cooperation   3386

« earlier    

How did Monotheism Develop? - DailyHistory.org
This constituted the first evidence in history of monotheism.[2] However, while this represented an innovation, the worship of a single god proved to be highly unpopular with the priestly classes as well as, most likely, the local population. In this period, worship of deities was very specific to given cities and temples. Additionally, these temples performed important economic activities to communities. The ban of other gods or the cessation of worship of other gods would have been devastating to local economies and communities.[3]

...


What is also telling is that monotheism only appears to emerge during a period when larger states and empires were present. In fact, all religions that we can call monotheistic, or more accurately universal religions (i.e., a religion relevant to all people and not just a population group; e.g., Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Manichaeism) develop at a time of large scale empires where kings were now being called “king of kings” and seen as unifiers of many people.[10] In essence, before a single or universal god became the norm, the concept of a universal king or emperor became well established. This likely makes the idea of a single political unity more palatable for multiple population groups. We know universal empires sought to unify people through a common government and other common cultural links, including through the economy.[11]
unification  religion  monotheism  evolution  cooperation 
4 days ago by imaginaryfriend
Men among men do not take norm enforcement seriously - ScienceDirect
> While there is ample evidence of a society-wide cooperation norm, it is not as clear who upholds this norm. In the present paper, we investigate whether there are gender differences with respect to norm enforcement. We let 1403 subjects play games of punishment and reward, individually or in groups with varying gender composition. Broadly, the results indicate that there are no clear gender differences: men are about as inclined as women to punish norm-breakers. However, behavior is context-dependent: men acting among other men are less inclined to uphold a cooperation norm than are women, or men in gender-mixed groups.
gender  cooperation  norms  psychology 
4 weeks ago by porejide
ONES 企业级研发管理解决方案
ONES 是整合敏捷开发和 DevOps 的研发管理解决方案。结合先进的管理思想,ONES 助力企业员工以创新的方式进行协作,提高工程质量,实现快速迭代。
project-management  cooperation  testing  scrum 
4 weeks ago by reorx
How a Guy From a Montana Trailer Park Overturned 150 Years of Biology - The Atlantic
In the 150 years since Schwendener, biologists have tried in vain to grow lichens in laboratories. Whenever they artificially united the fungus and the alga, the two partners would never fully recreate their natural structures. It was as if something was missing—and Spribille might have discovered it.

He has shown that largest and most species-rich group of lichens are not alliances between two organisms, as every scientist since Schwendener has claimed. Instead, they’re alliances between three. All this time, a second type of fungus has been hiding in plain view.  
biology  science  cooperation  cool 
4 weeks ago by StJohnBosco
Seven moral rules found all around the world: Is it good to cooperate? Testing the theory of morality-as-cooperation in 60 societies -- ScienceDaily
"Anthropologists at the University of Oxford have discovered what they believe to be seven universal moral rules.

"The rules: help your family, help your group, return favors, be brave, defer to superiors, divide resources fairly, and respect others' property, were found in a survey of 60 cultures from all around the world.

"Previous studies have looked at some of these rules in some places -- but none has looked at all of them in a large representative sample of societies. The present study, published in volume 60, no. 1 issue of Current Anthropology, by Oliver Scott Curry, Daniel Austin Mullins, and Harvey Whitehouse, is the largest and most comprehensive cross-cultural survey of morals ever conducted.

"The team from Oxford's Institute of Cognitive & Evolutionary Anthropology (part of the School of Anthropology & Museum Ethnography) analyzed ethnographic accounts of ethics from 60 societies, comprising over 600,000 words from over 600 sources. ...

"The research found, first, that these seven cooperative behaviors were always considered morally good. Second, examples of most of these morals were found in most societies. Crucially, there were no counter-examples -- no societies in which any of these behaviors were considered morally bad. And third, these morals were observed with equal frequency across continents; they were not the exclusive preserve of 'the West' or any other region.

"... although all societies seemed to agree on the seven basic moral rules, they varied in how they prioritized or ranked them."
culture  morality  cooperation  family 
5 weeks ago by katherinestevens
Cooperative Economy in the Great Depression | Jonathan Rowe
"Entrepreneurs of cooperation
Before Social Security and the WPA, the Unemployed Exchange Association rebuilt a collapsed economy"



"The mood at kitchen tables in California in the early 1930s was as bleak as it was elsewhere in the United States. Factories were closed. More than a quarter of the breadwinners in the state were out of work. There were no federal or state relief programs, nothing but some local charity—in Los Angeles County, a family of four got about 50 cents a day, and only one in 10 got even that.

