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Algeria orders total shutdown of internet during high school exam period
In an effort to prevent students from cheating during exams, the Algerian government has ordered a complete, countrywide Internet shutdown for several hours each day this week while exams take place.

ABC reports: "For several hours each day, while students are taking end-of-year tests, all of Algeria will be shut off from the world wide web in an effort to prevent a repeat of widespread cheating in 2016, when the questions were leaked in advance...The Minister of Education, Nouria Beghanbrit, posted a message to students on her Facebook page before the service was suspended, encouraging students to 'reject all behaviors that would undermine their efforts for success.' In 2016, the final exam questions were leaked online before the test took place, putting the results of thousands in question. The government then tried to limit only social media sites in 2017 but found that cheating was still occurring. That prompted the crackdown this year."

You can see the shutdown documented on Oracle's Internet Intelligence Map here: https://map.internetintel.oracle.com/?root=national&country=DZ

Al Jazeera reports that Iraq will institute a similar ban over the next two weeks. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/06/algeria-iraq-shut-internet-prevent-exam-cheating-180621074343644.html

This isn't the first time a country has shut down the Internet during high school exams. Iraq has done it before, as have authorities in Syria, Uzbekistan, and parts of India.

https://dyn.com/blog/syria-goes-to-extremes-to-foil-cheaters/

https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/08/before-a-high-stakes-standardized-test-uzbekistan-shut-the-whole-countrys-internet-down/375556/

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/To-beat-exam-cheats-Gujarat-to-block-mobile-internet-today/articleshow/51173461.cms
otf  algeria  shutdown  access  mena  exams  school 
3 days ago by dmcdev
Oracle introduces new Internet Intelligence Map tracking Internet disruptions worldwide
Oracle's global research arm, Internet Intelligence, announced today the release of a new tool called the Internet Intelligence Map, a free tool that maps out things like "country-level connectivity statistics, transit shifts, and security threats that impact the performance of the global internet," mapping out potential Internet disruptions worldwide and categorized according to three tests (traceroute completion ratio, BGP routes, and DNS query rate). "Traffic shifts" highlight where Internet traffic is being rerouted as an additional indicator of possible disruption.

Dyn Research (the entity that preceded Internet Intelligence) explains the new tool in a blog post: "This free site will help to democratize Internet analysis by exposing some of our internal capabilities to the general public in a single tool...since major Internet outages (whether intentional or accidental) will be with us for the foreseeable future, we believe offering a self-serve capability for some of the insights we produce is a great way to move towards a healthier and more accountable Internet...The website has two sections: Country Statistics and Traffic Shifts. The Country Statistics section reports any potential Internet disruptions seen during the previous 48 hours. Disruption severity is based on three primary measures of Internet connectivity in that country: BGP routes, traceroutes to responding hosts and DNS queries hitting our servers from that country...We can try to further understand the recent blackouts by analyzing Traffic Shifts...are simply changes — good, bad or neutral — in how traffic is being routed through the Internet. On any given day, there are hundreds of such shifts as ISPs change transit providers or re-engineer their networks. The tool enumerates the top one hundred shifts in the previous 48-hour period and allows our users to explore a macro-level connectivity picture for any given [autonomous system]."
otf  oracle  disruption  shutdown  measurement  tool  dyn 
12 days ago by dmcdev
Disconnected: A Human Rights-Based Approach to Network Disruptions #research
A new report on state-mandated Internet shutdowns analyzes over 100 instances of network disruptions around the world in 2017. The report is by Google policy fellow Jan Rydzak, who worked out of the Global Network Initiative (GNI) while authoring the report.

From GNI's summary: "Counting daily disruptions in each country cumulatively, Rydzak finds that access to digital communication was disrupted on more than 2,500 days last year. The report presents a wealth of data relevant to both researchers and activists and encourages them to engage more broadly with different stakeholders. Informed by interviews with a variety of experts and practitioners, Rydzak shines a light on the effects of network disruptions on marginalized ethnic groups, immigrants, women, and girls as he explores an alarming trend and its human rights’ impacts, particularly on vulnerable populations. The report offers an opportunity to start wider conversations about the unexplored ramifications of network disruptions on civil and political rights, as well as economic, social and cultural rights, in line with recommendations made by others, including the UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of expression."

