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New link found between alcohol, genes and heart failure -- ScienceDaily
Science Daily - Addiction; https://ift.tt/2dhBurx; May 25, 2018 at 05:44PM; ; Scientists have revealed a new link between alcohol, heart health and our genes. The researchers investigated faulty versions of a gene called titin which are carried by one in 100 people or 600,000 people in the UK.
Psychiatry  What  Patients  Are  Reading:  Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett
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Drug & Alcohol Dependence; https://ift.tt/2r2ET3B; May 25, 2018 at 04:04PM; ; ‘Opioid pharmacotherapy’ (OPT), ‘opioid substitution treatment’ (OST) and ‘opioid agonist treatment’ (OAT) are all terms that describe the administration of medications to people dependent on opioids in order to achieve ‘defined treatment aims’ (WHO/UNODC/UNAIDS, 2004). Pharmacotherapies for opioid dependence include opioid agonists (e.g., methadone), partial agonists (e.g., buprenorphine), opioid antagonists (e.g., naltrexone), and alaph-2-adrenergic agonists (e.g., lofexidine; Stotts et al., 2010).
Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett
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Drug & Alcohol Dependence; https://ift.tt/2r2ET3B; May 25, 2018 at 04:04PM; ; Despite heroin dependence being documented as a major clinical and public health concern, little is known about the specific risk factors associated with the transitions from heroin use to dependence to treatment-seeking. These important transitions, and their demographic and clinical predictors, have been well-documented for nicotine (Agrawal et al., 2006, 2008; Behrendt et al., 2009; Lopez-Quintero et al., 2011), alcohol (Wagner and Anthony, 2002; Agrawal et al., 2006; Sartor et al., 2007; Behrendt et al., 2009; Kalaydjian et al., 2009; Kalaydjian et al., 2009; Lee et al., 2009; Suliman et al., 2010; Lopez-Quintero et al., 2011; Silveira et al., 2011; Florez-Salamanca et al., 2013) and cannabis (Van Etten et al., 1997; Wagner and Anthony, 2002; Chen et al., 2005; Agrawal et al., 2006, 2008; Behrendt et al., 2009; Lopez-Quintero et al., 2011; Florez-Salamanca et al., 2013), typically using analyses of data from large population-based cohorts.
Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett
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Drug & Alcohol Dependence; https://ift.tt/2r2ET3B; May 25, 2018 at 04:04PM; ; Methamphetamine (MA) dependence is a significant source of deleterious consequences to individual and public health (Cruickshank and Dyer, 2009). Approximately 469,000 people aged 12 and older in the U.S. meet the DSM-IV criteria for MA dependence, and the economic burden of MA use in the U.S. is approximately $23.4 billion per year (Nicosia et al., 2009; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014). Available behavioral treatments, including cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management (CM), are only modestly effective (Lee and Rawson, 2008; Roll, 2007).
Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett
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Drug & Alcohol Dependence; https://ift.tt/2r2ET3B; May 25, 2018 at 04:04PM; ; The neuropeptides hypocretin-1 and -2 or orexin-1 and orexin-2 (de Lecea et al., 1998; Sakurai et al., 1998) derive from the lateral hypothalamus and project throughout the brain (Koob, 2008). Hypocretins interact with the noradrenergic, cholinergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic systems as well as with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In concert, these actions have been shown to modulate sleep-wake regulation, energy homeostasis, motivational activation, and stress responsivity (Carter et al., 2009; Giardino and de Lecea, 2014; Sutcliffe and de Lecea, 2002).
Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett
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Addictive Behaviors - Latest Volume; https://ift.tt/xxwarn; May 25, 2018 at 03:33PM; ; Publication date: October 2018
Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85
Author(s): Rachel L. Tomko, Amanda K. Gilmore, Kevin M. Gray

Relative to adults, adolescents are at greater risk of developing a cannabis use disorder (CUD) and risk may be exacerbated by co-occurring depressive symptoms. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an over-the-counter antioxidant, is thought to normalize glutamate transmission. Oxidative stress and glutamate transmission are disrupted in both depression and CUD. Thus, NAC may be particularly effective at promoting cannabis abstinence among adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms. Secondary analyses were conducted using a sub-sample of adolescents with CUD (N = 74) who participated in an 8-week randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial examining the efficacy of NAC for cannabis cessation. It was hypothesized that NAC would reduce severity of depressive symptoms, and that decreases depressive symptom severity would mediate decreases in positive weekly urine cannabinoid tests (11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol). Additionally, it was expected that adolescents with greater severity of baseline depressive symptoms would be more likely to become abstinent when assigned NAC relative to placebo. Results from linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations did not suggest that NAC reduced severity of depressive symptoms, and the hypothesis that NAC's effect on cannabis cessation would be mediated by reduced depressive symptoms was not supported. However, an interaction between treatment condition and baseline severity of depressive symptoms as a predictor of weekly urine cannabinoid tests was significant, suggesting that NAC was more effective at promoting abstinence among adolescents with heightened baseline depressive symptoms. These secondary findings, though preliminary, suggest a need for further examination of the role of depressive symptoms in treatment of adolescent CUD with NAC.
Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett
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Addictive Behaviors - Latest Volume; https://ift.tt/xxwarn; May 25, 2018 at 03:33PM; ; Publication date: October 2018
Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85
Author(s): Johannes Thrul, Judith A. Mendel, Samuel J. Simmens, Lorien C. Abroms

Text messaging interventions have shown promise in helping people quit smoking. Texting programs periodically survey participants about their smoking status. This study examined the consistency of participant self-reported smoking between external surveys and internal program text message assessments.

Participants in Text2Quit program were surveyed about their past 7-day smoking at one, three, and six months post-enrollment using different survey modes (external surveys and internal program text message assessments) and responses were compared for consistency. The first set of analyses was conducted for participants responding on both modes (n = 45 at one month; n = 50 at three months; n = 42 at six months). Additional analyses, assuming missing = smoking, were conducted with the full sample of 262 smokers (68.7% female, mean age = 35.8 years) and compared to saliva-confirmed abstinence rates.

Participants responding to both modes consistently reported smoking status at one (88.9%), three (88.0%) and six (88.1%) months post-enrollment, with fair to substantial levels of agreement (one month: κ = 0.24; three months: κ = 0.63; six months: κ = 0.66). Participants responding to both modes reported high rates of abstinence. In missing = smoking analyses, significant differences in abstinence rates reported across modes were detected at each timepoint (one month: external = 30.5%, internal = 16.4%; three months: external = 33.2%, internal = 16.0%; six months: external = 31.7%, internal = 12.2%; all p < .001). Moderate levels of agreement were found between the two modes. At 6 months, abstinence rates obtained via internal data were closer to those biochemically verified (15.7%) compared to external surveys.

Results provide initial support for the use of internal program assessments in text messaging programs with missing = smoking assumptions in order to gather outcome data on smoking behavior.
Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett
What Is Addiction?
Addiction is a complex condition, a brain disease that is manifested by compulsive substance use despite harmful consequence. Learn more at psychiatry.org.
addiction 
yesterday by jbotos
Benzodiazepines for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia
MedWorm - Addiction News; https://ift.tt/2pUlgdA; May 25, 2018 at 10:43AM; ; Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disfiguring movement disorder, often of the orofacial region, frequently caused by using antipsychotic drugs. A wide range of strategies have been used to help manage TD, and for those who are unable to have their antipsychotic medication stopped or substantially changed, the benzodiazepine group of drugs have been suggested as a useful adjunctive treatment. However, benzodiazepines are very addictive. To determine the effects of benzodiazepines for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia in people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or other chronic mental illnesses. (Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH))

