awarded with extra pay called prize money. How much did they get? Introduce your students to Jesse Williams, a free black man who served aboard Constitution and later earned an extra 2 ½ years of his wages in prize money after the Battle of Lake Erie. Research with your students what the average salary of a sailor is today, and what 2 ½ times that would be. What do you think Williams did with his prize money? Learn more about Williams in his journal.
PDF 
april 2012
Medal awarded to Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry and his officers for the victory at the Battle of Lake Erie, in which Jess Williams fought, 19th century - PDF
USS Constitution’s sailors returned victorious three times during the War of 1812. Sailors enjoyed their success and were awarded with extra pay called prize money. How much did they get? Introduce your students to Jesse Williams, a free black man who served aboard Constitution and later earned an extra 2 ½ years of his wages in prize money after the Battle of Lake Erie. Research with your students what the average salary of a sailor is today, and what 2 ½ times that would be. What do you think Williams did with his prize money? Learn more about Williams in his journal.
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Broadside Poem - PDF
This broadside (like a poster) was printed in 1812. Set to the tune of Yankee Doodle, it tells the story of a brilliant naval victory. Use the original broadside to sing along with your students. Have them try to write a song set to a familiar tune that celebrates an important moment in their own lives.
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Broadside titled The American Constitution Frigate’s Engagement with the British - PDF
This broadside (like a poster) was printed in 1812. Set to the tune of Yankee Doodle, it tells the story of a brilliant naval victory. Use the original broadside to sing along with your students. Have them try to write a song set to a familiar tune that celebrates an important moment in their own lives.
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Essay on Hull’s Urn from the Museum’s Collections Pages - PDF
Upon returning home, Captain Hull was showered with praise and gifts for having led the crew to victory in the battle against HMS Guerriere. The citizens of Philadelphia honored him with a silver urn crafted by Thomas Fletcher and Sidney Gardiner that is full of symbolism. Together as a class, decode the piece to understand all the “hidden” messages the urn is trying to convey. This essay can help you lead the discussion.
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Silver urn by Flethcer and Gardner, presented to Isacc Hull, 1812 - PDF
Upon returning home, Captain Hull was showered with praise and gifts for having led the crew to victory in the battle against HMS Guerriere. The citizens of Philadelphia honored him with a silver urn crafted by Thomas Fletcher and Sidney Gardiner that is full of symbolism. Together as a class, decode the piece to understand all the “hidden” messages the urn is trying to convey.
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Constitution as a National Symbol - PDF
Constitution emerged from the War of 1812 as a national symbol, much as we think of the Statue of Liberty or the Liberty Bell today. Artists have long depicted the Ship with that legacy in mind. Print out or project these images of Constitution and discuss with your students the point of view the artist has taken. How have they glorified her? Do they think the British would have taken the same point of view?
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Sailor's Story: Richard Dunn, Able Seaman - PDF
The sailor undergoing an amputation surgery in this scene is Richard Dunn, who served on Constitution in 1812. During the battle against HMS Guerriere, he sustained an injury that required the removal of his leg. He continued to serve the Navy for many years in a variety of capacities and was treated well as a veteran. Have students read his story and brainstorm ways they could support active duty soldiers, sailors, or retired veterans.
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april 2012
Surgical instruments beloning to Dr. William Swift, who served on USS Chesapeake, 1813 - PDF
In this lesson, students view the Surgeon's Kit and other surgical tools and use their powers of observation to imagine what these tools might have been used for. They will compare them to today’s surgical tools and understand that the cockpit during battle was a place of action, acting as a floating emergency room.
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Naval Medicine in the Early Nineteenth Century - PDF
Students will meet Surgeon Amos Evans of Constitution's 1812 crew, investigate the properties of drugs he most likely had at his disposal, study a primary source quote from him, and diagnose a crew member.
PDF 
april 2012
Sailor's Story: Amos Evans, Surgeon - PDF
Medicine in the nineteenth century centered on the idea of "humors;" an imbalance of them made one ill and medicines were used to try and regain balance of the four humors - blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile.
PDF 
april 2012
Medicine in 1812 - PDF
In this lesson, students will meet Surgeon Amos Evans of Constitution's 1812 crew, investigate the properties of drugs he most likely had at his disposal, study a primary source quote from him, and diagnose a crew member.
