telecommunications   2153

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How to Establish a Telecommunication Company | Bizfluent
There are several types of telecommunications businesses. The term includes the internet, cellular phone networks and all of the related goods and services required by these types of companies. Once you decide on an idea, write a business plan, deal with permits and regulations, and secure funding.
telecommunications  businessmodel  businessidea 
15 hours ago by nischg
Statewatch News Online: EU: Press release: EU officials in a panic over the possibility of a world without wiretapping - statewatch.org
5G telecoms networks could render traditional police "lawful interception" techniques obsolete unless EU and national governments take action, according to internal EU documents obtained by Statewatch, which is today publishing a new analysis explaining the issues and calling for them to be debated in public.
5G  surveillance  telecommunications  networks 
5 days ago by insertrealname
Huawei Tells Parliament It’s No Security Threat, Aiming to Avoid a Ban - The New York Times
A Huawei executive defended the company’s security practices in the face of tough questioning from members of the British Parliament on Monday, as the Chinese technology giant seeks to contain an American-led effort to ban it around the world.

John Suffolk, Huawei’s global cybersecurity and privacy officer, appeared at a hearing in the House of Commons about the safety of Britain’s telecommunications infrastructure. British leaders are facing pressure from the Trump administration to follow America’s lead in banning Huawei, the world’s largest maker of telecommunications equipment....

At the hearing, Mr. Suffolk said Huawei was independent and would never undermine the safety of its equipment to satisfy demands from Beijing. “There are no laws in China that obligate us to work with the Chinese government,” he said during questioning. “There is no requirement.”

Britain is weighing whether to allow Huawei to play a role in its new 5G networks. The company’s equipment is already being used in the country, but American authorities have raised new questions about the gear and the risks it poses to national security. The United States has threatened to restrict the intelligence it shares with countries that allow Huawei in its 5G networks....

The hearing became tense when members of Parliament asked Mr. Suffolk if Huawei made moral considerations before selling equipment to oppressive governments with a history of human rights abuse. Mr. Lamb noted an Australian research report that said Huawei provided equipment that Chinese authorities use to monitor the Uighurs, a Muslim minority in China’s northwestern region.

“I don’t think it’s for us to make such judgments,” Mr. Suffolk said. “The question is whether it’s legal in the country where we operate.”

“You’re a moral vacuum,” a member of Parliament responded angrily.
5G  telecommunications  china  infrastructure 
10 days ago by shannon_mattern
China Grants 5G Commercial Licenses to Its Biggest Wireless Carriers - WSJ
Both China and the U.S. have been scrambling to launch 5G, or fifth-generation, networks offering superfast speeds that could enable new commercial and military technologies—from robot-run factories to driverless cars and unmanned tanks....

World-wide sales of cellular equipment have been in a slump because carriers largely have all the hardware they need for their current networks. Now with the rollout of 5G, the global cellular-equipment market is expected to grow 2% annually, reaching $160 billion by 2023, according to telecom research-firm Dell’Oro Group. The major beneficiaries will be the world’s biggest telecom-equipment manufacturers: Huawei, Nokia Corp. of Finland and Ericsson AB of Sweden.

Viewing 5G as a transformational technology, U.S. officials since late 2017 have taken extraordinary steps to protect American wireless-technology companies while trying to hinder Chinese competitors.

U.S. and South Korean carriers have already launched 5G service in limited areas in their countries. But while American carriers are using a piecemeal approach, introducing 5G to one city at a time, industry executives say China’s goal is nationwide coverage in 2020.

Carriers in the two countries are dealing with different conditions, said Paul Scanlan, a chief technology officer for the carrier business of China’s Huawei Technologies Co., the world’s biggest telecom-gear maker.

Focused on profit, U.S. wireless providers initially build cellular towers—many more of which are required for 5G—in urban areas so they can sell as many subscriptions as possible, Mr. Scanlan said in an interview last month. China’s government-controlled carriers don’t face those pressures but are obliged to roll out services in remote areas as well, he said. “It’s corporate social responsibility. That’s done in a different way in China.”..

Countries getting the jump on 5G installation could have a bigger say in setting standards for how the technology is integrated into other industries, giving domestic companies a leg up in the race for patents and royalties, analysts said. China has prioritized 5G after lagging behind Western countries in developing previous generations of mobile networks. The U.S. controlled 4G standards, after Europeans dominated 3G.