Not long before, America had been a farming nation. When times were tough, there was still the land. But the country was becoming increasingly urban. People were dependent on this thing called “the economy” and the financial casino to which it was yoked. When the casino crashed, there was no fallback, just destitution. Except for one thing: The real economy was still there — paralyzed but still there. Farmers still were producing, more than they could sell. Fruit rotted on trees, vegetables in the fields. In January 1933, dairymen poured more than 12,000 gallons of milk into the Los Angeles City sewers every day.

The factories were there too. Machinery was idle. Old trucks were in side lots, needing only a little repair. All that capacity on the one hand, legions of idle men and women on the other. It was the financial casino that had failed, not the workers and machines. On street corners and around bare kitchen tables, people started to put two and two together. More precisely, they thought about new ways of putting twoand two together.

Building a reciprocal economy

In the spring of 1932, in Compton, California, an unemployed World War I veteran walked out to the farms that still ringed Los Angeles. He offered his labor in return for a sack of vegetables, and that evening he returned with more than his family needed. The next day a neighbor went out with him to the fields. Within two months 500 families were members of the Unemployed Cooperative Relief Organization (UCRO).

That group became one of 45 units in an organization that served the needs of some 150,000 people.

It operated a large warehouse, a distribution center, a gas and service station, a refrigeration facility, a sewing shop, a shoe shop, even medical services, all on cooperative principles. Members were expected to work two days a week, and benefits were allocated according to need. A member with a wife and two kids got four times as much food as someone living alone. The organization was run democratically, and social support was as important as material support. Members helped one another resist evictions; sometimes they moved a family back in after a landlord had put them out. Unemployed utility workers turned on gas and electricity for families that had been cut off.

Conventional histories present the Depression as a story of the corporate market, foiled by its own internal flaws, versus the federal government, either savvy mechanic or misguided klutz, depending on your view.The government ascended, in the form of the New Deal; and so was born the polarity of our politics—and the range of our economic possibilities—ever since.

Yet there was another story too. It embodied the trusty American virtues of initiative, responsibility, and self-help, but in a way that was grounded in community and genuine economy. This other story played out all over the U.S., for a brief but suggestive moment in the early 1930s.

The UCRO was just one organization in one city. Groups like it ultimately involved more than 1.3 million people, in more than 30 states. It happened spontaneously, without experts or blueprints. Most of the participants were blue collar workers whose formal schooling had stopped at high school. Some groups evolved a kind of money to create more flexibility in exchange. An example was the Unemployed Exchange Association, or UXA, based in Oakland, California. (The UXA story was told in an excellent article in the weekly East Bay Express in1983, on which the following paragraphs are based.) UXA began in a Hooverville (an encampment of the poor during the Depression, so-called after the president) called “Pipe City,” near the East Bay waterfront. Hundreds of homeless people were living there in sections of large sewer pipe that were never laid because the city ran out of money. Among them was Carl Rhodehamel, a musician and engineer.

Rhodehamel and others started going door to door in Oakland, offering to do home repairs in exchange for unwanted items. They repaired these and circulated them among themselves. Soon they established a commissary and sent scouts around the city and intothe surrounding farms to see what they could scavenge or exchange labor for. Within six months they had 1,500 members, and a thriving sub-economy that included a foundry and machine shop, woodshop, garage,soap factory, print shop, wood lot, ranches, and lumber mills. They rebuilt 18 trucks from scrap. At UXA’s peak it distributed 40 tons of food a week.

It all worked on a time-credit system. Each hour worked earned a hundred points; there was no hierarchyof skills, and all work paid the same. Members could use credits to buy food and other items at the commissary, medical and dental services, haircuts, an dmore. A council of some 45 coordinators met regularly to solve problems and discuss opportunities.

One coordinator might report that a saw needed a new motor. Another knew of a motor but the owner wanted a piano in return. A third member knew of a piano that was available. And on and on. It was an amalgam of enterprise and cooperation—the flexibility and hustle of the market, but without the encoded greed of the corporation or the stifling bureaucracy of the state. The economics texts don’t really have a name for it. The members called it a “reciprocal economy.”

