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An Introduction to Augustine
For Augustine, the One was embodied by God, the unifying source of all being, order, and goodness in both the material and the spiritual world. The bridge between the two worlds, however, was not philosophic contemplation, as Plato and Neoplatonism each suggested, but, rather, dutiful devotion to God. In addition, Augustine rejected the Neoplatonist notion that there existed any perfect happiness in the material world that human beings could enjoy if they led their lives in the appropriate manner. Instead, the material world was forever tainted by the allure of bodily temptations and the inescapable finality of earthly existence. According to Augustine’s understanding of original sin, human moral responsibility is meaningfully preserved despite original sin since the soul remains capable, if properly educated, of redirecting its attention toward God and the spiritual realm over which he presides. Goodness consists in the proper assignment of relative value to material and spiritual goods. Original sin can thus be understood in terms of mistaken perception, and is of intellectual rather than bodily origin (City of God 13.14-15).
pol.505  philosophy  Religion  Passions  reasoning  political_theory  teaching_pol_theory 
22 days ago by Jibarosoy
Aquinas’ Philosophical Theology | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Yet Aquinas insists that Christianity’s doctrinal truths—truths we are to embrace by faith—are often confirmed by “fitting arguments” (SCG I.6.1), and that faith can be strengthened by the use of reason (De trinitate, 2.1).  What sort of reasoning or argumentation does Aquinas have in mind?  He makes a distinction between demonstrative reasoning and persuasive reasoning.  As we saw earlier, demonstrative reasoning yields a conclusion that is undeniable for anyone who grasps the truth of the demonstration’s premises.  In these cases, believing the demonstration’s conclusion is not a voluntary affair.  If I know that the sum of all rectangles’ interior angles equals 360º and that a square is a rectangle, then I cannot help but believe that the sum of a square’s interior angles equals 360º.  In cases of demonstrative reasoning, knowledge of a demonstration’s premises is sufficient to guarantee assent to the demonstration’s conclusions  (De trinitate 2.1 ad 5).  Were a person to grasp the truth of sacred doctrine by means of this sort of reasoning, belief would be necessitated and the merit of faith destroyed (Ibid.).
pol.505  philosophy  Religion  Passions  reasoning  political_theory  reach 
22 days ago by Jibarosoy
Faith and Reason | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Aquinas also elucidates the relationship between faith and reason on the basis of a distinction between higher and lower orders of creation. Aquinas criticizes the form of naturalism that holds that the goodness of any reality "is whatever belongs to it in keeping with its own nature" without need for faith (II-IIae, q.2, a.3). Yet, from reason itself we know that every ordered pattern of nature has two factors that concur in its full development: one on the basis of its own operation; the other, on the basis of the operation of a higher nature. The example is water: in a lower pattern, it naturally flows toward the centre, but in virtue of a higher pattern, such as the pull of the moon, it flows around the center. In the realm of our concrete knowledge of things, a lower pattern grasps only particulars, while a higher pattern grasps universals.
pol.505  philosophy  Passions  reasoning  Religion  political_theory  teaching_pol_theory 
22 days ago by Jibarosoy
Patrick Comerford: Lust, sex, original sin and war: Augustine and ‘Talking History’
Augustine taught that Adam’s guilt, which was transmitted to his descendants, much enfeebles their freedom of will, but does not destroy it. For Augustine, the ‘Original Sin’ of Adam and Eve was either an act of foolishness followed by pride and disobedience to God or the opposite: pride came first. The first couple disobeyed God, who had told them not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil (Genesis 2: 17). The tree was a symbol of the order of creation. Self-centeredness made Adam and Eve eat of it, and so they failed to acknowledge and respect the world as it was created by God, with its hierarchy of beings and values. They would not have fallen into pride and lack of wisdom if Satan had not sown into their senses “the root of evil” (radix mali). Their nature was wounded by concupiscence or libido, which affected human intelligence and will, as well as affections and desires, including sexual desire.