“It’s a bit of an arms race for standards,” said Phil Marshall, chief research officer at mobile-industry research firm Tolaga Research. “If I am Huawei, ZTE , Nokia, Ericsson, I want to make sure my [intellectual property] is locked up in those standards.” ZTE Corp. is another Chinese telecom-equipment maker....

The blacklisting of Huawei and other Chinese tech companies is breaking apart what had been a deeply interconnected global telecom supply chain, adding costs for the rollout of 5G. Patents for 5G standards are evenly distributed among companies from the U.S., Europe and China, said Dimitris Mavrakis, an ABI Research analyst.
5G  China  telecommunications 
16 days ago by shannon_mattern
The New Technological Cold War Runs Through a Cable on the Ocean Floor
Huawei Technologies is one of the major focal points of the ongoing trade impasse between the United States and China. The world’s largest telecommunications company, its ties to the Chinese government have been under heavy scrutiny, and the US and some other countries have banned the use of its equipment, citing fears of spying. In the current era, the battleground of economic war is the information and communication web connecting us all, and we now see a stalemate as colossal as any Cold War conflict. No short could hope to capture the immense complexity of the US–China trade war, but Cablestreet vividly delves into the psychic underpinning of the conflict. We’re exclusively hosting the full film.
telecommunications  5G  Huawei 
23 days ago by shannon_mattern
IMEI CHECK - Free Online IMEI Number Checker | IMEI.info
IMEI.info:
Every mobile phone, GSM modem or device with a built-in phone / modem has a unique 15 digit IMEI number. Based on this number, you can check some information about the device, eg brand or model. Enter the IMEI number below.
lookup  useful  tool  online  service  iPhone  IMEI  information  telecommunications 
4 weeks ago by sb109
5G Networks Could Throw Weather Forecasting Into Chaos (Wired)
Jordan Gerth, a research meteorologist at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, has been studying this issue as part of a group at the American Meteorological Society. He says that while the FCC can switch which regions of the spectrum it allocates to phone companies, forecasters are stuck. That’s because water vapor emits a faint signal in the atmosphere at a frequency (23.8 GHz) that is extremely close to the one sold for next-generation 5G wireless communications (24 GHz). Satellites like NOAA's GOES-R and the European MetOp monitor this frequency to collect data that is fed into prediction models for upcoming storms and weather systems.

“We can’t move away from 23.8 or we would,” Gerth told WIRED. “As far as 5G is concerned, the administration has a priority to put 5G on the spectrum, and they thought this was an OK place to do it. It's just close to where we are sensing the weather.” Gerth says that wireless carriers could turn down the power emitted by 5G cellphone transmitters so they don’t drown out the sensitive sensors on the satellite. NOAA and NASA want to limit the interference noise to a level closer to what is considered acceptable by the European Union and World Meteorological Organization.

NOAA’s Jacobs told the House committee that the number currently proposed by the FCC would result in a 77 percent data loss from the NOAA satellite’s passive microwave sounders. He also said that experts from the two agencies are trying to work out a compromise. “I'm optimistic we can come up with an elegant solution,” he told lawmakers Thursday.
technology  weather  nature  telecommunications 
4 weeks ago by rhgibson
APart 2 | Example photos of the good, the bad and the downright ugly
This section shows a variety of Small Cells. There are 5 main categories of deployment:

Attached to existing wooden light or utility poles (link to sample design preferences guide).
Attached to existing steel/concrete poles and replacements of concrete poles.
Integrated poles with antennas and equipment mostly hidden inside the pole.
Attachments of antennas to a pole and some or all of the equipment on the ground or underground.
Attachments to, or inside of, bus shelters, kiosks, and billboards or underground (experimental).
5g  telecommunications  infrastructure 
5 weeks ago by shannon_mattern
5G May Be Holy Grail for Telecom, But Energy Sector Feels Much Anxiety Over New Network
Energy groups are warning regulators that a 5G rollout without securing adequate bandwidth for the sector could cause major harm to the nation’s electric grid and critical infrastructure.

FTC Narrowly Focused

Spectrum, space on an already demanding wireless network, is limited, and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), which controls it, is uber focused on the interests and concerns of the telecom industry, not the energy sector....