The dream fades

It would seem that a movement that provided livelihood for more than 300,000 people in California alone would merit discussion in the history books. Amidst the floundering of the early 1930s, this was something that actually worked. Yet in most accounts the self-help co-ops get barely a line.

The one exception is Upton Sinclair’s campaign for governor in 1934. Sinclair was a kind of Ralph Nader of his day. He based his campaign on a plan he called End Poverty in California, or EPIC, which was based in turn on the self-help cooperatives, UXA in particular. It would have taken the state’s idle farmland and factories and turned them into worker co-ops.

The idea of a genuine economy shorn of Wall Street contrivance touched a chord. Some 2,000 EPIC clubs sprang up. Sinclair won the Democratic primary, but California’s moneyed establishment mustered $10 million dollars to pummel him. EPIC died with his campaign, and the idea has been associated with quixotic politics ever since.

To say UXA and the other cooperative economies faced challenges is to put it mildly. They were going against the grain of an entire culture. Anti-communist “Red Squads” harassed them, while radicals complained they were too practical and not sufficiently committed to systemic change.

But the main thing that killed the co-ops was the Works Progress Administration and its cash jobs. Those WPA jobs were desperately needed. But someof them were make-work, while the co-op work was genuinely productive.

The co-ops pleaded with FDR’s Administration to include them in the WPA. Local governments were helping with gasoline and oil. But the New Dealers weren’t interested, and the co-ops melted away. For years they were period pieces, like soup lines and Okies.

Or so it seemed.

Today, the signs of financial and ecological collapse are mounting. We are strung out on foreign debt and foreign oil, and riding real estate inflation that won’t last forever. Add the impendingc ollapse of the natural life support system, and the ’30s could seem benign by comparison.

In this setting, the economics of self-help are increasingly relevant. The possibility of creating such an economy, though, might seem remote. In the 1930s, there still were farms on the outskirts of cities—family operations that could make barter deals on the spot. Factories were nearby too. Products were simple and made to last, and so could be scavenged and repaired.

All that has changed. The factories are in China, the farms are owned by corporations, and you can’t walk to them from Los Angeles anymore. Products are made to break; the local repair shop is a distant memory. Hyper-sophisticated technology has put local mechanics out of business, let alone backyard tinkerers.

An idea resurfaces

Yet there are trends on the other side as well. Energy technology is moving back to the local level, by way of solar, wind, biodiesel and the rest. The popularity of organics has given a boost to smaller farms. There’s also the quiet revival of urban agriculture. Community gardens are booming—some 6,000 of them in 38 U.S. cities. In Boston, the Food Project produces over 120,000 pounds of vegetables on just 21 acres.Then consider the unused land in U.S. cities: some 70,000 vacant parcels in Chicago, 31,000 in Philadelphia.

Large swaths of Detroit look like Dresden after the firebombing. A UXA could do a lot with that. I’m not getting gauzy here. Anyone who has been part of a co-op — I once served on the board of one — knows it is not a walk in the park. But it is not hard to see the stirrings of a new form of cooperative economics on the American scene today. You can’t explain Linux, the computer operating system developed community-style on the web, by the tenets of the economics texts. Nor can you so explain Craig’s List, the online bulletin board that people use at no or minimal cost.

The cooperative model seems to defy what economists call “economic law”—that people work only for personal gain and in response to schemes of personal incentive and reward. Yet the Depression co-ops did happen. When the next crash … [more]
cooperation  coopeatives  greatdepression  socialism  history  california  us  1930s  economics  solidarity  jonathanrowe  losangeles  compton  farming  agriculture  labor  work  ucro  oakland  carlrhodehamel  uxa  community  mutualaid  detroit  coops  local  fdr  wpa  communism  uptonsinclair  poverty 
5 weeks ago by robertogreco

