1930s   971

« earlier    

Forget Your Middle-Class Dreams
«When it comes to workplace organizing, there's no such thing as a "privileged" worker. You’re either with your coworkers or you’re against them.»
unionization  politics  jacobin  organization  marxism  class  america  american-left  history  1930s  professionalism  management 
7 weeks ago by brennen
The Handmaiden (2016)
Jed's thoughts: This movie is hard to rec because it's one of those plots that really, really works better when you haven't been spoiled at all. It's set in South Korea during Japanese occupation; it opens with a Korean woman becoming a servant for a Japanese heiress, and then... it gets a lot more interesting, I'll leave it at that. It's absolutely gripping once it gets going, one of my favorite tight plots ever. It's also hard to warn for--my tags can't possibly cover everything, so just be prepared for some fucked-up shit. It's adapted from a novel called Fingersmith, but the setting is completely different (I tried to read the book and didn't like it enough to get very far, so I don't know how true to the original it is in plot).
thriller  drama  romance  unrated  1930s  f/f  asian  east asian  south korea  korean  japanese  main character of color  abuse  child abuse  non-queer character death  violence  sexual assault  happy ending  jed's favorites 
8 weeks ago by franklymyqueeridontgiveadamn
Cooperative Economy in the Great Depression | Jonathan Rowe
"Entrepreneurs of cooperation
Before Social Security and the WPA, the Unemployed Exchange Association rebuilt a collapsed economy"



"The mood at kitchen tables in California in the early 1930s was as bleak as it was elsewhere in the United States. Factories were closed. More than a quarter of the breadwinners in the state were out of work. There were no federal or state relief programs, nothing but some local charity—in Los Angeles County, a family of four got about 50 cents a day, and only one in 10 got even that.

Not long before, America had been a farming nation. When times were tough, there was still the land. But the country was becoming increasingly urban. People were dependent on this thing called “the economy” and the financial casino to which it was yoked. When the casino crashed, there was no fallback, just destitution. Except for one thing: The real economy was still there — paralyzed but still there. Farmers still were producing, more than they could sell. Fruit rotted on trees, vegetables in the fields. In January 1933, dairymen poured more than 12,000 gallons of milk into the Los Angeles City sewers every day.

The factories were there too. Machinery was idle. Old trucks were in side lots, needing only a little repair. All that capacity on the one hand, legions of idle men and women on the other. It was the financial casino that had failed, not the workers and machines. On street corners and around bare kitchen tables, people started to put two and two together. More precisely, they thought about new ways of putting twoand two together.

Building a reciprocal economy

In the spring of 1932, in Compton, California, an unemployed World War I veteran walked out to the farms that still ringed Los Angeles. He offered his labor in return for a sack of vegetables, and that evening he returned with more than his family needed. The next day a neighbor went out with him to the fields. Within two months 500 families were members of the Unemployed Cooperative Relief Organization (UCRO).

That group became one of 45 units in an organization that served the needs of some 150,000 people.

It operated a large warehouse, a distribution center, a gas and service station, a refrigeration facility, a sewing shop, a shoe shop, even medical services, all on cooperative principles. Members were expected to work two days a week, and benefits were allocated according to need. A member with a wife and two kids got four times as much food as someone living alone. The organization was run democratically, and social support was as important as material support. Members helped one another resist evictions; sometimes they moved a family back in after a landlord had put them out. Unemployed utility workers turned on gas and electricity for families that had been cut off.

Conventional histories present the Depression as a story of the corporate market, foiled by its own internal flaws, versus the federal government, either savvy mechanic or misguided klutz, depending on your view.The government ascended, in the form of the New Deal; and so was born the polarity of our politics—and the range of our economic possibilities—ever since.

Yet there was another story too. It embodied the trusty American virtues of initiative, responsibility, and self-help, but in a way that was grounded in community and genuine economy. This other story played out all over the U.S., for a brief but suggestive moment in the early 1930s.

The UCRO was just one organization in one city. Groups like it ultimately involved more than 1.3 million people, in more than 30 states. It happened spontaneously, without experts or blueprints. Most of the participants were blue collar workers whose formal schooling had stopped at high school. Some groups evolved a kind of money to create more flexibility in exchange. An example was the Unemployed Exchange Association, or UXA, based in Oakland, California. (The UXA story was told in an excellent article in the weekly East Bay Express in1983, on which the following paragraphs are based.) UXA began in a Hooverville (an encampment of the poor during the Depression, so-called after the president) called “Pipe City,” near the East Bay waterfront. Hundreds of homeless people were living there in sections of large sewer pipe that were never laid because the city ran out of money. Among them was Carl Rhodehamel, a musician and engineer.