Joy Ditto, president and CEO of Utilities Technology Council, is on the front lines in Washington urging the FCC, Congress, Energy Department officials, and members of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to work with the FCC to ensure space on the 5G network for utility operations.

UTC represents the telecommunications and information technology interests of electric, gas and water utilities which collectively provide most of the electricity to the U.S. grid.

“We want them to pay attention to what the FCC is doing and how it impacts energy provisions. We want them weighing in on resilience and spectrum issues.
5G  telecommunications  infrastructure 
5 weeks ago by shannon_mattern
Why Cities Are Fighting the FCC's 5G Internet Rules - CityLab
This week, four U.S. cities are getting their first taste of the next generation of wireless internet. Verizon began rolling out its 5G residential service on Monday in Houston, Indianapolis, Los Angeles, and Sacramento, bringing this superfast wireless broadband to customers for the first time. But it arrives just as local governments find their hands tied at governing how these networks—and all the equipment they require—will fit into their communities.

That’s because, on Wednesday, the Federal Communications Commission restricted cities’ ability to regulate 5G infrastructure. Under the new rules, local governments face tight deadlines to approve or reject the installation of this new cellular equipment. The rules also put limits on how much money cities can charge wireless firms for the privilege of putting hardware in public rights of way.

This is no small move. The 5G buildout will require massive amounts of new gear, and the installation and approval process has already proven contentious in many places. The U.S. Conference of Mayors was quick to criticize the FCC’s move as a breach of local authority and suggest it will turn to the courts for resolution....

The dispute comes down to the “small cell” equipment required for much of 5G and who gets to say where it goes. Small cell sites can be as compact as a pizza box and are typically installed on utility poles or buildings. 5G technology, in turn, delivers wireless internet access at least five times faster and more responsive than today’s 4G networks—but 5G’s best performance limits it to the shortest range.

While a 4G cell site might cover a dozen city blocks, 5G’s fastest, millimeter-wave frequencies might need one site for each block. An Accenture study commissioned by the wireless trade group CTIA estimated in March that there would be 769,000 small-cell deployments in the U.S. from 2018 to 2026. In a separate report, CTIA estimated that the U.S. had 323,448 cell sites in service at the end of 2017.....

But even something the size of a pizza box can stand out on a utility pole or a building, especially a historic one. In 2017, the Philadelphia suburb of Doylestown, Pennsylvania, balked at a Verizon plan to add 44 small cell sites around town. It fought Verizon’s contractor, Crown Castle, in court for a year and a half, and negotiated a settlement that cuts the site build-out to 34 units, with additional measures to hide them from sight. In the bargain, Doylestown will get 5 percent of the revenue generated from some of these sites....

For an example of a more amicable approach to 5G, look to Sacramento. Early on, the city formed a public-private partnership to help Verizon build a network that would support its own smart-city services.... The city finally had staffers sit down with Verizon representatives to develop “a clean, gold-standard process” that the company and its contractors could follow.

Greer said the city also had to develop a new tracking system to cope with this scale.

Sacramento’s reward for this effort will be public services delivered on the roughly 200 miles of fiber that Verizon is building out. Free WiFi will come to 27 parks, broadband will link more public schools, and cameras and sensors linked to Verizon’s cloud analytics will support Sacramento’s Vision Zero goal to eliminate traffic deaths and serious injuries.

Sacramento and other California municipalities retained a little more leverage over 5G buildouts when Governor Jerry Brown vetoed a bill last year that would have imposed simpler statewide standards on small-cell site installations.
5G  telecommunications 
5 weeks ago by shannon_mattern
5G and the Health Effects of Cell Phones | WIRED
The FCC standard for measuring the health effects of electromagnetic radiation is based on whether the exposure, on average, will heat human tissue over short periods (six minutes for occupational work and 30 minutes for public exposure). That standard was adopted in 1996 and was based in part on standards adopted 30 years ago by a private group based in Germany called the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection that some say is loyal to both the telecom and energy industries. In 2012, the General Accountability Office found that the FCC had not ensured that its standards “reflect the latest research on RF energy exposure,” and recommended that the commission reassess and potentially change its exposure limit. The next year, the FCC launched a process to reexamine this standard, but its review doesn’t seem to be progressing.