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Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett
Weekly Postings
MedWorm - Addiction News; https://ift.tt/2pUlgdA; May 25, 2018 at 10:43AM; ; See something of interest? Please share our postings with colleagues in your institutions! Spotlight NLM @ MLA 2018: Did you miss a National Library of Medicine presentation at MLA? Recordings of the NLM theater presentations are now available! The University of Pittsburgh Health Sciences Library System (HSLS) invites applications for the position of Health Programming Coordinator for the Middle Atlantic Region of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM MAR). Review of applications begins June 27, 2018, and will continue until filled. The MAR offices will be closed on Monday, May 28 for Memorial Day. National Network of Libraries of Medicine News Connect with MAR: MAR coordinators would love the chance to speak with you in person about your projects, and opportunities for poten...
Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett
Spring 2018 issue of the NIAAA Spectrum now online
MedWorm - Addiction News; https://ift.tt/2pUlgdA; May 25, 2018 at 08:43AM; ; The most recent issue of the NIAAA Spectrum is now published atªªhttps://www.spectrum.niaaa.nih.gov. Theºº current issue includes:Features about new prevalence estimates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and about alcohol and adolescent brain development (Source: NIAAA News)

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Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett
Object moved
Nicotine & Tobacco Research - Advance Access; https://ift.tt/2uBG7I0; May 25, 2018 at 01:54AM; ;

Abstract

Introduction

Most prospective studies of quit attempts (QA) or abstinence measure the ability of variables to predict quitting many weeks or months later. This design ignores more proximal fluctuations in the predictor that may be more relevant. The present secondary analysis compares 6-week (distal) and daily (proximal) changes in cigarettes per day (CPD) as predictors of making a QA.

Methods

Daily smokers reported CPD and QAs nightly throughout a 12-week natural history study. We provided no treatment. In the distal analysis we tested whether reduction in CPD between baseline and 6 weeks predicted making a QA during the following 6 weeks. In the proximal analysis, we identified episodes of one or more days of ≥10% reduction in CPD and tested whether reduction predicted making a QA on the day immediately after the reduction episode. We tested the following predictors: 1) reduction in CPD of ≥10% (yes/no), 2) percent reduction, 3) absolute magnitude of reduction, and 4) CPD at the end of reduction.

Results

In the distal analysis, reduction did not predict making a QA. In the proximal analysis, any reduction (OR=3.0), greater percent reduction (OR=1.6), greater absolute reduction (OR=1.3), and fewer CPD on the final day of an episode (OR=11.8) predicted making a QA the next day (all p<.001).

Discussion

Relying on distal measurements to identify causes of a behavior may produce false negative results. Increased use of technological advances will make assessments of the more valid proximal measurements more feasible.

Implications

This secondary analysis tested distal and proximal predictors of making a quit attempt among the same participants and found that distal tests did not, but proximal tests did predict quit attempts. Relying on distal measurements may result in false negatives
Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett
Object moved
Nicotine & Tobacco Research - Advance Access; https://ift.tt/2uBG7I0; May 25, 2018 at 01:54AM; ;

Abstract

Introduction

Few studies have used longitudinal cohort data to examine associations of cigarette prices with smoking cessation or whether price sensitivity varies by income or education. This study examines these associations in a multi-center U.S. cohort and explores whether associations vary by education and income.

Methods

Longitudinal data from baseline daily cigarette smokers aged 18-30 years old in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study were linked to inflation-adjusted cigarette carton prices from the Council for Community and Economic Research Cost of Living Index based on residential address at baseline and in years 7, 10, and 15 (1985-2001). Multivariable Cox models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of first (any) smoking cessation and sustained smoking cessation (no relapse) associated with each $1 increase in time-dependent cigarette price over 15 years of follow-up. Models adjusted for socio-demographic, health-related, and policy covariates. We assessed effect modification by education and household income.

Results

Among 1,489 participants, a $1.00 higher cigarette carton price was associated with a 16% higher likelihood of first smoking cessation (HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.21) and an 8% higher likelihood of sustained smoking cessation (HR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.14). Associations were strongest among participants with lower income for first cessation, and among those with higher income for sustained cessation. Associations were strongest for participants with less than a high school degree for both outcomes.

Conclusions

Results suggest higher cigarette prices promote smoking cessation among young to middle-aged adults, and that price sensitivity may differ by socioeconomic status.