Rhodehamel and others started going door to door in Oakland, offering to do home repairs in exchange for unwanted items. They repaired these and circulated them among themselves. Soon they established a commissary and sent scouts around the city and intothe surrounding farms to see what they could scavenge or exchange labor for. Within six months they had 1,500 members, and a thriving sub-economy that included a foundry and machine shop, woodshop, garage,soap factory, print shop, wood lot, ranches, and lumber mills. They rebuilt 18 trucks from scrap. At UXA’s peak it distributed 40 tons of food a week.

It all worked on a time-credit system. Each hour worked earned a hundred points; there was no hierarchyof skills, and all work paid the same. Members could use credits to buy food and other items at the commissary, medical and dental services, haircuts, an dmore. A council of some 45 coordinators met regularly to solve problems and discuss opportunities.

One coordinator might report that a saw needed a new motor. Another knew of a motor but the owner wanted a piano in return. A third member knew of a piano that was available. And on and on. It was an amalgam of enterprise and cooperation—the flexibility and hustle of the market, but without the encoded greed of the corporation or the stifling bureaucracy of the state. The economics texts don’t really have a name for it. The members called it a “reciprocal economy.”

The dream fades

It would seem that a movement that provided livelihood for more than 300,000 people in California alone would merit discussion in the history books. Amidst the floundering of the early 1930s, this was something that actually worked. Yet in most accounts the self-help co-ops get barely a line.

The one exception is Upton Sinclair’s campaign for governor in 1934. Sinclair was a kind of Ralph Nader of his day. He based his campaign on a plan he called End Poverty in California, or EPIC, which was based in turn on the self-help cooperatives, UXA in particular. It would have taken the state’s idle farmland and factories and turned them into worker co-ops.

The idea of a genuine economy shorn of Wall Street contrivance touched a chord. Some 2,000 EPIC clubs sprang up. Sinclair won the Democratic primary, but California’s moneyed establishment mustered $10 million dollars to pummel him. EPIC died with his campaign, and the idea has been associated with quixotic politics ever since.

To say UXA and the other cooperative economies faced challenges is to put it mildly. They were going against the grain of an entire culture. Anti-communist “Red Squads” harassed them, while radicals complained they were too practical and not sufficiently committed to systemic change.

But the main thing that killed the co-ops was the Works Progress Administration and its cash jobs. Those WPA jobs were desperately needed. But someof them were make-work, while the co-op work was genuinely productive.

The co-ops pleaded with FDR’s Administration to include them in the WPA. Local governments were helping with gasoline and oil. But the New Dealers weren’t interested, and the co-ops melted away. For years they were period pieces, like soup lines and Okies.

Or so it seemed.

Today, the signs of financial and ecological collapse are mounting. We are strung out on foreign debt and foreign oil, and riding real estate inflation that won’t last forever. Add the impendingc ollapse of the natural life support system, and the ’30s could seem benign by comparison.

In this setting, the economics of self-help are increasingly relevant. The possibility of creating such an economy, though, might seem remote. In the 1930s, there still were farms on the outskirts of cities—family operations that could make barter deals on the spot. Factories were nearby too. Products were simple and made to last, and so could be scavenged and repaired.

All that has changed. The factories are in China, the farms are owned by corporations, and you can’t walk to them from Los Angeles anymore. Products are made to break; the local repair shop is a distant memory. Hyper-sophisticated technology has put local mechanics out of business, let alone backyard tinkerers.

An idea resurfaces

Yet there are trends on the other side as well. Energy technology is moving back to the local level, by way of solar, wind, biodiesel and the rest. The popularity of organics has given a boost to smaller farms. There’s also the quiet revival of urban agriculture. Community gardens are booming—some 6,000 of them in 38 U.S. cities. In Boston, the Food Project produces over 120,000 pounds of vegetables on just 21 acres.Then consider the unused land in U.S. cities: some 70,000 vacant parcels in Chicago, 31,000 in Philadelphia.

Large swaths of Detroit look like Dresden after the firebombing. A UXA could do a lot with that. I’m not getting gauzy here. Anyone who has been part of a co-op — I once served on the board of one — knows it is not a walk in the park. But it is not hard to see the stirrings of a new form of cooperative economics on the American scene today. You can’t explain Linux, the computer operating system developed community-style on the web, by the tenets of the economics texts. Nor can you so explain Craig’s List, the online bulletin board that people use at no or minimal cost.