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Early 19th Century American Medical Worldview - Website
Medicine in the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century was characterized by the view that bodies were constantly interacting with the surrounding environment. Health was a product of ensuring that one's body maintained a proper equilibrium with itself and with the environment around it. Two perspectives on the body were particularly important in nineteenth century America: first, all parts of the body were related to each other, and second, the inputs and outputs of the body were central to its proper functioning.
WEBSITE 
april 2012
Puzzling Vocabulary: All Guts and Glory - PDF
After studying both the "Sickbay" and "Cockpit after Battle" scenes in Explore Old Ironsides, have students complete the All Guts and Gory crossword puzzle to check for understanding and attention to detail.
PDF 
april 2012
Illness and Injury Aboard Naval Ships - PDF
Life aboard a naval ship in the War of 1812 was extremely difficult; sailors had to deal with the dangers posed by illness, accidents, and battle injuries. Knowledge about health, disease, and nutrition in the 1800s was still primitive and lacked modern understanding about germs, hygiene, nutrition, and disease. Naval ships like USS Constitution had a surgeon (doctor) on board who was responsible for the health of a crew of up to 480 sailors. In this lesson, your students take on the role of the surgeon and work in teams to diagnose major illnesses and predict injuries to the crew.
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april 2012
Vitamin C Matching Game - PDF
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C. Play this simple guessing game with students to identify which of their fruits and vegetables would help them prevent scurvy! Simply print the activity double sided, cut out the cards, laminate them for durability if you'd like, and place them image side up. Challenge your students to guess which ones have vitamin C. Flip them over to find out the answer - some of them may surprise you!
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april 2012
Guess the Ingredient - PDF
Play this multiple choice game to discover the ingredients in some of Constitution sailors’ meals. Take a closer look at some of the ingredients suggested with your students. What would make it difficult, or easier, to take these ingredients with you to sea? Consider the environment, the time out to sea without any port calls (stops ashore), and the technology of 1812.
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april 2012
Salty Talk - PDF
Every sailor on Constitution was part of an 8-13-strong family called a mess, and they referred to each other as “messmates.” Have your students ever heard of a “mess hall” or “scuttlebutt?” View the Sailors Eating scene in Explore Old Ironsides with your students and teach them a vocabulary and English idiom lesson. Encourage them to pick a word or phrase from our list of Salty Talk and to research its roots. Many of the words and phrases like “learn the ropes,” “mind your P’s & Q’s,” and “pipe down,” have maritime roots or became popular on ships. Ask students to identify what the phrases mean today and speculate on their evolution.
PDF 
april 2012
Bell, 1765, reportedly removed from HMS Guerriere to replace Constitution’s battle damaged bell - PDF
Sailors lived by the bell aboard Constitution as it was linked to their responsibilities at sea. The ringing of the bell was a simple way to inform the entire crew to change watch (shift). When the sand in the half-hour glass emptied, it indicated 30 minutes had passed. A sailor struck a bell, and he added an additional strike every half hour until he reached eight, signifying four hours had passed. That indicated the watch (shift) was over.
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Computing Time and Creating a Schedule - PDF
The crew on board the USS Constitution started the day at noon. They worked in 4 hour shifts,
called “watches.” A member of the crew rang the ship’s bell every half hour to signal the
passing of time. Because there were no clocks on board, a half-hour glass was used. Each half
hour that passed was recognized by adding on another ring of the bell. At 12:30 p.m. there
would be one bell and at 1:00 p.m. there would be two bells.
PDF 
april 2012
Plan of the Upper Deck of a Seventy-four Gun Ship,…, delineating an Arrangement of the Hammocks for the Crew, from David Steel’s The Elements and Practice of Rigging and Seamanship, 1794 - PDF
How big was the berth deck? Calculate the area of the berth deck using the average size of a sailor and a hammock to figure out the how many sailors could sleep at the same time.
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Berth Deck Area Activity - PDF
How big was the berth deck? Calculate the area of the berth deck using the average size of a sailor and a hammock to figure out the how many sailors could sleep at the same time.
PDF 
april 2012
White Jacket, or, The World in a Man-of-War (1892) - Page Turner
Let me speak of my hammock and the tribulations I endured therefrom. Give me plenty of room to swing it in, and I would not exchange my coarse canvas hammock for the grand state-bed in which they tuck in a king. ...But when, with five hundred other hammocks, yours is crowded and jammed on all sides,
on a frigate berth deck, when “spreaders” are prohibited by an express edict from the captain’s cabin; and every man about you is jealously watchful of the rights and privileges of his own hammock, as settled by law and usage; then your hammock is your Bastille and canvas jug; into which, or out of which, it is very hard to get; and where sleep is but a mockery and a name.