Implications

Few studies have examined longitudinal associations of cigarette prices with smoking cessation, and findings are mixed on whether price sensitivity varies by education or income. In a cohort of U.S. adult daily smokers, cigarette prices were associated with greater likelihood of both a first cessation and sustained cessation. Price associations with first cessation were stronger among low income smokers, but associations with sustained cessation were stronger among high income smokers. Results suggest that while higher cigarette prices may promote short-term smoking cessation among smokers at all income levels, additional supports may be needed to facilitate sustained smoking cessation among low income smokers.
Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett
Object moved
Nicotine & Tobacco Research - Advance Access; https://ift.tt/2uBG7I0; May 25, 2018 at 01:54AM; ;

Abstract

Introduction

The cigarette, like the cigarette pack, is used by tobacco companies as a promotional tool. We explore how the cigarette could potentially be used as a dissuasive tool.

Methods

An online survey was conducted with 15-30 year old smokers and non-smokers (N=998) in France to explore their perceptions of a plain cigarette (grey with no brand name) and three branded cigarettes (regular, slim, pink). Participants were randomly assigned to view the plain cigarette and either the regular, slim or pink cigarette. They were asked to rate the cigarettes by Appeal (tastiest, highest quality, most expensive), Harm (most dangerous, most effective for motivating people to talk about tobacco dangers), and Perceived behavioral impact (most effective to convince teenagers not to start, to motivate smokers to reduce consumption and quit).

Results

In comparison to the grey cigarette, each of the branded cigarettes were considered more appealing, less harmful, and more likely to motivate teenagers to start and less likely to motivate smokers to reduce consumption or quit.

Conclusions

The study suggests that altering the appearance of the cigarette may reduce cigarette appeal, increase harm perceptions, and deter both young people and smokers.

