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DER vs. CRT vs. CER vs. PEM Certificates and How To Convert Them | https://support.ssl.com/
Microsofty things use the '.cer' extension (which is interchangeable with '.crt'), and are often DER-encoded. PEM-encoded certs are "ASCII (Base64) armored data" prefixed with a "-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----" line.

Here's how to "cat" a DER-encoded certificate:
<code class="language-bash">
openssl x509 -in certificate.der -inform der -text -noout

And here's how to convert one in that format to the format expected on a Debian GNU/Linux system:
<code class="language-bash">
openssl x509 -in cert.crt -inform der -outform pem -out cert.crt

NB: the '.crt' extension seems to be important, otherwise 'sudo update-ca-certificates' doesn't pick up on new ones that you've added to /usr/local/share/ca-certificates.
ssl  certs  cacert  certificates  openssl  sysadmin  webmaster  crypto  fuckina  solution  importexport  conversion 
26 days ago by kme
openssl - how to extract issuer certificate from other certificate - Stack Overflow | https://stackoverflow.com/
This might work *if* the certificate embeds a URL for the issuer. This wasn't the case for my organization.
openssl  ssl  ca  certs  issuer  commandline  sysadmin  networking  sortof  solution 
4 weeks ago by kme
mkcert: valid HTTPS certificates for localhost
mkcert  https  security  webdev  certs  localhost  development  moblog 
6 weeks ago by dougalcampbell

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