Check out the full report (pdf) here: https://globalnetworkinitiative.org/gin_tnetnoc/uploads/2018/05/Disconnected-Report-Network-Disruptions.pdf
otf  research  shutdown  access 
24 days ago by dmcdev
Main page | Freeware SleepOnLan (Sleep On Lan) by IrekSoftware.com
Freeware SleepOnLan (Sleep On Lan) allows to suspend (put to sleep), hibernate, power off, reboot, lock or logoff Windows machine remotely.
http  shutdown  reboot  windows 
27 days ago by sphere2k
Facebook looks at internet shutdowns impact on Africa's informal economy
When the Internet gets turend off, how much does it cost? That is the question behind a new Facebook-backed study conducted by Kenya's Strathmore University. The research looks "to go beyond measuring the impact of internet shutdowns on the formal economy and measure the impact of internet cut-offs on “shadow economies,” namely economic activities that circumvent government regulation, oversight, and taxation," Abdi Latif Dahir reports for Quartz.

"The researchers at Strathmore University’s Center for Intellectual Property and Information Technology Law (CIPIT) in Kenya used a 2013 estimate by the economist Friedrich Schneider which showed the average unrecorded economic activity in 49 African countries stood at 37.6%. As such, their study showed that informal economies account for 30% of direct costs to internet disruptions—amplifying the previous estimates of loss percentages and their direct socio-economic impact...As internet blackouts increase and become more sophisticated across Africa, experts are not only looking to improve the cost methodology but also create ways of better monitoring and detecting shutdowns—whether they are intentional or accidental. The [OTF-supported] Open Observatory of Network Interference, an organization that documents internet censorship, is currently developing a new system that would better determine when a shutdown occurs or when certain social media platforms are switched off like in the recent case of Chad. Robert Muthuri, one of the study’s co-authors at Strathmore, says there’s “more granularity needed” when assessing the impact of internet disruptions on economies, and how much other applications like Viber and Telegram are affected."
otf  shutdown  research  access  africa 
7 weeks ago by dmcdev
Kristen Arnett on Twitter: "someone just tried to do “this is more of a comment than a question” in this library panel and a librarian immediately told them NOPE, this is QUESTIONS ONLY and i am thrilled to death"
someone just tried to do “this is more of a comment than a question” in this library panel and a librarian immediately told them NOPE, this is QUESTIONS ONLY and i am thrilled to death
panels  sexism  speaking  conferences  librarian  library  shutdown  q&a 
8 weeks ago by emmacarlson
Journalists covering unrest in the DRC face arrests, assault, and internet shutdowns - @pressfreedom
President Joseph Kabila of the Democratic Republic of the Congo has refused to either step down or hold elections, despite his second five-year term being scheduled to finish up at the end of 2016. Since then, the country has been seized by political unrest and protests calling for Kabila to step aside and allow democratic processes to proceed in the country - a challenging environment for the media and regular citizens alike, as the state has shut down the Internet and cracked down on press freedoms, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports:

"CPJ has documented at least 27 cases in recent months of security forces briefly detaining, threatening, or assaulting journalists as they covered violence and protests calling for President Joseph Kabila to step down...During the same period, journalists' ability to cover unrest and other events were further hampered by the DRC Telecommunications Ministry repeatedly ordering the shutdown of internet and telecommunication services...Aside from arbitrary detentions and equipment being confiscated, journalists have been affected by authorities consistently ordering internet access to be shutdown. Since December 30, authorities shutdown internet and telecommunications on at least three occasions corresponding to nationwide public demonstrations, CPJ has found. Many journalists with whom CPJ spoke said the shutdowns increased risks associated with their reporting and heightened their concerns that the government could more easily surveil their communications. Without access to internet-based encrypted communication services, journalists had no choice but to use regular phone lines, which they believed the government monitors. 'The government listens to all the conversations,' a Kinshasa-based journalist, whose identity was withheld for safety reasons, told CPJ. The journalist added that their belief that authorities could surveil them means encrypted apps like WhatsApp have become essential to their reporting."
otf  drc  shutdown  media  press  access 
10 weeks ago by dmcdev
debian - SSH sessions hang on shutdown/reboot - Server Fault
So in order to have systemd behave in a non-stupid non-asshole way, I have to install dbus.
That's just fucking brilliant.
systemd  systemd.sucks  ssh  openssh  shutdown  reboot  linux  libpam  dbus 
10 weeks ago by po
Chad has blocked social messaging apps and BBC amid political and economic anxiety
Chad has again shut down the Internet in the face of opposition political activity, blocking Facebook Messenger, WhatsApp, Viber and BBC, Quartz reports, while pointing to OTF-supported OONI's confirmation of the blockage of the BBC website:

