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RT : Check out this image from showing a bloom of plant life in the waters off the Mawson Coast of
Landsat8  Antarctica  from twitter
6 days ago by mfontenele
The White Darkness: A Journey Across Antarctica | The New Yorker
The man felt like a speck in the frozen nothingness. Every direction he turned, he could see ice stretching to the edge of the Earth: white ice and blue ice, glacial-ice tongues and ice wedges. There were no living creatures in sight. Not a bear or even a bird. Nothing but him. via Pocket
IFTTT  antarctica  travel 
11 days ago by casfindad
Robots deployed in Antarctica to measure climate threat | CNN
Scientists with the University of Washington in conjunction with Paul G. Allen Philanthropies are sending robots to Antarctica for as long as a year in what will be the longest mission ever undertaken in the region. The UW's Jason Gobat and Craig Lee, oceanographers with the Applied Physics Lab, are interviewed.
CNN  Lee.Craig  Gobat.Jason  Applied.Physics.Laboratory  !UWitM  2018  School:Oceanography  College:Environment  Climate.Change  Antarctica  sea.ice  natl 
20 days ago by uwnews
Spiraling pathways of global deep waters to the surface of the Southern Ocean | Nature Communications
Tamsitt et al 2018. Discussion: From our results, we propose a new paradigm for the upwelling branch of the Southern Ocean overturning circulation that consists of a three-dimensional spiral, with most of the subsurface upwelling concentrated at the five major topographic features encountered by the ACC (Fig. 6): the Southwest Indian Ridge, Kerguelen Plateau, Macquarie Ridge, Pacific–Antarctic Ridge, and Drake Passage. The spatial structure of upwelling and mechanisms highlighted in this study have important implications for climate. Upwelling deep water along the Antarctic continental shelf has driven an observed acceleration in basal ice shelf melt in recent decades28. The three-dimensional pathways carrying deep water from the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific to the Antarctic continent described here provide a framework for understanding where relatively warm deep water is supplied to the Antarctic continental shelf and the origin of changes in the heat content of this water. Observations indicate that upwelling deep water preferentially reaches close to the Antarctic continent along the western Antarctic Peninsula (Fig. 1a), but further analysis of our model results are needed to determine the regionality of supply of deep water to the continental shelf in greater detail.

From our simulations, we find that the timescale for deep water in the 1000–3500 m depth range to travel from 30° S to the surface mixed layer is of the order of multiple decades to a century (Fig. 4). This upwelling timescale has implications for the time taken for changes in the deep ocean to be relayed to the surface of the Southern Ocean where they can influence the atmosphere. For instance, the peak upwelling timescale (mode) from the three models for deep water to travel from 30° S in the Atlantic Ocean to the surface of the Southern Ocean ranges from 28 to 81 years. Chloroflourocarbon-based estimates of the timescale for water from deep water formation sites in the North Atlantic to first reach 20° S are on the order of 30 years47. This suggests a combined advective timescale from the northern North Atlantic to the Southern Ocean surface on the order of a century. This estimate is comparable to the time lag between abrupt climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica of 218 ± 92 years and 208 ± 96 years for warm and cold events, respectively, estimated from ice core records23, which are likely propagated from the Northern Hemisphere to Antarctica via the ocean. Additionally, our estimates of Lagrangian particle transport show that NADW dominates the total upwelling. This suggests that changes in the deep Atlantic may have a disproportionate impact on the deep water properties that reach the surface of the Southern Ocean, and thus have a greater influence on heat exchange with the atmosphere and cryosphere and on delivery of warm water to the Antarctic continental shelf48.

Our result may have ramifications for the air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide, as variability in tracer uptake in the Southern Ocean is likely related to upwelling strength49, 50. The spatial patterns of where deep water enriched in natural carbon but lacking in anthropogenic carbon reaches the upper ocean (Fig. 6e and Supplementary Figs. 6 and 7) are highly localized, suggesting that carbon fluxes might also present localized patterns in relation to these upwelling hotspots, as suggested by the distribution of anthropogenic carbon uptake in an earlier iteration of SOSE51. Further work is needed to determine the correspondence between the distribution of upwelling into the surface ocean shown here and surface observations, and to what extent these upwelling patterns influence spatial distributions of carbon flux. The significant differences between the models in location of the deep water outcrops (Fig. 6d), in contrast with the strong agreement in the preferred locations of interior upwelling (Fig. 6a), emphasizes the importance of improving in situ observations of upwelling and carbon dioxide fluxes, which have high uncertainty due to sparse observations and large interannual variability52. The spatially varying upwelling identified here means that Southern Ocean heat and carbon uptake estimates from sparse, ship-based observations are likely unreliable. New, year-round, float-based biogeochemical measurements are beginning to transform our knowledge of the Southern Ocean carbon cycle, and will allow quantitative validation of the importance of topographic hotspots in the natural and anthropogenic carbon budgets.

Climate change is predicted to drive a strengthening in Southern Hemisphere westerly winds53, as has already been observed in recent decades54. This trend has led to a more energetic eddy field in the ACC55 and is expected to drive a further increase in EKE in the ACC in the future56. Our finding that eddies play a key role in driving Southern Ocean upwelling indicates that upwelling rates are likely sensitive to wind-driven changes in the eddy field. More vigorous eddies in the ACC could increase the supply of carbon-rich deep waters to the sea surface, and hence may weaken the Southern Ocean carbon sink. However, more work is needed to uncover the response of the carbon sink to a change in the eddy field. Similarly, changes in the eddy field would likely also alter the supply of nutrients to the surface of the Southern Ocean, potentially altering the efficiency of the biological pump. Our results demonstrate that a deep understanding of the three-dimensional upwelling in the Southern Ocean is needed to determine the complex role of the Southern Ocean in the global heat, carbon and nutrient budgets.
Antarctica  Larsen  WAIS  circulationchanges 
21 days ago by huntercutting

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