Meanwhile, scientists don’t agree on the effects of radiation from wireless communications, and some argue that the standard needs to be reevaluated. One group says human cells can be disrupted by mechanisms that don't necessarily involve heating. Others say the standard measures average exposure rather than potentially harmful peaks. They're particularly worried about effects on the skin and eyes of bursts of 5G transmissions that may lead to short, harmful temperature spikes in exposed people. Still others say the standard does not account for particularly sensitive groups. In 2013, the American Academy of Pediatrics told the FCC that its wireless guidelines do not adequately protect pregnant women and children. The group urged the FCC to draft new rules that reflect modern use patterns, and provide more disclosure to consumers.
5G  telecommunications  public_health 
5 weeks ago by shannon_mattern
Meteorologists Worry 5G Expansion Could Interfere With Weather Forecasts - WSJ
The Trump Administration’s swift-moving plan to promote 5G networks is running into resistance from the weather-forecasting community.

The dispute centers around ultrahigh radio frequencies that the Federal Communications Commission recently auctioned off for use in the country’s next-generation wireless networks. Officials at other agencies, including the Department of Commerce and National Aeronautics and Space Administration, warn that those airwaves—specifically those above 24 gigahertz—could scramble nearby readings from the federal weather satellites that meteorologists use to make storm predictions.

The concerns for now are theoretical, as cellphone carriers’ early upgrades have focused on other frequencies. But weather researchers worry interference could endanger future forecasts.

Scientists warn the FCC’s plan “would substantially impact the accuracy of weather forecasts” used to gauge the risks from hurricanes, tornadoes and other severe weather, according to a recent letter U.S. Sens. Ron Wyden (D., Ore.) and Maria Cantwell (D., Wash.) wrote to FCC Chairman Ajit Pai....

Some weather forecasters say the latest 5G auction is different because it would create wireless activity close to natural microwave emissions from water vapor. The signals come from water itself and are often so faint that even minute wireless activity nearby could mar the satellites’ measurements.

“It’s not an issue of, ‘Can we move slightly away so 5G can get in there,’ ” said University of Wisconsin meteorologist Jordan Gerth. “Physics can’t be reaccommodated.”

Telecom companies have ample support from Mr. Pai’s FCC, which has made spectrum sales a cornerstone of its strategy to make the U.S. a front-runner in the race to build 5G infrastructure. The 24 GHz auction in dispute was the second of five spectrum sales the commission has planned for a swath of frequencies once considered useless for internet service....

“The rules for the 24GHz band were developed by the FCC in consultation with NASA, NOAA and many other federal agencies over the past five years,” CTIA spokesman Nick Ludlum said. “Changing them now undermines President Trump’s 5G strategy while doing nothing at all to protect actual weather data.”

The weather-sensing debate is one of several interagency turf battles that have slowed but not stopped the federal government’s 5G expansion campaign. Tension among different interest groups in the telecom sector factored into the recent resignation of Commerce Department official David Redl, according to people familiar with the matter.

A compromise is possible. The Navy document the senators cited in their letter suggested the FCC could simply use its authority to tighten the power limits placed on devices that send signals close to the band the satellites read, for instance. Forecasters could also use software algorithms to detect and compensate for urban 5G interference.
5G  telecommunications  meteorology  weather  infrastructure 
5 weeks ago by shannon_mattern
Your 5G Phone Won’t Hurt You. But Russia Wants You to Think Otherwise. - The New York Times
The Russian network RT America aired the segment, titled “A Dangerous ‘Experiment on Humanity,’” in covering what its guest experts call 5G’s dire health threats. U.S. intelligence agencies identified the network as a principal meddler in the 2016 presidential election. Now, it is linking 5G signals to brain cancer, infertility, autism, heart tumors and Alzheimer’s disease — claims that lack scientific support.

Yet even as RT America, the cat’s paw of Russia’s president, Vladimir Putin, has been doing its best to stoke the fears of American viewers, Mr. Putin, on Feb. 20, ordered the launch of Russian 5G networks in a tone evoking optimism rather than doom....

Analysts see RT’s attack on 5G as geopolitically bold: It targets a new world of interconnected, futuristic technologies that would reach into consumers’ homes, aid national security and spark innovative industries. Already, medical firms are linking up devices wirelessly to create new kinds of health treatments.