« earlier    

related tags

1930s  1960s  2.5-million-year  2018  academic  action  activism  activitypub  aggression  agile  agpl  agriculture  alternative  altruism  anarchy  ancient_history  anthropology  app  aquaculture  art  artificial  artist  asia  autonomy  awe  behavior  behaviour  belonging  bennism  berniesanders  bigger  biology  birds  bitcoin  blacksocialistsofamerica  blockchain  bones  bonobos  book  booklists  books  border  brexit  brutality  bsa  business  businessprocess  california  campaigning  capitalism  carbon  carlrhodehamel  carolinians  ch7  charles  children  chimp  china  civilization  class  classic  closest  cms  coaching  coalition  coding  cohousing  collaboration  collection  collective-behavior  colobus  commitment  common  commons  communism  community-formation  community  competition  compton  conflict  congregation  congress116  conjunction  connectivity  content  contract  cool  coolstuff  coop  coopeatives  cooperatives  coops  corbynjeremy  coworking  crew  cryptocurrency  culture  currency  current  customsunion  dark  darwin  data  date  day  dc:creator=freedlandjonathan  dc:creator=kettlemartin  dc:creator=williamszoe  dctagged  decentralized  definition  democracy  democratic  demonic  deportation  derail  detroit  devore’s  dialogue  digital  dilemma  diplomacy  discovery  division  dns  document  documentary  documentation  documenting  domestication  donaldtrump  draws  dsa  ecology  economics  ecosystem  education  emotional_intelligence  emotional_labor  emotional_safety  end  enemy  engagement  entrepreneurship  esb6  estate  ethics  eu  eugenics  evernote  everythingunlimited  evolution  examples  experiment  failing  faircoin  family  farming  fashion  fdr  features  fee  female  females  fierce  finds  fire  food  for_seminal  force.  foreignaffairs  foreignpolicy  fossil  foxes  fredhampton  fun  game-theory  game  games  gametheory  gardening  gdpr  gender  genetics  germany  gmu  gnu  goodall  governance  government  gpl  grassroots  greatdepression  group  groups  guide  hardin  hardin_garrett  highered  history  hobbesian  home  hormone  housing  howto  human  humanlike  humans  hunter-gatherers  ice  ide-jetro  ifttt  india  indie  inequality  infants  inspiration  international  internationalism  interviews  investment  ireland  irven  israeli-palestinian  italian  italiano  iterative  jane  japan  jean-jacques  jonathanrowe  konkurrenz  labor  labourparty  land  language  late  latest  law  leadership  learning  left  leftists  letter  lexit  license  line  lines  linkfodder  linux  listing  little  live  local  longterm  losangeles  machinelearning  male  males  man  management  mating  mccluskeylen  media  methodology  migration  model  modern  momentum  monkey  monotheism  morality  much  multiagent  mutualaid  myanmar  narratives  nature  ncase  negotiation  net  network  networks  new  newsindustry  nonhuman  nonlinear-dynamics  norms  north  notes  nutrients  nyt  oakland  of  old  openborders  opensource  organization-structure  organization  organizational-behavior  organizing  origin  origins  ostrom  ostrom_elinor  other  own  ownership  p2p  palestine  parallel  parties  paul-seabright  people  peoplesvote  performance  person  philosophy  plasma  platform  platformcoop  pocket  policy  political-economy  political-science  politico  politics  poverty  power  praxis  previous  primate  prisoners'_dilemma  prisoners  prisonersdilemma  productivity  project-management  protectionism  psychology  publicgoods  publishing  puglicgoodsgame  punishment  purism  race  racism  rainbowcoalition  rather-interesting  reactive  real  realtime  recommended  red  reference  referendum  regenerative  regulation  reinforcement  relatives  religion  remain  remarkable  rental  research  reselection  resistance  retaliated.  richard  richardwolff  ritual  rousseau  safety  science  scienza  scrum  security  selection  self-domestication  shutdown  side  single  social  socialism  society  sociology  softbrexit  solidarity  som  spain  species  storms  strategy  structure  studies  study  such  syndrome  taming  tariff  tax  teaching  tech  technology  testing  theoretical-biology  theory  thinking-about-being  threatens  tit-for-tat  to-watch  to-write-about  to  tools  touch  trade  tradeunions  tragedy_of_the_commons  trump’s  trust  ucro  uk  unification  unity  uptonsinclair  us  userland  uxa  vancouver  variety  version  video  view  violence  violent  visual  voted  walthamstow  wardrobe  warfare  web  webos  white_supremacy  whole  wiki  wikipedia  wild  with  work  working  wpa  wrangham  young 

Copy this bookmark:



description:


tags: