logging   23062

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Peter Bourgon · Logging v. instrumentation
In my opinion, my thesis from GopherCon 2014 still holds: services should only log actionable information. That includes serious, panic-level errors that need to be consumed by humans, or structured data that needs to be consumed by machines. An example of the former would be a message signaling that a required database has become completely unavailable. An example of the latter would be a message indicating a media object has been played, recorded so an end-of-day batch process might calculate owed royalties. Logs read by humans should be sparse, ideally silent if nothing is going wrong. Logs read by machines should be well-defined, ideally with a versioned schema.

Instrumentation is for all remaining diagnostic information about your service. In contrast to logging, services should instrument every meaningful number available for capture. Metrics are (or should be) cheap to record and report, and instrumentation systems are more useful the more data they contain, which is a virtuous cycle: the more you have, the better-off you are.
logging  bestpractices  instrumentation  monitoring 
5 days ago by cdzombak
The Twelve-Factor App
I. Codebase
One codebase tracked in revision control, many deploys

II. Dependencies
Explicitly declare and isolate dependencies

III. Config
Store config in the environment

IV. Backing services
Treat backing services as attached resources

V. Build, release, run
Strictly separate build and run stages

VI. Processes
Execute the app as one or more stateless processes

VII. Port binding
Export services via port binding

VIII. Concurrency
Scale out via the process model

IX. Disposability
Maximize robustness with fast startup and graceful shutdown

X. Dev/prod parity
Keep development, staging, and production as similar as possible

XI. Logs
Treat logs as event streams

XII. Admin processes
Run admin/management tasks as one-off processes
12factor  software_architecture  bestpractices  logging  deployment 
5 days ago by cdzombak
Peter Bourgon · Go best practices, six years in
The Top Tips:

1. Put $GOPATH/bin in your $PATH, so installed binaries are easily accessible.
2. Put library code under a pkg/ subdirectory. Put binaries under a cmd/ subdirectory.
3. Always use fully-qualified import paths. Never use relative imports.  
4. Defer to Andrew Gerrand’s naming conventions.  
5. Only func main has the right to decide which flags are available to the user.  
6. Use struct literal initialization to avoid invalid intermediate state.  
7. Avoid nil checks via default no-op implementations.  
8. Make the zero value useful, especially in config objects.  
9. Make dependencies explicit!  
10. Loggers are dependencies, just like references to other components, database handles, commandline flags, etc.  
11. Use many small interfaces to model dependencies.  
12. Tests only need to test the thing being tested.  
13. Use a top tool to vendor dependencies for your binary.  
14. Libraries should never vendor their dependencies.  
15. Prefer go install to go build.  

Go has always been a conservative language, and its maturity has brought relatively few surprises and effectively no major changes. Consequently, and predictably, the community also hasn’t dramatically shifted its stances on what’s considered best practice. Instead, we’ve seen a reification of tropes and proverbs that were reasonably well-known in the early years, and a gradual movement “up the stack” as design patterns, libraries, and program structures are explored and transformed into idiomatic Go.
golang  bestpractices  dependencies  dependency-injection  nil  logging  testing  dependency_management 
5 days ago by cdzombak

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