Implications

Very little research has focused on dissuasive cigarettes whereas the cigarette stick has become very important for tobacco companies for communication purposes. This is the first study to compare the effect of various branded cigarettes (regular, slim, pink) with a plain grey cigarette on young adult smokers and non-smokers. The findings suggest that a plain grey cigarette can reduce cigarette appeal, increase perceptions of harm, and may deter use among both smokers and non-smokers.
Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett
Editor's Note: Congratulations to the 2018 Author and Revie... : Journal of Addiction Medicine
Journal of Addiction Medicine - Current Issue; https://ift.tt/2INfnar; May 25, 2018 at 01:51AM; ; No abstract available
Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett
Buprenorphine Treatment for Adolescents and Young Adults Wit... : Journal of Addiction Medicine
Journal of Addiction Medicine - Current Issue; https://ift.tt/2INfnar; May 25, 2018 at 01:51AM; https://ift.tt/2IMkesf; In the past decade, a new cohort of adolescents and young adults with opioid use disorders (OUD) has emerged. While medications and psychosocial treatments are available, few adolescents and young adults with OUD can access and remain in treatment. Effective, practical, and scalable treatment paradigms for this young population are needed. Buprenorphine is a medication with unique pharmacological and regulatory characteristics that make it a promising component of adolescent and young adult OUD treatment models. Three randomized controlled trials and multiple observational studies have evaluated the use of buprenorphine to treat this population. However, data from these studies have not been consolidated into an up-to-date summary that may be useful to clinicians. The objective of this narrative review is to inform clinical practice by summarizing results of primary and secondary analyses from randomized controlled clinical trials and observational studies that have evaluated the use of buprenorphine to treat adolescents and young adults with OUD. Based on results from these studies, we encourage the conceptualization of OUD among youth as a chronic medical condition requiring a long-term management strategy. This includes treatment with buprenorphine in conjunction with medication-prescribing protocols that do not necessarily require daily clinic attendance for observed medication adherence. However, more study of treatment delivery models, addressing such issues as medication adherence and intensity requirements, is needed to determine practices that optimize outcomes for youth.
Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett
The Central Effects of Androgenic-anabolic Steroid Use : Journal of Addiction Medicine
Journal of Addiction Medicine - Current Issue; https://ift.tt/2INfnar; May 25, 2018 at 01:51AM; ; Millions of men use androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) to stimulate muscle growth and improve physical appearance. Although 1 out of 3 people who uses androgenic-anabolic steroids develops a steroid use disorder, the effects of the drugs on the central nervous system and the psyche are still not well understood. Although most addictive substances improve mood immediately after administration, AAS exert less pronounced euphoric effects. Instead, they are primarily taken for the delayed gratification of increased muscle mass. Withdrawal from AAS may lead to a range of somatic and psychiatric symptoms, and, in many cases, comprehensive treatment supervised by an endocrinologist and a psychiatrist is required.
Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett
A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of a Phone-based Interve... : Journal of Addiction Medicine
Journal of Addiction Medicine - Current Issue; https://ift.tt/2INfnar; May 25, 2018 at 01:51AM; https://ift.tt/2IIHwU6; Objectives: To pilot-test a Phone-based Postpartum Continuing Care (PPCC) protocol developed from existing evidence-based approaches to address both postpartum smoking relapse among low-income women who quit smoking during pregnancy and postpartum smoking increase among those who had cut down. Methods: One hundred thirty low-income pregnant women who were current or recently quit tobacco smokers were recruited at their first prenatal appointment and randomized to either a Control (standard care) or Experimental (standard care + PPCC) group. An intent-to-treat analysis was conducted on biochemically verified data from 6 in-person interviews during pregnancy and postpartum. Feasibility with regard to recruitment, randomization, assessment, and implementation of PPCC were assessed, along with acceptability among the target population. Results: PPCC was found to be feasible and acceptable to some participants, but not all. There were no significant differences in tobacco products per day at 6 months postpartum between groups; however, effect sizes differed at 6 weeks compared with 6 months postpartum. Similarly, there were no significant differences between groups in cessation rate (24% in each group) and past 90-day tobacco use (59 vs 55 days, for Control and Experimental groups, respectively). Conclusions: The PPCC intervention did not differentially reduce tobacco use postpartum compared with a controlled comparison group, though it was found to be acceptable among a subpopulation of low-income pregnant women and feasible with regard to recruitment, randomization, assessment procedures, and implementation. Further research is needed to identify an intervention that significantly improves smoking relapse rates postpartum.
Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett
The Effect of Melatonin Upon Postacute Withdrawal Among Male... : Journal of Addiction Medicine
Journal of Addiction Medicine - Current Issue; https://ift.tt/2INfnar; May 25, 2018 at 01:51AM; https://ift.tt/2xkUUIP; Objective: Assess the effect of melatonin (5 mg) compared with placebo as an adjuvant treatment along with current behavioral and pharmacotherapy for 28 days on weekly self-reported severity of anxiety, depression, stress, and sleep complaints, and also how sleep is affecting daily life in males 18 years of age and older in recovery from substance use at a residential program in south-western Pennsylvania. Background: Individuals in recovery experience a variety of symptoms including, but are not limited to, anxiety, depression, sleep difficulties, and stress. In the U.S., melatonin is a readily available nutraceutical that is used to alleviate sleep difficulties. Studies also suggest that melatonin may also have anxiolytic and antidepressive actions alone, as well as in those with co-morbid insomnia. Observation of clinicians treating individuals during and/or post drug cessation indicated that melatonin is commonly provided specifically to alleviate sleep difficulties with little evidence regarding efficacy in this population. The paucity of evidence as well as observation of clinical practices provided the rationale for this randomized clinical trial. Methods: A single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial was conducted. Seventy individuals were enrolled, block-randomized with an allocation ratio of 1:1. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for all primary outcome measures. Primary outcome measures were assessed with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-8), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14), and Pittsburgh Sleep Symptom Questionnaire—Insomnia (PSSQ-1). Secondary outcome measures were to acquire participant characteristics, determine adherence, and document adverse events. Results: No statistically significant between-group differences were detected for baseline characteristics. Even though the proportion of individuals reporting an adverse event between groups was not significantly different, the frequency of reported adverse events was greater in the melatonin group. Intention-to-treat analysis for all the measured outcomes revealed no statistically significant between-group differences for same day comparisons. Conclusions: The diversity of medication regimens, and also the services provided by the residential treatment site add to the complexity of assessing the efficacy of melatonin on the measured outcomes. Given these limitations, there exists insufficient evidence to suggest that the effect of melatonin and placebo on the outcomes were significantly different.
Addiction 
yesterday by wbennett

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