Augustine’s understanding of the consequences of original sin and of the necessity of redeeming grace was developed in the struggle against Pelagius – who may have been of Irish birth – and his disciples, the Pelagians. They did not agree that libido wounded human will and mind, insisting that human nature was given the power to act, to speak, and to think when God created it. Human nature cannot lose its moral capacity to do good.
pol.505  philosophy  Passions  reasoning  individualism  teaching_pol_theory  political_theory 
22 days ago by Jibarosoy
Augustine on Sin and Sex - David J Dunn
The sin of sex is not pleasure but pride. Pleasure tends to justify the soul’s false believe in its inherent goodness.[8] This lie of pleasure is really what Augustine means by concupiscence (i.e. sinful desire).[9] Concupiscence lurks in all pleasures, such as eating.[10] It is possible to make a conscious choice to moderate the pleasure of food. Sex is more potent.[11] One may do mathematical calculations and enjoy a glass of fine wine at the same time (but probably just one). It should go without saying that the same is not true of sexual climax. As Augustine indicated above, orgasm makes every lover a selfish lover. Sexual pleasure overwhelms all our cognitive faculties. No matter how much we may delight in the companionship of our beloved, when sexual climax comes, we are all just nerve endings.
pol.505  philosophy  Religion  Passions  reasoning  individualism  teaching_pol_theory  political_theory 
22 days ago by Jibarosoy
How St. Augustine Invented Sex | The New Yorker
Augustine returned again and again to the same set of questions: Whose body is this, anyway? Where does desire come from? Why am I not in command of my own penis? “Sometimes it refuses to act when the mind wills, while often it acts against its will!” Even the aged monk in his cell, Augustine acknowledges, in “Against Julian,” is tormented by “disquieting memories” crowding in upon “chaste and holy intentions.” Nor can the most pious married couple get anywhere “without the ardor of lust.”
pol.505  Religion  philosophy  Passions  reasoning  state  teaching_pol_theory  political_theory 
22 days ago by Jibarosoy
Two Famous Erections Partly Explain Why Men Objectify Women (Part III of a Series)
In the Roman port of Ostia, a few days before setting sail for Africa, Augustine and his mother were standing by a window that looked out onto an enclosed garden, and talking intimately. Their conversation, serene and joyful, led them to the conclusion that no bodily pleasure, no matter how great, could ever match the happiness of the saints. And then, Augustine recounts, “stretching upward with a more fiery emotion,” he and his mother experienced something remarkable: they felt themselves climbing higher and higher, through all the degrees of matter and through the heavenly spheres and, higher still, to the region of their own souls and up toward the eternity that lies beyond time itself. (Here comes the creepy part) “While we were speaking and panting for it, with a thrust that required all the heart’s strength, we brushed against it slightly.” It is difficult to convey in translation the power of the account, Greenblatt writes, and of what it meant for the thirty-two-year-old son and the fifty-five-year-old mother to reach this climax together. Then it was over: “Suspiravimus,” Augustine writes. “We sighed, and returned to the sound of our speech.”
pol.505  philosophy  Passions  reasoning  Religion  freedom  state  law  teaching_pol_theory 
22 days ago by Jibarosoy
The Nationalism Project: What is Nationalism?
There are four core debates which permeate the study of nations and nationalism. First among these is the question of how to define the terms "nation" and "nationalism." Second, scholars argue about when nations first appeared. Academics have suggested a variety of time frames, including (but not limited to!) the following:

Nationalists argue that nations are timeless phenomena. When man climbed out of the primordial slime, he immediately set about creating nations.

The next major school of thought is that of the perennialists who argue that nations have been around for a very long time, though they take different shapes at different points in history.