“It’s economic warfare,” Ryan Fox, chief operating officer of New Knowledge, a technology firm that tracks disinformation, said in an interview. “Russia doesn’t have a good 5G play, so it tries to undermine and discredit ours.”

5G is also a growing point of friction between Washington and Beijing, with each side lining up allies in what has become a major technology race. Moscow and Beijing are seen as possibly forming a 5G political bloc....

The Kremlin “would really enjoy getting democratic governments tied up in fights over 5G’s environmental and health hazards,” said Molly McKew, head of Fianna Strategies, a consulting firm in Washington, D.C., that seeks to counter Russian disinformation.

RT’s assaults on 5G technology are rising in number and stridency as the American wireless industry begins to erect 5G systems. In March, Verizon said its service will soon reach 30 cities.
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RT America aired its first program assailing 5G’s health impacts last May, its only one in 2018. Already this year, it has run seven. The most recent, on April 14, reported that children exposed to signals from 5G cellphone towers would suffer cancer, nosebleeds and learning disabilities. ...

Moscow’s goal, experts say, is to destabilize the West by undermining trust in democratic leaders, institutions and political life. To that end, the RT network amplifies voices of dissent, to sow discord and widen social divides. It gives the marginal a megaphone and traffics in false equivalence. Earlier campaigns took aim at fracking, vaccination and genetically modified organisms. One show called designer tomatoes “good-looking poison.”...

All cellphones use radio waves. RT America tends to refer to the signals as “radiations,” seemingly associating them with the very strong rays at the far end of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as X-rays and ultraviolet rays, which in high doses can damage DNA and cause cancer....

Opponents of 5G claim the technology’s high frequencies will make the new phones and cell towers extraordinarily harmful. “The higher the frequency, the more dangerous it is to living organisms,” a RT reporter told viewers recently.

The truth is exactly the opposite, scientists say. The higher the radio frequency, the less it penetrates human skin, lowering exposure of the body’s internal organs, including the brain.

“5G emissions, if anything, should be safer than previous generations,” said Dr. Marvin C. Ziskin, a medical doctor and emeritus professor of radiology and medical physics at the Temple University School of Medicine. ...

RT America began its assault last year with a news show captioned “Wireless Cancer.” The featured guest was Dr. David O. Carpenter, a prominent 5G critic.

Dr. Carpenter, 82, received his medical degree from Harvard in 1964 and has published hundreds of scientific papers. For decades, he has warned of cancer risks for people living near high-voltage power lines, although federal studies have failed to find credible evidence that would support his claims....

Dr. Carpenter’s scariest alarms have been “widely dismissed by scientific bodies the world over,” according to David Robert Grimes, a cancer researcher at the University of Oxford, and his colleague, Dorothy V. M. Bishop, also of Oxford. They challenged Dr. Carpenter in a journal article that ran months before the RT program aired, calling his main claims “scientifically discredited.”...

Even as RT America has worked hard to damage 5G, the scientific establishment in Russia has embraced a contrary and questionable position: that the high frequencies of 5G communications are actually good for human health. It recommends their use for healing wounds, boosting the immune system and treating cancer. Millions of Russian patients are said to have undergone such high-frequency therapies.

Beauty clinics in Moscow use these high frequencies for skin regeneration, according to a scientific study. One company says the waves can remove wrinkles and fight hair loss.
public_health  5G  telecommunications  infrastructure  geopolitics 
5 weeks ago by shannon_mattern
Telcoms lobbyists have convinced 26 states to ban or restrict municipal broadband / Boing Boing
More than half of the US states have passed laws that ban or severely restrict local governments from investing in broadband: many of these laws were copypasted from "model legislation" circulated by corporate telcoms lobbyists (this is a disturbing, widespread practice in America's state houses); and many of the states that have passed these bills have large areas where every ISP is a Net Neutrality violator, and all across America, ISPs are underinvesting in network buildout (especially for rural subscribers) while raising prices and refusing to sell high-speed service to customers who don't also buy cable TV.

Municipal internet is the answer: despite the documented lies of Trump's FCC, cities that build their own networks save money and the people who live there are the only Americans who are happy with their broadband.