Eighteen inches a man is all they allow you; eighteen inches in width; in that you must swing. Dreadful! they give you more swing than that at the gallows.

Constitution's crew slept in hammocks just inches apart from one another.One extremely warm night, during a calm, when it was so hot that only a skeleton could keep cool (from the free current of air through its bones) after being drenched in my own perspiration, I managed to wedge myself out of my hammock; and with what little strength I had left, lowered myself gently to the deck. Let me see now, thought I, whether my ingenuity cannot devise some method whereby I can have room to breathe and sleep at the same time. I have it. I will lower my hammock underneath all these others; and then — upon that separate and independent level, at least — I shall have the whole berth deck to myself. Accordingly, I lowered away my pallet to the desired point — about three inches from the floor — and crawled into it again.

But alas! this arrangement made such a sweeping semicircle of my hammock,
that, while my head and feet were at par, the small of my back was settling down indefinitely; I felt as if some gigantic archer had hold of me for a bow.

But there was another plan left. I triced up my hammock with all my strength,
so as to bring it wholly above the tiers of pallets around me. This done, by a last effort, I hoisted myself into it; but, alas, it was much worse than before. My luckless hammock was stiff and straight as a board; and there I was — laid out in
it with my nose against the ceiling, like a dead man’s against the lid of his coffin.
PAGE-TURNER 
april 2012
Lock of hair from Midshipman Pardon Mawney Whipple, ca. 1827 - PDF
Meet Pardon Mawney Whipple, once a Midshipman onboard Constitution during the War of 1812. View with students: his sword, hat, and even a lock of his hair. As a Midshipman, Whipple was an educated, respectable, young man. Not all sailors could read, but Whipple could. Read emotional and gripping excerpts from his journal, with your students to learn about Whipple’s personal views and emotions, and his first hand accounts of such moments in history as the Constitution’s battle with the HMS Cyane and HMS Levant.
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Letterbook kept by Midshipman Pardon Mawney Whipple, 1813 to 1821 - PDF
Meet Pardon Mawney Whipple, once a Midshipman onboard Constitution during the War of 1812. View with students: his sword, hat, and even a lock of his hair. As a Midshipman, Whipple was an educated, respectable, young man. Not all sailors could read, but Whipple could. Read emotional and gripping excerpts from his journal, with your students to learn about Whipple’s personal views and emotions, and his first hand accounts of such moments in history as the Constitution’s battle with the HMS Cyane and HMS Levant.
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Midshipman Pardon Mawney Whipple’s dress sword, before 1827 - PDF
Meet Pardon Mawney Whipple, once a Midshipman onboard Constitution during the War of 1812. View with students: his sword, hat, and even a lock of his hair. As a Midshipman, Whipple was an educated, respectable, young man. Not all sailors could read, but Whipple could. Read emotional and gripping excerpts from his journal, with your students to learn about Whipple’s personal views and emotions, and his first hand accounts of such moments in history as the Constitution’s battle with the HMS Cyane and HMS Levant.
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Midshipman Pardon Mawney Whipple’s cocked hat, before 1827 - PDF
Meet Pardon Mawney Whipple, once a Midshipman onboard Constitution during the War of 1812. View with students: his sword, hat, and even a lock of his hair. As a Midshipman, Whipple was an educated, respectable, young man. Not all sailors could read, but Whipple could. Read emotional and gripping excerpts from his journal, with your students to learn about Whipple’s personal views and emotions, and his first hand accounts of such moments in history as the Constitution’s battle with the HMS Cyane and HMS Levant.
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Paper Officer’s Hat - PDF
During the early 19th century, all naval officers wore a folding cocked hat or chapeau bras with their full dress uniforms. The chapeau was flat and crescent-shaped, and it stood 9” to 11” high, and from point to point it could stretch 16” (or more). Designed to fold flat, the hats could be easily stored in a box or carried beneath the arm. Students can make their own paper versions to wear at special occasions.
PDF 
april 2012
Salty Talk (Teacher Version) - PDF
Make a speaking trumpet (like a megaphone) out of oaktag or posterboard, and practice these Salty Sayings from life at sea that have been integrated into our daily language. Use the megaphone to pass these messages, playing telephone on the playground.