While postmodernists and Marxists also play in the larger debates surrounding this topic, the modernization school is perhaps the most prevalent scholarly argument at the moment. These scholars see nations as entirely modern and constructed.
nations  state  Psychology  Passions  emotional  reasoning  teaching_pol_theory  Pol.12  Pol.11 
25 days ago by Jibarosoy
The National in Everyday Life: A Critical engagement with Michael Billig's Thesis of Banal Nationalism
This paper is designed to provide a critical engagement with Michael Billig’s seminal thesis of Banal Nationalism (1995), perhaps the most influential study of everyday forms of nationhood. With an increasing number now focusing on the (re) produc- tion, dissemination and negotiation of the national through routine texts and prac- tices (cf Foster, 2002; Edensor, 2002; Madianou, 2005; Brubaker et al., 2006; Bratsis, 2006) and others employing the concept of banality in relation to non-national (Gorringe, 2006) and post-national identities (Aksoy and Robins, 2002; Szerszynski and Urry, 2002; Beck, 2006; Cram, 2001), it would seem like an opportune moment to assess Billig’s contribution and also the limits of his approach.
nations  state  community  Passions  reasoning  Power_in_America  Psychology 
26 days ago by Jibarosoy
National identity, popular culture and everyday life
However, because national identity is not only a matter of will and strategy, butis enmeshed in the embodied, material ways in which we live – in the rich realmof ‘thick description’ (Geertz, 1993) – it is in many ways inaccessible to thepoliticians and campaigners and their circumscribing manoeuvres. This is, ofcourse, not to say that such appeals are not effective in mobilising people to fightfor causes – recent history suggests otherwise – but that the sheer complexity ofthese associations offers hope that the increasing ambivalence of national identitymight militate against exclusive and reified versions.

(14) (PDF) National identity, popular culture and everyday life. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/205836856_National_identity_popular_culture_and_everyday_life [accessed Feb 27 2019].
nations  state  Passions  reasoning  Psychology  emotional  Pol.11  Pol.12  Power_in_America 
27 days ago by Jibarosoy
Social Construction of Nation - A Theoretical Exploration
In this article, the term “nation” is understood as a mental construct, and the formation of national identity as a dynamic, contentious historical process of social construction. Using the concept of “figured world of nationhood,” I discuss how the subjective, collective perception of the “objective,” virtual reality of a nation is (re)constituted and negotiated through social practices. In the same process, actors come to increasingly identify with and commit themselves to this “figured world of nationhood.” The agency of social actors involved is differentiated according to the respective “social field” of their action.
nations  state  Passions  reasoning  Pol.11  Pol.12  Psychology  emotional 
27 days ago by Jibarosoy
Change my view: Moral foundations theory and you
Anyone who doesn't agree with me is wrong and not just wrong, but morally repugnant and evil.
What do you think? Is it really likely that everyone that disagrees with you is somehow a monster? Or perhaps it's something else...
Over the last few years we've seen a lot of viewpoint polarization. But why does this happen? And what does this tell us about our approaches to Agile?
In this session we'll look at Moral Foundations Theory and how what we value and hold dear can influence our views on an issue.
We'll also play a game developed at the Agile Games conference based on this framework that will challenge you to take yourself out of your normal comfort zone and see the world from another perspective.
Passions  reasoning  teaching_pol_theory  Pol.11  Pol.12  pol.505  morals  emotional  Power_in_America 
27 days ago by Jibarosoy
Science-Based Definitions of Conservatism and Liberalism | The Independent Whig
It turns out that many, MANY aspects of human nature are common to liberals and conservatives alike; things like the rider and the elephant, motivated reasoning, tribalism, throwing truth, logic, and evidence under the bus in defense of tribes or sacred values, flip flopping, hypocrisy, and on and on and on.  You get the picture. These are not liberal things or conservative things, they’re human things.  We evolved to form into groups of like-minded people which then compete with other groups for scarce resources and political power; where “like minded” means that the members of the group share a set of values about what the world is, can be, and should be.

The number of things truly unique to, or uniquely characteristic of, each side is very small, but have deeply profound effects.