"From as early as Mar. 28, users started reporting a shutdown, according to the organization Internet Without Borders (IWB). The internet censorship watchdog, the Open Observatory of Network Interference (OONI), also confirmed network measurement data showed the BBC’s news website was blocked. The cutoff comes after a national conference, boycotted by the opposition, recommended constitutional changes that could extend president Idriss Deby’s rule until 2033. Deby has ruled over the Central African nation since 1990...The current shutdown comes just days after advocacy groups submitted a report to the UN Human Rights Council detailing evidence of breaching freedom of expression, access to information, and the right to privacy. The violations included the January internet blackout ahead of demonstrations organized by civil society organizations, besides the eight-month social media cutoff following controversial elections in 2016. IWB estimates all these blackouts combined cost the Chadian economy €18 million ($22.1 million)."
otf  chad  africa  shutdown  access  blackout  social 
11 weeks ago by dmcdev
Reconnecting the internet is the first litmus test Ethiopia’s new prime minister has to pass
For months, only Ethiopia's capital has had consistent Internet access after a blanket shutdown was issued for outlying regions. Ethiopia's new prime minister Dr. Abiy Ahmed Ali, just sworn in on April 2, 2018, can and should flip the switch by restoring Internet access and lifting an ongoing media censorship campaign, writes Moses Karanja for Quartz [Note: Moses has previously received OTF funding as an ICFP fellow]:

"A highly coordinated media censorship has ensured that only a fraction of what is happening in Africa’s second most populous country is visible. As Abiy Ahmed takes over Ethiopia’s most powerful constitutional office, he has the responsibility of lifting the lid on media censorship, if the opportunity for reforms is to take root outside Addis Ababa...Only the capital city has had access to the Internet since mid-December after the government imposed a blanket shutdown for regional states. Independent media is almost non-existent after the Meles Zenawi-led government closed them down during and after the controversial 2005 election. The subsequent arrest of journalists and opposition leaders saw a mass exodus of public intellectuals to safer grounds."

Moses cites three main reasons why Abiy should restore Internet access: "One, it will act as a litmus test on where he is located principally as a political reformer...Two, the economic costs of media censorship have been demonstrated to cripple economies, especially when this happens for an extended period of time...Three, an open independent media allows for fair coverage of the country, setting realistic expectations, as opposed to the ‘development’ rhetoric churned out as propaganda and regurgitated by uncritical international media."
otf  ethiopia  access  shutdown  africa 
11 weeks ago by dmcdev
OONI - Sierra Leone: Network disruptions amid 2018 runoff elections
OONI examines recent disruption to the internet in Sierra Leone, finding evidence of "dusruptions" and an "internet blackout" before and after polls closed in the country's presidential runoff election last weekend:

"Last weekend, two network disruptions occurred in Sierra Leone right before and after the country’s runoff elections...It seems that the network disruptions were caused by an ACE submarine cable cut. Google traffic and BGP data suggest that the second disruption, following the runoff elections, could be an internet blackout...The first [network disruption] occurred in the early hours of 30th March 2018, where there is a decrease in traffic from Sierra Leone to Google Search. The second occurred on the following night, where we can observe a complete drop in traffic towards Google Search from Sierra Leone...Both network disruptions are corroborated by BGP announcement data aggregated and published by RIPE...[the Sierra Leone Cable Company] released a public statement confirming that the network disruption was caused by an ACE submarine cable cut and that it affected other countries in the region as well...However, the network disruptions on 30th and 31st March 2018 are inconsistent. The fact that the internet was not shut down completely in the early hours of 30th March 2018 means that other network paths towards Sierra Leone were probably possible. This is also suggested by RIPE data, which shows that only a few prefixes were withdrawn on 30th March 2018."
otf  sierraleone  shutdown  access  africa 
11 weeks ago by dmcdev
Why Sierra Leone temporarily shut down the internet after runoff vote
The Sierra Leonean government appears to have shut off access to the internet after the polls closed for the country's runoff presidential election, according to data acquired from openly available Google traffic statistics and reported by Africanews.com:

"Multiple reports indicate that Sierra Leonean authorities temporarily shut down the internet after close of polls in the presidential runoff. The service has since been restored as at Sunday morning. The shutdown was also corroborated by internet censorship outfit, Open Observatory Network Interference (OONI) [note: OONI is supported by OTF]. The group said according to google traffic statistics, there was a noticeable decrease in traffic from Sierra Leone to search. [See the relevant tweets from OONI here: https://twitter.com/OpenObservatory/status/980716226367324161]

...An election monitoring group, Sierra Leone Decides reported on Sunday morning that Internet Service Providers said the measure was to stop the elections body (National Electoral Commission) and affiliates from sharing results data to party affiliates...There has been no official communication on the incident as citizens continue to wait for results from the March 31 runoff that pitched the ruling All People’s Congress (APC) against the main opposition Sierra Leone People’s Party (SLPP)."
otf  africa  sierraleone  shutdown  election 
12 weeks ago by dmcdev

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