methane   1162

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Methane in the atmosphere is surging, and that’s got scientists worried - Los Angeles Times
The concentration of atmospheric methane has been rising, especially in the past 4 years. Scientists don't know why, but it's they say it's a problem.
28 days ago by zesteur
Is Arctic Permafrost the "Sleeping Giant" of Climate Change? | Science Mission Directorate
"Permafrost soils are warming even faster than Arctic air temperatures - as much as 1.5 to 2.5 degrees Celsius in just the past 30 years," says Miller. "As heat from Earth's surface penetrates into permafrost, it threatens to mobilize these organic carbon reservoirs and release them into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide and methane, upsetting the Arctic's carbon balance and greatly exacerbating global warming."
permafrost  methane  rpg  softapocalypse  climatechange 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Six Pasir Gudang students in hospital after suspected methane leak
JOHOR BARU, March 7 — A total of six students were hospitalised today after they were believed to have inhaled methane fumes from a chemical spill near the river of their school compound in Taman Pasir Putih, Pasir Gudang.

The teenage victims, five male and one female students, were from Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan (SMK) Taman Pasir Putih and Sekolah Kebangsaan (SK) Taman Pasir Putih.

According to the initial Johor Fire and Rescue Department report, one male student was reported to have fainted, while the remainder had bouts of vomiting.

The source of the methane fumes were believed to be from the nearby river where the two school’s were located.

Johor Fire and Rescue operations commander Lokman Hakim Sulaiman said the department received an emergency call at about 5am.

He said four teams, with a hazardous material (Hazmat) team, assisted by the Pasir Gudang fire station rushed to the location immediately after receiving the distress call.

“The cause was from gas believed to be chemicals that was emitted from the river near SMK and SK Taman Pasir Putih.
Malaysia  education  release  injury  methane 
6 weeks ago by dchas
Methane Emissions from the Marcellus Shale in Southwestern Pennsylvania and Northern West Virginia Based on Airborne Measurements - Ren - 2019 - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres - Wiley Online Library
Ren et al 2019: Includes survey of estimates across basins.

Abstract: Natural gas production in the United States has increased rapidly over the past decade, along with concerns about methane (CH4) fugitive emissions and its climate impacts. Quantification of CH4 emissions from oil and natural gas (O&NG) operations is important for establishing scientifically sound policies for mitigating greenhouse gases. We use the aircraft mass balance approach for three flight experiments in August and September 2015 to estimate CH4 emissions from O&NG operations over the southwestern Marcellus Shale. We estimate a mean CH4 emission rate as 21.2 kg/s with 28% coming from O&NG operations. The mean CH4 emission rate from O&NG operations was estimated to be 1.1% of total NG production. The individual best‐estimate emission rates from the three flight experiments ranged from 0.78 to 1.5%, with overall limits of 0% and 3.5%. These emission rates are at the low end of other top‐down studies, but consistent with the few observational studies in the Marcellus Shale region as well as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency CH4 inventory. A substantial source of CH4 (~70% of observed CH4 emissions) was found to contain little ethane, possibly due to coalbed CH4 emitted either directly from coal mines or from wells drilled through coalbed layers in O&NG operations. Recent regulations requiring capture of gas from the completion‐venting step of hydraulic fracturing appear to have reduced the atmospheric release of CH4. Our study suggests that for a 20‐year time scale, energy derived from the combustion of natural gas extracted from this region likely exerts a net climate benefit compared to coal.
Plain Language Summary

In this study methane (CH4) emission rates were estimated for the southwest Marcellus Shale based on airborne observations. A mean emission rate of ~21 kg CH4/s was observed from a 4,200‐km2 study area. A significant portion (~70%) of the emitted CH4 was found to originate likely from coalbeds. Our mean estimated emission rate of 1.1% of total natural gas production indicates a climate benefit of natural gas combustion compared to coal, but the full range includes values above the 2.4% break‐even point for the CH4 global warming potential over a 20‐year time horizon.
methane  Climate_Science_study 
6 weeks ago by huntercutting
Assessment of methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas supply chain | Science
Alvarez et al 2018: Science Blurb: Considerable amounts of the greenhouse gas methane leak from the U.S. oil and natural gas supply chain. Alvarez et al. reassessed the magnitude of this leakage and found that in 2015, supply chain emissions were ∼60% higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency inventory estimate. They suggest that this discrepancy exists because current inventory methods miss emissions that occur during abnormal operating conditions. These data, and the methodology used to obtain them, could improve and verify international inventories of greenhouse gases and provide a better understanding of mitigation efforts outlined by the Paris Agreement.