Those things are 1) moral matrix, and 2) cognitive style.
Passions  reasoning  teaching_pol_theory  emotional  state  SON  Pol.11  Pol.12  pol.505  Power_materials 
27 days ago by Jibarosoy
The Myth of Political Reason – Ryan Wilson – Medium
A tide of right-wing populism has begun washing over western democracies in recent years, punctuated by the twin shocks of Brexit and the election of Donald Trump to the US presidency in 2016. Recent elections in Europe have demonstrated that this political phenomenon has not yet crested, with right-wing populists achieving record voter turnout and/or parliamentary representation in Austria, Germany, France, Sweden, The Netherlands, and Italy in 2017 and 2018. Much of the populist rhetoric of the political figures of these countries has been nativist in nature and has flayed the political establishment for supposedly ushering in the multitude of profound societal changes generating the very cultural and economic anxieties manipulated by these populist politicians for political gain.
Passions  reasoning  teaching_pol_theory  emotional  logic  Pol.11  Pol.12  pol.505  state 
27 days ago by Jibarosoy
The Myth of Political Reason The Moral and Emotional Foundations of Political Cognition and US Politics
The current ascendancy of right-wing populists across western democracies is a concerning trend, and so far, the left has not managed to mount an effective counterstrategy to arrest its momentum. Much of the rhetoric of these right-wing populists has focused on evoking fear and suspicion, verging on hatred, of outsiders and fellow countrymen and women with opposing political ideologies, to great effect. The importance of understanding why certain rhetoric is effective cannot be understated, and the works of George Lakoff, Jonathan Haidt, and Drew Westen that illuminate the moral and emotional factors behind how individuals interpret and respond to inputs of a political nature are reviewed and synthesised. Individuals’ underlying moral mental structures and the emotional responses that they can trigger must be understood in order to generate political messaging that resonates strongly with its target audience and consequently increases the likelihood of their actuation to vote. The recent phenomenon of individualisation, stemming from the current era of reflexive modernity is analysed within the context of divergent conservative and liberal moral matrices, and is found to be disproportionately ailing the liberal side of politics. In delineating the key elements of liberal and conservative morality, the existence of liberal moral tenets that are discordant with longstanding liberal communitarian ideals were revealed. In contrast, conservative morality appears to exhibit an inherent coherence that may contribute to conservatism’s resilience in the face of reflexive modernity and disparate policy priorities of its constituents. The importance of understanding the moral and emotional foundations of political cognition is emphasised not only for its potential to bolster the efficacy of left-wing political parties, but also to provide an avenue by which the increasing hostility across the political spectrum can be subdued.
Passions  reasoning  emotional  logic  Pol.11  Pol.12  teaching_pol_theory  pol.505 
27 days ago by Jibarosoy
PPT - Power, Authority, Legitimacy PowerPoint Presentation - ID:799507
Power, Authority, Legitimacy. Power = ability to get people to do things they would not have chosen to do on their own (overt and concealed) Authority = form of power accepted as right and proper by those who submit/comply Why do citizens comply?
Pol.11  Pol.12  Pol._120  state  Power_materials  authority  Passions  reasoning  Violence_y_Power 
4 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Milgram Experiment | Simply Psychology
The experiments began in July 1961, a year after the trial of Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem. Milgram devised the experiment to answer the question:

Could it be that Eichmann and his million accomplices in the Holocaust were just following orders? Could we call them all accomplices?" (Milgram, 1974).
Milgram (1963) wanted to investigate whether Germans were particularly obedient to authority figures as this was a common explanation for the Nazi killings in World War II. Milgram selected participants for his experiment by newspaper advertising for male participants to take part in a study of learning at Yale University. 
Pol.11  Pol.12  Pol._120  state  authority  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power  Passions  reasoning 
4 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
5 Psychological Experiments That Prove Humanity is Doomed | Cracked.com
Psychologists know you have to be careful when you go poking around the human mind because you're never sure what you'll find there. A number of psychological experiments over the years have yielded terrifying conclusions about the subjects.

Oh, we're not talking about the occasional psychopath who turns up. No, we're talking about you. The experiments speak for themselves:
Pol.11  Pol.12  Passions  reasoning  SON  state  authority  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power 
4 weeks ago by Jibarosoy
Liberals and Conservatives React in Wildly Different Ways to Repulsive Pictures
A 2009 survey of 64,000 Americans revealed that liberals chose bitter-tasting arugula as their favorite salad green more than twice as often as conservatives did. It may also have a bearing on conservative President George H. W. Bush’s famous hatred of broccoli — an unusually bitter vegetable. Of course, sometimes a stalk of broccoli is just a stalk of broccoli.
Passions  reasoning  teaching_pol_theory  Power_in_America  Psychology  biology 
5 weeks ago by Jibarosoy

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