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A day without X
Don’t wanna be a PITA, but you’re still using an xterm in all your examples :)

Hehe. I know, but I wasn’t sure how to take screenshots on the TTY.

You can make screenshot of what you run in a framebufer tty with fbgrab or fbshot.

. . .

For viewing images, as I mentioned earlier, I use fbi (through framebuffer). For videos there isn’t anything better than using some old DXR3-like card with TV output.
terminal  console  cli  shell  x11  xorg 
16 hours ago by dusko
Clear! (clear your terminal screen) | Linux.org
The Ctrl-l shortcut only works as a shortcut for the "clear" command if you have readline {see *} set to use the default emacs input option. But it doesn't work if you set the vi input mode - at least not when in edit mode.

{* NOTE: readline is a utility that is used by bash and other shells to get input from the user.}

I use the following line in my .bashrc, which puts readline into vi input mode:

set -o vi

In the vi input mode, the Ctrl+l keybind is only available when in 'command' mode. So you have to hit <esc> and then Ctrl-l. Which is not really very helpful. It would also be handy to have it available in 'insert' mode too.

The good news is - you can easily add a keybind for Ctrl-l for 'insert' mode by adding the following line to your .bashrc:

bind -m vi-insert "\C-l":clear-screen

Alternatively, instead of editing .bashrc - you could create or edit .inputrc, which is a config file used by readline:

set editing-mode vi
$if mode=vi

# Set up a Ctrl+l key-bind for vi's insert-mode
set keymap vi insert
Control-l: clear-screen

# Set up a Ctrl+l key-bind for command mode
# Note: This key-bind is already defined in vi mode
# I've put it here as an example of how to create a
# vi command-mode shortcut
set keymap vi command
Control-l: clear-screen


Either method works. I edited .bashrc because it involved less typing and because I pretty much use bash exclusively.

But if you tend to switch between using different shells.
e.g. Bash, zsh, ksh, csh etc.
Then putting the settings into .inputrc will apply those settings to ANY shell that uses readline. In other words - no matter what shell you are using, your keybinds/settings for readline will always be the same.
Whereas .bashrc only applies to bash.

There are many different bits of functionality and options available in readline. So if there are any key-binds/shortcuts to functionality that you feel you are missing in either vi or emacs mode, you can easily set up a new keyboard shortcut - as I have done for clear-screen in the vi insert mode.
xterm  terminal  x11  xorg  shell  console  cli  unix  reference  traditionalvi  vi 
yesterday by dusko
Keyboard Maps: xmodmap
Keyboard Maps: xmodmap

The modmap subsystem is part of the core X11 protocol. However, it has been replaced by the X Keyboard (XKB) Extension to the protocol, which defines a facade that emulates the legacy modmap subsystem so that old programs still work—including those that manipulate the modmap directly!

For people who like to Keep It Stupid Simple, the XKB extension looks horribly complicated and gross—even ignoring protocol details, the configuration syntax is a monstrosity! There’s no way to say something like “I’d like to remap Caps-Lock to be Control”, you have to copy and edit the entire keyboard definition, which includes mucking with vector graphics of the physical keyboard layout! So it’s very tempting to pretend that XKB doesn’t exist, and it’s still using modmap.

However, this is a leaky abstraction; for instance: when running the xmodmap command to manipulate the modmap, if you have multiple keyboards plugged in, the result can depend on which keyboard you used to press “enter” after typing the command!

Despite only existing as a compatibility shim today, I think it is important to understand the modmap subsystem to understand modern XKB.
x11  xorg  keyboard  xterm  terminal 
yesterday by dusko
command line - What protocol/standard is used by terminals? - Unix & Linux Stack Exchange
Properly-written Unix programs don't emit these escape sequences directly. Instead, they use one of the libraries mentioned above, telling it to "move the cursor to position (1,1)" or whatever, and the **library** emits the necessary terminal control codes based on your TERM environment variable setting. This allows the program to work properly no matter what terminal type you run it on.
xterm  terminal  commandline  cli  shell  console  x11  xorg  unix  utf8  unicode  ansi  ascii 
2 days ago by dusko
The TTY demystified
Occasionally, you may come across a UNIX system where the backspace key doesn't work. This happens when the terminal emulator transmits a backspace code (either ASCII 8 or ASCII 127) which doesn't match the erase setting in the TTY device. To remedy the problem, one usually types stty erase ^H (for ASCII 8) or stty erase ^? (for ASCII 127). But please remember that many terminal applications use readline, which puts the line discipline in raw mode. Those applications aren't affected.
terminal  unix  commandline  cli  console  computing  it  history  sysadmin  x11  xorg  xterm 
3 days ago by dusko
Unprintable ACSCII characters and TTYs
What happens when typing special "control sequences" like <ctrl-h>, <ctrl-d> etc.?

For convenience, "^X" means "<Ctrl-X>" in the following (ignoring the fact that you usually might use the lower case x).

About a possible origin of the "^"-notation, see also an article in a.f.c, <62097@bbn.BBN.COM> (local copy).
ascii  ansi  xterm  terminal  cli  x11  xorg  unix 
4 days ago by dusko
Back to the Future: Using a DEC VT220 from 1983 | iSticktoit.net
Where is the freakin‘ Esc key!?

That is the one thing that buggs me: As vi user, I heavily depend on the ESC key, but the VT220 doesn’t have one. In VT100 mode, using F11 is quite simple, but you’ll miss out on the enhancements made in the VT220. CTRL-3 is the only way to generate a raw ESC character there. As many other people have done before me, I remapped ESC to jj (http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/Avoid_the_escape_key) or TAB in vim.
vt100  vi  terminal  console  shell  commandline  cli  xterm  x11  xorg  computing  it  history  unix  vim  traditionalvi 
5 days ago by dusko
vt220 ESC key -- how to, if it doesn't? - Google Groups
> A used vt220 we just acquired does not send ESC when the
> usual function key (F11?) is pressed, despite our best
> "there's-got-to-be-a-way-right?" efforts with the setup menus.

There are (I think) three ways:

(1) Get rid of all brain-damaged software that thinks that hooking to
the escape key is a good idea. ESC is for computer->terminal
interactions, not for fucking around to make a 'neato keen'
program that won't work on _the_ industry standard ASCII terminal.

(2) Press <ctrl> and '[' simultaneously.

(3) [not verified] Set the terminal to 'vt100' mode; the F11 key will
then work.
vt100  terminal  xterm  x11  xorg  cli  unix  it  computing  history 
5 days ago by dusko

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