So municipal internet is a huge threat to ISP monopolists: not only do they stand to lose the $5 billion federal subsidies that they receive every year, they also have to compete with superior, lower-cost, higher quality offerings from municipalities.
telecommunications  broadband  infrasructure  commons  utilities 
8 weeks ago by shannon_mattern
China Exploits Fleet of U.S. Satellites to Strengthen Police and Military Power - WSJ
Tangled ownership and offshore firms helped Beijing win access to superior technology, despite U.S. law preventing satellite sales to China. U.S. firms including private-equity giant Carlyle Group and Boeing Co. indirectly facilitate the efforts.
aerospace  alternative  asia  america  aircraft  china  chinese  citic  civil  funding  equity  defense  control  communications  investments  logistics  military  news  services  technology  satellite  satellites  telecommunications  theft  transportation  tracking 
8 weeks ago by xer0x
The Terrifying Potential of the 5G Network | The New Yorker
Two words explain the difference between our current wireless networks and 5G: speed and latency. 5G—if you believe the hype—is expected to be up to a hundred times faster. (A two-hour movie could be downloaded in less than four seconds.) That speed will reduce, and possibly eliminate, the delay—the latency—between instructing a computer to perform a command and its execution. This, again, if you believe the hype, will lead to a whole new Internet of Things, where everything from toasters to dog collars to dialysis pumps to running shoes will be connected. Remote robotic surgery will be routine, the military will develop hypersonic weapons, and autonomous vehicles will cruise safely along smart highways. The claims are extravagant, and the stakes are high. One estimate projects that 5G will pump twelve trillion dollars into the global economy by 2035, and add twenty-two million new jobs in the United States alone. This 5G world, we are told, will usher in a fourth industrial revolution....

A totally connected world will also be especially susceptible to cyberattacks. Even before the introduction of 5G networks, hackers have breached the control center of a municipal dam system, stopped an Internet-connected car as it travelled down an interstate, and sabotaged home appliances. Ransomware, malware, crypto-jacking, identity theft, and data breaches have become so common that more Americans are afraid of cybercrime than they are of becoming a victim of violent crime. Adding more devices to the online universe is destined to create more opportunities for disruption....

Spalding’s solution, he told me, was to build the 5G network from scratch, incorporating cyber defenses into its design. Because this would be a massive undertaking, he initially suggested that one option would be for the federal government to pay for it and, essentially, rent it out to the telecom companies. But he had scrapped that idea. A later draft, he said, proposed that the major telecom companies—Verizon, A.T. & T., Sprint, and T-Mobile—form a separate company to build the network together and share it. “It was meant to be a nationwide network,” Spalding told me, not a nationalized one. “They could build this network and then sell bandwidth to their retail customers. That was one idea, but it was never that the government would own the network. It was always about how do we get industry to actually secure the system.”...

In 2017, Verizon announced that it would be introducing 5G in eleven municipalities, including Dallas, Ann Arbor, Miami, and Denver. A.T. & T. was testing its service in a dozen cities. T-Mobile was concentrating on Spokane. For the most part, they were building their new services on top of existing infrastructure—and inheriting its vulnerabilities. ... According to Spalding, when the carriers heard that the government was considering “nationalizing” the future of their industry, they quickly mobilized against it. “As I’ve talked to people subsequently, they said they’ve never seen that industry unite so quickly,” Spalding said. “They have such support in government and on the Hill and in the bureaucracy, and they have such a huge lobbying contingent, that it was across the board and swift.” ... The following day, Ajit Pai, the chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, roundly rejected any idea of federalizing the Internet, saying that “the market, not government, is best positioned to drive innovation and investment.” By Wednesday, Spalding was out of a job. ...

Although Huawei vigorously denies that it is an agent of the Chinese government, the senators pointed out, the company is subject to a Chinese law that requires companies to coöperate with the state intelligence apparatus. The Times of London reported that the C.I.A. has evidence that Huawei has taken money from the P.L.A. as well as from branches of the Chinese intelligence service. Australia, Japan, and New Zealand have joined with the United States in banning Huawei hardware from their networks....

So far, though, the Trump Administration’s campaign to shut out Huawei is finding limited traction. The European Union is poised to reject American entreaties, with individual countries like Portugal and Germany expressing a willingness to use Huawei equipment. Canada is relying on Huawei for at least one 5G trial. Even A.T. & T., which is bound by the federal guidelines that will go into effect next year in the U.S., continues to use Huawei equipment in Mexico, where it is the third-largest wireless company. Huawei equipment is cheaper than its Western rivals and, in the estimation of researchers at the Defensive Innovation Board (DIB), which advises the Secretary of Defense on new technologies, in many cases, it is superior....