Abstract;Methane emissions from the U.S. oil and natural gas supply chain were estimated by using ground-based, facility-scale measurements and validated with aircraft observations in areas accounting for ~30% of U.S. gas production. When scaled up nationally, our facility-based estimate of 2015 supply chain emissions is 13 ± 2 teragrams per year, equivalent to 2.3% of gross U.S. gas production. This value is ~60% higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency inventory estimate, likely because existing inventory methods miss emissions released during abnormal operating conditions. Methane emissions of this magnitude, per unit of natural gas consumed, produce radiative forcing over a 20-year time horizon comparable to the CO2 from natural gas combustion. Substantial emission reductions are feasible through rapid detection of the root causes of high emissions and deployment of less failure-prone systems.
methane  Climate_Science_study 
6 weeks ago by huntercutting
Quantifying Methane and Ethane Emissions to the Atmosphere From Central and Western U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Production Regions - Peischl - 2018 - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres - Wiley Online Library
Peischl et al. 2018: We present atmospheric measurements of methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6) taken aboard a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration WP‐3D research aircraft in 2015 over oil‐ and natural gas‐producing regions of the central and western United States. We calculate emission rates from the horizontal flux of CH4 and C2H6 in the planetary boundary layer downwind of five of these oil‐ and gas‐producing regions: the Bakken in North Dakota, the Barnett in Texas, the Denver Basin in Colorado, the Eagle Ford in Texas, and the Haynesville in Texas and Louisiana. In general, we find that the enhancement of C2H6 relative to CH4 in the atmosphere is similar to their relative abundances in locally produced natural gas. For the Bakken and Barnett regions, both absolute CH4 emissions and the percentage of produced natural gas emitted to the atmosphere are consistent with previous studies. The percentage of produced natural gas emitted to the atmosphere was lower than in previous studies in the Denver Basin and the Haynesville regions, which may be due to a decrease in drilling activity, an increase in emission controls, or some combination thereof. Finally, we provide the first estimates of basin‐wide emissions from the Eagle Ford region using in situ airborne data and find C2H6 emissions to be greater than those from the Bakken region. Emissions from the Bakken and Eagle Ford regions combined account for 20% of anthropogenic C2H6 emissions in North America.
methane  Climate_Science_study 
6 weeks ago by huntercutting
CSB Releases Final Report Into 2016 Pascagoula Gas Plant Explosion
Washington, D.C., February 19, 2019: The U.S. Chemical Safety Board released its final report of the June 27, 2016, investigation of an explosion and fire at the Enterprise Products Pascagoula Gas Plant in Pascagoula, MS. The CSB determined that the probable cause was a phenomenon known as thermal fatigue.  The CSB also issued recommendations to two trade associations and local emergency responders.  

The incident occurred late in the evening on June 27, 2016, when a major loss of containment in a heat exchanger resulted in the release of methane, ethane, propane, and several other hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons ignited, initiating a series of fires and explosions, which ultimately shut down the site for almost six months. 

CSB Interim Executive Kristen Kulinowski said, “More than 500 gas processing facilities operate across the country and the use of similar heat exchangers is common. Extending the life cycle of equipment at these facilities requires more robust inspection protocols.  Operators shouldn’t take the risk of waiting to find a leak because, as this case demonstrates, that leak could result in a catastrophic failure.” 
us_DC  industrial  follow-up  environmental  methane  propane 
8 weeks ago by dchas

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