The cooperative model seems to defy what economists call “economic law”—that people work only for personal gain and in response to schemes of personal incentive and reward. Yet the Depression co-ops did happen. When the next crash … [more]
cooperation  coopeatives  greatdepression  socialism  history  california  us  1930s  economics  solidarity  jonathanrowe  losangeles  compton  farming  agriculture  labor  work  ucro  oakland  carlrhodehamel  uxa  community  mutualaid  detroit  coops  local  fdr  wpa  communism  uptonsinclair  poverty 
9 weeks ago by robertogreco
In Montparnasse: The Emergence of Surrealism in Paris – review
In Montparnasse: The Emergence of Surrealism in Paris – review
http://www.theguardian.com/books/2018/jul/09/in-montparnasse-sue-roe-birth-of-surrealism-paris-duchamp-to-dali

“Roe carefully lists the experiences of surrealism’s key figures in that war: the poet Guillaume Apollinaire was, for instance, wounded in action; his head, still bandaged, was just about the only thing to soften the hearts of the disgusted crowd when Diaghilev’s radical ballet Parade was finally staged in 1917 (written by Jean Cocteau, with designs by Picasso and music by Eric Satie; Apollinaire had written the programme notes, and could therefore be seen on the night in the audience). The poet Louis Aragon, who worked as a medic, was buried three times in one day by grenade explosions; André Breton, the writer who would give Objet its alternative title, Le Déjeuner en Fourrure, worked as an orderly among the shell-shocked; Cocteau was an ambulance driver. But such biographical details apart, Roe never quite takes the time fully to examine the relationship between their horror and consequent rage and their work; to show how, as Robert Hughes noted in The Shock of the New, what they had witnessed effectively separated them, by choice or not, from the social order (hence their powerful need for the Montparnasse cafes – Les Deux Magots, the Cafe de la Rotonde, La Closerie des Lilas – that became, in effect, their meeting places, their libraries, their bustling “theatres of the new”).”
surrealism  1940s  1920s  books-non-fiction  paris  art  1930s 
december 2018 by craigryan