There are very good reasons to keep a company that appears to be beholden to a government with a documented history of industrial cyber espionage, international data theft, and domestic spying out of global digital networks. But banning Huawei hardware will not secure those networks. Even in the absence of Huawei equipment, systems still may rely on software developed in China, and software can be reprogrammed remotely by malicious actors. And every device connected to the fifth-generation Internet will likely remain susceptible to hacking. According to James Baker, the former F.B.I. general counsel who runs the national-security program at the R Street Institute, “There’s a concern that those devices that are connected to the 5G network are not going to be very secure from a cyber perspective. ...

in recent negotiations over international standards, the U.S. eliminated a requirement that the technical specifications of 5G include cyber defense. “For the first time in history,” Wheeler wrote, “cybersecurity was being required as a forethought in the design of a new network standard—until the Trump F.C.C. repealed it.” The agency also rejected the notion that companies building and running American digital networks were responsible for overseeing their security....

The Trump Administration, keen to win what it has characterized as “the race to 5G,” may be more interested in attempting to put a brake on Huawei’s—and by extension, China’s—progress. In January, the company’s chief financial officer, Meng Wanzhou, a daughter of the Huawei founder, was indicted on thirteen counts in the U.S., including breaking sanctions against Iran, money laundering, and obstruction of justice. ... “If we didn’t have these other trade issues with China, it would be easier to just accept the [Administration’s] security statements as truth,” Scott Wallsten, an economist and the president of the Technology Policy Institute, told me. “But when it gets mixed up with all these other trade issues, it makes it a little more suspect.”...

n October, Trump signed a memorandum on “Developing a Sustainable Spectrum Strategy for America’s Future.” A few weeks later, the F.C.C. auctioned off new swaths of the electromagnetic radio spectrum. (There was another auction last month, with more scheduled for later this year.) Opening up new spectrum is crucial to achieving the super-fast speeds promised by 5G. Most American carriers are planning to migrate their services to a higher part of the spectrum, where the bands are big and broad and allow for colossal rivers of data to flow through them. (Some carriers are also working with lower spectrum frequencies, where the speeds will not be as fast but likely more reliable.) Until recently, these high-frequency bands, which are called millimetre waves, were not available for Internet transmission, but advances in antenna technology have made it possible, at least in theory. In practice, millimetre waves are finicky: they can only travel short distances—about a thousand feet—and are impeded by walls, foliage, human bodies, and, apparently, rain....

To accommodate these limitations, 5G cellular relays will have to be installed inside buildings and on every city block, at least. Cell relays mounted on thirteen million utility poles, for example, will deliver 5G speeds to just over half of the American population, and cost around four hundred billion dollars to install. Rural communities will be out of luck—too many trees, too few people—despite the F.C.C.’s recently announced Rural Digital Opportunity Fund. According to Blair Levin, a communications analyst and former F.C.C. chief of staff in the Clinton Administration, the fund “has nothing to do with 5G.” Rather, it will subsidize companies to lay fibre-optic cable that, minimally, will provide speeds forty times slower than what 5G promises....

Deploying millions of wireless relays so close to each other and, therefore, to our bodies has elicited its own concerns. Two years ago, a hundred and eighty scientists and doctors from thirty-six countries appealed to the European Union for a moratorium on 5G adoption until the effects of the expected increase in low-level radiation were studied. In February, Senator Richard Blumenthal, a Democrat from Connecticut, took both the F.C.C. and F.D.A. to task for pushing ahead with 5G without assessing its health risks. ...

A system built on millions of cell relays, antennas, and sensors also offers previously unthinkable surveillance potential. Telecom companies already sell location data to marketers, and law enforcement has used similar data to track protesters. ...

In China, which has installed three hundred and fifty thousand 5G relays—about ten times more than the United States—enhanced geolocation coupled with an expansive network of surveillance cameras, each equipped with facial-recognition technology, have enabled authorities to track and subordinate the country’s eleven million Uighur Muslims....
5g  infrastructure  telecommunications 
8 weeks ago by shannon_mattern

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