PDF 
april 2012
Midshipman Questionnaire - PDF
Ask your students these simple questions to learn how to become an officer-in-training during the War of 1812 for the United States Navy. Do they have the qualifications to be a midshipman in 1812? Are these the same qualifications necessary today? Today the title of midshipman refers to students studying at the United States Naval Academy.
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april 2012
In the Zenith of His Glory: Pardon Mawney Whipple, USN - Page Turner
In 2006, Mrs. Norma Adams Price generously donated an early-nineteenth century letterbook to the USS Constitution Museum. The tall vellum-bound volume is the copy book of Midshipman Pardon Mawney Whipple. Take a peak inside!
PAGE-TURNER 
april 2012
Sailor's Story: Pardon Whipple, Midshipman - PDF
Have your students make and keep a journal by folding lined paper for the inside pages and oak tag or a heavier paper for the cover. Fold the paper and staple or sew ribbon through punched holes along the fold to create a journal-like feel. Students can design their cover as well as Whipple did (see his real journal above for inspiration). To further this activity, explain that Whipple may have used his journal to copy over letters he was writing and sending out. Ask students to write a letter and address them to “My dear friend…”, just like Whipple.
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april 2012
Wine bottle with the seal of William Bainbridge, H. Ricketts & Co., 1822-1833 - PDF
In the wardroom, officers gathered to eat at a table, sat in chairs, and ate off china and crystal. They were served by a sailor assigned to them and could spend their own money on better provisions and drank wine with dinner. Sailors sat cross legged on the deck, ate food cooked in bulk and had more crowded conditions. Can students draw a parallel to different “ranks” at a school and their eating habits or locations?
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Cut glass decanter with inscribed lip, 1820s - PDF
In the wardroom, officers gathered to eat at a table, sat in chairs, and ate off china and crystal. They were served by a sailor assigned to them and could spend their own money on better provisions and drank wine with dinner. Sailors sat cross legged on the deck, ate food cooked in bulk and had more crowded conditions. Can students draw a parallel to different “ranks” at a school and their eating habits or locations?
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Transferware dinner plate taken from HMS Guerriere, early 19th century - PDF
In the wardroom, officers gathered to eat at a table, sat in chairs, and ate off china and crystal. They were served by a sailor assigned to them and could spend their own money on better provisions and drank wine with dinner. Sailors sat cross legged on the deck, ate food cooked in bulk and had more crowded conditions. Can students draw a parallel to different “ranks” at a school and their eating habits or locations?
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Popular War of 1812 Songs - PDF
Recordings of these shanties are included in this Library of Resources.

Officers and sailors enjoyed listening to music during their time off duty. Listen to some early American tunes with your students to help set the mood of your classroom to 1812. Older students might take on a research project in conjunction with their music class or musical extracurricular activities.
PDF 
april 2012
Shannon and Chesapeake: Wallace House - Audio
Same melody as Constitution and Guerriere
AUDIO 
april 2012
Daily Calorie Intake of an 1812 Sailor and a Modern Combat Ration - PDF
Have your students record a detailed log of what they eat during a 24-hour period, including snacks and beverages. Afterwards, compare examples of your students’ Daily Diet Logs to the food that was allotted to a sailor aboard Constitution in 1812. How is a sailor's daily diet different from a student’s? What has changed over time, and why? Take this activity a step further to include the intake of calories per day, comparing a student’s intake to an 1812 sailor’s, and even to a modern combat ration.
PDF 
april 2012
1812 Navy Sailor’s Weekly Diet Chart - PDF
Have your students record a detailed log of what they eat during a 24-hour period, including snacks and beverages. Afterwards, compare examples of your students’ Daily Diet Logs to the food that was allotted to a sailor aboard Constitution in 1812. How is a sailor's daily diet different than a student’s? What has changed over time, and why? Take this activity a step further to include the intake of calories per day, comparing a student’s intake of calories to an 1812 sailor’s, and even to a modern combat ration.
PDF 
april 2012
Transcription of Isaac Washburn letter to his sister Abigail, written on board Constitution, August 8, 1844 - PDF
Read a primary source with students and then measure real ingredients with scales and beakers to see the real daily diet quantities a sailor ate.
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april 2012
Sailor’s Diet in Weights and Measures - PDF
Using weights and measures, students compare and contrast an ordinary 1812 sailor’s ration to their own daily diets.
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april 2012
Sailor's Story: William Long, Cook - PDF
Feeding 450 hungry sailors is no easy task. It's especially tough when Constituition has been at sea for a month, and supplies are salted or dried. Cook William Long does his best, sweating and swearing at a huge hot beast of a stove in the galley. The food he serves changes little each day, but it's hot and plentiful. And though seamen moan about the endless dull dishes, they eat better than their families ashore.
PDF 
april 2012
1812 Hot Chocolate - PDF
This recipe comes from an 1814 book called The Artist’s Companion, and Manufacturer’s Guide, Consisting of the Most Valuable Secrets in Arts and Trades. It is similar to what is called “Mexican Hot Chocolate” today. While officers may have had access to the somewhat exotic ingredients needed for this recipe, sailors probably made do with sugar and water. Mrs. Child, in The American Frugal Housewife (1833), suggests that nutmeg improves the taste of chocolate, and since this was a common spice, seamen could have grated it into their cups.
april 2012
Plum Duff - PDF
Enjoy a sailor's treat with your students. Try a recent adaptation of duff, a sailor's pudding, originally made with suet and flour.
PDF 
april 2012
Ship’s biscuit served on board Constitution in 1861 - PDF
Cook with your students or bring ship's biscuit in for your students to try. Biscuit was hard bread that Constitution’s sailors ate at nearly every meal. It was baked on land, stored on board the ship, and then issued at sea to the sailors. It kept for a long time in barrels and one has even survived (albeit preserved with shellac) over 100 years. Ask your students: would it serve better as a hockey puck? Sailors soaked biscuit in their stew, and it was also used as an ingredient in many shipboard-recipes.
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Ship's Biscuit - PDF
Cook with your students or bring ship's biscuit in for your students to try. Biscuit was hard bread that Constitution’s sailors ate at nearly every meal. It was baked on land, stored on board the ship, and then issued at sea to the sailors. It kept for a long time in barrels and one has even survived (albeit preserved with shellac) over 100 years. Ask your students: would it serve better as a hockey puck? Sailors soaked biscuit in their stew, and it was also used as an ingredient in many shipboard-recipes.
PDF 
april 2012
Sailor's Story: Captain Isaac Hull - PDF
Read Captain Hull's Journal with your students and explore some personal belongings in artifacts from the USS Constitution Museum’s collections.
PDF 
april 2012
Rank and Responsibility of Captain - PDF
What responsibilities and challenges did Captain Hull face while in charge of a large ship and crew? See his list of responsibilities and start a list with your students about the responsibilities and challenges of being in charge of a ship or a classroom. How does a ship or a classroom function with just one person in charge? Explain the need for rules and expectations, and write a classroom contract with your students. Explore further by thinking about the responsibilities of the principle of their school, their guardian at home or world leaders.
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april 2012
Period Musket, Replica - PDF
Marines exercised, or drilled, with their muskets. Learn more about the musket and its purpose with an artifact from our collections. Muskets from the 19th century are fairly common in museums. Do you have a local history museum in the area? Find the museum online and perhaps take a field trip with your students to visit.
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Paper Marine’s Hat (Shako) - PDF
Follow the directions for this craft activity to make your own Marine hat.
PDF 
april 2012
Drum Building Activity - PDF
Marines exercised to the beat of a drum; certain numbers of beats required Marines to perform specific actions. View this drum from the USS Constitution Museum’s learning collection and then have your students create their own drum in this activity.
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april 2012
Marine’s Active Drill Exercise - PDF
With your students, compare and contrast a sailor’s duties onboard Constitution to that of a Marine’s. What were the pros & cons of each position? What were the dangers in being a Marine and a sailor? What was the pay difference? Have students choose a sailor or a Marine and then write a persuasive essay persuading a friend to join Constitution as a sailor or enlist in the Marines during the War of 1812. Why would you choose one over the other?
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april 2012
All About Marines and Sailors on Board Constitution - PDF
With your students, compare and contrast a sailor’s duties onboard Constitution to that of a Marine’s. What were the pros & cons of each position? What were the dangers in being a Marine and a sailor? What was the pay difference? Have students choose a sailor or a Marine and then write a persuasive essay persuading a friend to join Constitution as a sailor or enlist in the Marines during the War of 1812. Why would you choose one over the other?
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april 2012
Cat o’nine tails, probably before 1850 - PDF
Students may be interested in seeing the tool used for floggings. Study the image of this authentic cat o’ nine tails and ask them if they can see why it was called that.
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
History and Quotes: Discipline and Flogging in the Navy - PDF
With older students, debate and discuss the history of corporal punishment. Define corporal punishment, that which is physical in nature, and discuss examples that students may have heard about regarding corporal punishment.
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april 2012
Discipline: Quotes about Discipline and Flogging - PDF
Imagine you witnessed a close friend breaking the rules in the classroom. The teacher comes in, realizes someone has broken a rule and questions all the students in class. If you tell, your friend is punished. If you do not tell, everyone in the class is punished. Read the Sailor's Story of Moses Smith and the historic quotes from him and Captain Isaac Hull with students and ask, what would you do, and why?
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april 2012
Sailor's Story: Moses Smith - PDF
Imagine you witnessed a close friend breaking the rules in the classroom. The teacher comes in, realizes someone has broken a rule and questions all the students in class. If you tell, your friend is punished. If you do not tell, everyone in the class is punished. Read the Sailor's Story of Moses Smith and the historic quotes from him and Captain Isaac Hull with students and ask, what would you do, and why?
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april 2012
Rules of the Navy Aboard Ship - PDF
Discuss with your students: what are our classroom expectations? Why does a teacher establish classroom etiquette or rules? What are the goals of a classroom? Imagine you are a Captain aboard Constitution in charge of 480 sailors and Marines, working together towards a common goal. What rules would you establish as Captain?
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april 2012
Portion of Pension Records of Tobias Fernald, USS Constitution onboard during battle against HMS Cyane and HMS Levant - PDF
Sailors' families depended on support sent home by their husbands or fathers. If a sailor died, his shipmates might have taken a collection of money to send home to the sailor's family. Stories of these families survive now in primary sources, like pension applications. Read the excerpt from this pension record and decide as a class – should this person receive a pension or not?
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Newspaper Article detailing battle against HMS Java, Copy of a Letter from a British Officer; Salem Gazette. Salem, 2/19/1813 - PDF
Ask students to speculate: how would people back home know that a loved one had died at sea? Letters from across the sea were sent to family and friends on a fairly regular basis and newspaper reports often detailed losses at sea. Read the primary sources and encourage students to either write a letter telling someone that their family member has died or a newspaper obituary that details the life of a sailor of their choice.
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april 2012
Letter from Lt. John Contee to Lewis Bush describing death of Lt. William Bush dated September 13th, 1812 - PDF
Ask students to speculate: how would people back home know that a loved one had died at sea? Letters from across the sea were sent to family and friends on a fairly regular basis and newspaper reports often detailed losses at sea. Read the primary sources and encourage students to either write a letter telling someone that their family member has died or a newspaper obituary that details the life of a sailor of their choice.
PDF  ARTIFACT 
april 2012
Connecticut Mirror, newspaper article: Constitution v. Guerriere - PDF
Ask students to speculate: how would people back home know that a loved one had died at sea? Letters from across the sea were sent to family and friends on a fairly regular basis and newspaper reports often detailed losses at sea. Read the primary sources and encourage students to either write a letter telling someone that their family member has died or a newspaper obituary that details the life of a sailor of their choice.
PDF 
april 2012
Sailor’s Superstitions - PDF
When a body was committed to the deep, it was stitched into a hammock. The last stitch went through the nose. While this sounds like a myth, it was actually quite practical (acting as a final check for life) but also superstitious (it sealed the deceased’s soul into the shroud so it would not follow the ship). Have your students explore a list of superstitions, then on their own create 3 "fake" and 1 real “practical” advantage of the superstition. Students present their advantages to the class and challenge each other to guess the real practical reason! For older students, explore committing "sailors to the deep" with some Shakespeare in this lesson.
PDF 
april 2012
Ship’s Super Superstitions and Shakespeare - PDF
When a body was committed to the deep, it was stitched into a hammock. The last stitch went through the nose. While this sounds like a myth, it was actually quite practical (acting as a final check for life) but also superstitious (it sealed the deceased’s soul into the shroud so it would not follow the ship). Have your students explore a list of superstitions, then on their own create 3 "fake" and 1 real “practical” advantage of the superstition. Students present their advantages to the class and challenge each other to guess the real practical reason! For older students, explore committing "sailors to the deep" with some Shakespeare in this lesson.
PDF 
april 2012
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