« earlier    

related tags

#proc1  -  1840s  1880s  1890s  1900s  1910s  1920s  1929  1931  1933  1936  1937  1940s  1950s  1955  1960s  1970s  1976  1980s  1988  1989  1990s  19th-century  1st  2010s  2013  2014  2015  2016  2017  2018  2nd  a  abex  abstraction  abuse  activism  ada_lovelace  advertising  advice  aesthetic  agnesmartin  agrarianism  agriculture  aids  air  alexandralange  alice_shields  alienation  allegory  alloy  america  americafirst  american-left  american-right  american  amiribaraka  amusement  analogy  and  animation  annette_peacock  anti-semitism  antioch  appeasement  architecture  archive  armaments  art  artdeco  artifact  artist  asian  atmosphere  attendance  attractor  audience  audio  audiobooks  auta  authoritarianism  authority  automation  automobile  automobiles  automotive  b-17s  bank.robbers  banks  bannonstephen  barackobama  bathroom  bauhaus  bbc  bebe_barron  bernadettecorporation  bikes  bitcoin  björk  black  blacktuesday  body  book  books-fiction  books-non-fiction  books  boom  boredom  brexit  brianodoherty  britain  bubble  buick  burial  bust  bymen  california  capacity  capitalism  carla_scaletti  carlrhodehamel  carolanderson  carpet  cars  cartoon  cartoons  casements  catherinopie  ccny  character  characterdesign  child  children  child abuse  cinema  circus  city  civilrights  clara_rockmore  class  clothing  clovis  collage  collection  college  colonialism  color  comedy  comic  comics  commercial  communication  communism  community  complete  composition  compton  computer  consumption  contraction  control  coopeatives  cooperation  coops  cornelwest  coryarcangel  credit  crime  criminals  criticism  culture  culturewars  curation  curiosity  currency  curriculum  cute  cyclical  dada  dance  daphne_oram  database  davidgersten  dc:creator=freedlandjonathan  dctagged  death  debate  debt  decoratedshed  decorative  defense  defensive  delia_derbyshire  demand  democracy  demos  denouement  depression  design  detective  detectives  detroit  digital  directing  disaster  disintegration  disney  displacement  display  distance  diy  document  documents  doll  donaldtrump  dot_d'alcorn  douglasfairbanks  downloads  drama  duck  earthworks  east asian  economics  edwardhopper  egregore  electricity  electrocution  electronic  ellabaker  else_marie_pade  emileantonio  empire  energy  engineering  england  entertainment  ephillipsoppenheim  equipment  eternity  europe  european-union  european  everdayness  everyday  exhibition  expansion  extremism  f/f  fall  fan-studies  farming  fascism  fashion  faulkner  fdr  feedy  fiction  fidesz  film  finance  fire  firstperson  flight  flip  font  football  foreignpolicy  fortifcations  fortification  foto  foundry  fragment  france  frankstella  free  freed  freedom  french  frog  funding  fungible  funniest  games  gaming  gannon  gender  geomungo  georgiaokeefe  germany  geschichte  glass  globalisation  globalism  globalization  glossary  golden-age  goldenage  governance  government  gravedigger  great-depression  great.depression  greatdepression  guardian  guide  gyorgykepes  happy ending  harvest  height  henrilefebvre  highereducation  history  hitler  holocaust  hope  hsitory  hungary  hydroelectricity  i  idealogging  illiberalism  illustration  ilyinivan  image  images  imperialism  in  incoherence  indigenous  industrial  industry  inequality  inevitability  interessant  internationalpolitics  internet  interruption  investment  iraq  irony  is1_fa18  isamunoguchi  isolationism  italy  jacobin  japan  japanese  jasia_reichardt  jazz  jed's favorites  jewish  jimmiedurham  jin-hi_kim  job  johanna_m_bayer  john-peale-bishop  joke  jonathanrowe  jordan-peterson  joseph-campbell  journalism  judiciary  kate_smith  kavanaughbrett  kawaii  kennethdeathing  kennethfearing  kewpies  knitting  korean  kunst  kurumi  la  labor  labour  land  landfill  landmark  landscape  language  laurie_anderson  laurie_spiegel  leisure  leslie-fiedler  lessonplans  liberty  life  light  line  lobbying  local  london  longhuey  loop  losangeles  magazine  maginot-line  maginot  maginotline  mailart  main character of color  malcolmx  management  manga  manufacturing  marbleking  marbles  marc  margueritamergentime  market  marthagraham  martinlutherkingjr  marxism  mass  material  mathiaspoledna  matsumotokatsuji  max_ernst  mayaderen  mcconnellmitch  mechanical  media  melvinrogers  memory  milinery  military  mimetic  mining  mirage  misinformation  mist  mit  mlk  monumental  monuments  mountain  movement  movies  mp3  mp3s  murder  museum  museums  music  musician  musik  mussolini  musuc  mutualaid  mystery  mysticism  nancy  national  nationalism  nationalsocialism  nature  nazi  naziforeignpolicy  nazis  nazism  neoliberal  neoliberalism  newdeal  newmexico  news  newspaper  non-queer character death  novel  novelty  nyrb  oakland  old-radio-world  old-time-radio  old-time  old  oldradioworld.com  oldradioworld  oldtime  oldtimeradio  ontario  optimism  organization  otr  outlaws  ouvrages  painting  pan  panic  panoramic  paris  park  patriarchy  patrissecullors  pattern  patterns  pauline_oliveros  phase  philosophy  photography  photography_early  photomontage  photos  pickaninny_heaven  pilgrimmage  plastic  play  playground  plural  podemo  poetry  polarisation  policy  politics  poppies  populism  postdemocracy  postwar  pov  poverty  pre-code  prehistory  press  price  processing  professionalism  programming  prohibition  project  projectgutenbergca  propeller  protectionism  protest  pump  putin  putinvladimir  race  radio  rage  rational  read  reality  recession  recording  red  refusal  religion  renemagritte  renovation  renovision  replica  representation  research  resource  responsibility  retro  reviews  ritual  riverside  robertfrost  robot  rockefeller  rodriguez  romance  ronaldreagan  roseoneil  royal_academy  royalty  russia  ryantrecartin  s01e01  salon  salvadordali  samochody  sand  scale  scheherazade  sci-fi  scifi  sculpture  scultpure  security  self-help  selfsimilar  sewing  sexual assault  sf  shadow  shailjapatel  shape  sharonhayes  shipping  shower  shows  sight  site  sma  smartmetal  smartphone  snydertimothy  social  socialism  society  solar  solidarity  solitude  sources  south korea  space  spear  spy  standards  state  statue  stockmarker  storage  street  strip  structure  succession  sunlight  superdeformed  superhero  surrealism  suzanne_ciani  synthesizer  ta-nehisicoates  technology  telecommunication  telecommunications  television  temperature  the-maginot-line  the  theater  themaginotline  thevinylfactory.com  thing  thriller  time  timeline  timothysnyder  tools  totalitarianism  toys  tradeunions  traffic  training  translucence  truck  trump  trumpdonald  tselliot  ubiquity  uckminstrfuller  ucro  uk  underbelly  underground  underwater  unemployment  unfreedom  unionization  unitedstates  unitwedstates  unrated  uptonsinclair  us  usa  ushistory  uxa  value  vernacular  victorian  video  videogames  vietnam  vintage  violence  vision  voice  war  was  washington  water  wealth  weapons  webdubois  week_02  weimar  wendy_carlos  wendybrown  westerns  wheat  white  whitecube  whitney  wikia.com  wikipedia  wind  wishlist  withdrawal  women  work  wpa  writing  ww1  ww2  ww_ii  wwi  wynajem  xenophobia  youngetdryas  éliane_radigue 

Copy this bookmark:



description:


tags: