robertogreco + indonesia   21

A Divinely-Inspired Gender: The Manang Bali Shamans of Sarawak - QueerLapis
"Nestled in the heart of Malaysian Borneo were the manang bali, a group of gender nonconforming shamans from the indigenous Iban tribe. They probably no longer exist due to mass conversions from animism to Christianity. Nevertheless, their historical presence holds present-day Malaysia accountable for its failure to recognise and appreciate its non-cisnormative and non-heteronormative past. The reality that the manang bali existed and were once lauded for their spiritual roles challenges and disrupts today’s state-sanctioned transphobic and homophobic rhetoric.

Spiritual intermediaries – such as shamans, mediums, witch doctors, ritualists and healers – who manifest gender non-conformity reside in many corners of Asia. These include the Ngaju Dayak basir of Indonesian Borneo, the bissu of the Indonesian Bugis people, the nat kadaw of Burma and the hijra of India.

The manang bali were one among many types of manang, albeit a minority group of shamans. They are also referred to as ‘transvestite’ or ‘transformed’ shamans, although Penelope Graham uses the latter term to denote her preference for a more open-ended approach in trying to understand these gender non-conforming individuals. This detail is important to avoid a simplistic and anachronistic interpretation of these shamans as transgender, intersex, genderqueer or cross-dressing individuals. While there were female-bodied manang bali who lived as men, the majority were biological males who lived as women.

According to existing resources, the manang bali receives directives, through dreams, from the transformed petara or deity Menjaya Manang Raja to become shamans. They must obey, or face pain of death or madness. As part of responding to their spiritual calling, male-bodied individuals adopted the mannerisms, attire and lifestyle of women, even taking on male partners as husbands. Against Valerie Mashman’s belief that the manang bali had ‘no gender and both genders at the same time’, I argue that there is every indication to show that the manang bali lived solely as women in accordance with divine imperatives. The gender and sexual transitions that occurred were integral to the initiation process of the shaman, adopting a new personal and social identity in order to serve the community. Due to these extreme requirements, the manang bali occupied the highest ranks of shamanhood.

Like other manang, the manang bali possessed a human body (tuboh). Nevertheless, as exalted beings, they were believed to have the ability to interact directly with the soul (semengat) as well as the ‘plant aspect (ayu or bunga)’ or health dimension of a person, and with spirits or ghosts (antu). Thus, they had the ability to pierce the sebayan or spirit world. The manang bali were most sought after for their healing abilities. They are said to have received this trait from their patron Menjaya Manang Raja who possessed the ‘ubat penyangga nyawa’.

Nevertheless, the manang bali did not experience unanimous acclaim despite their prowess as spiritual mediators. While they were appreciated for their services and well remunerated, they were simultaneously ‘devalued as lacking social prestige and even an object of ridicule in Iban eyes’. Iban social systems are based on strict gender binaries, and gender transitioning would not have been commonplace. Hence, the manang bali would have caused a sense of unease in the Iban communities despite their divinely-inspired gender status.

All too often, Malaysian leadership experiences a convenient amnesia about the historicity of Malaysia’s gendered and sexual diversity. Revisiting the manang bali provides an opportunity to reconnect with what Farish A. Noor refers to as ‘a deconstructive form of political history’. This form of history gives voice to a dimension of Malaysian reality that has hitherto been overlooked or suppressed, often due to – I add – narrow interpretations of religious modernity. Reconnecting with the manang bali calls to question Malaysia’s antagonistic attitudes towards citizens who either self-identify or are labelled as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, genderqueer, intersex, mak nyah, wanita keras, lelaki lembut, pengkid, cross-dresser, drag queen and queer in their myriad forms.

Gender nonconformity may not be the norm for early Iban communities. Nevertheless, they were accepting and appreciative of the Manang Bali because they realised that the transformed shamans were an integral part of their communities who had many gifts and talents to offer. What would happen, I wonder, if present-day Malaysians of all gender and sexual persuasions courageously took a leaf out of the history book of the Ibans, and learned ways of living together in mutual respect and appreciation in the midst of persistent and irreconcilable differences?"
gender  malaysia  gendernonconformity  non-binary  history  india  indonesia  borneo  shamans  manangbali  sarawak  transgender  intersex  genderqueer  valeriemashman  josephgoh 
april 2018 by robertogreco
Simon Carn on Twitter: "Check out this gorgeous @planetlabs 🛰️ image of the #Krakatau caldera on August 3, 2017, with a gas plume from Anak Krakatau. If you look closely you can see boats making their way to/from the #volcano. Image Copyright 2017 Pl
"Check out this gorgeous @planetlabs 🛰️ image of the #Krakatau caldera on August 3, 2017, with a gas plume from Anak Krakatau. If you look closely you can see boats making their way to/from the #volcano.

Image Copyright 2017 Planet Labs Inc."

[Thread has more context and images:

"Awas! Hari ini hari gunung api Indonesia di #VolcanoCup 🇮🇩. Personally, I'm hoping an Indonesian #volcano goes all the way in the contest, and here's why."

"More
#Indonesia trumps nearly all other countries in global volcano statistics:
Largest historical #eruption: Tambora, 1815
Largest Quaternary caldera/eruption: #Toba, ~74 ka
Loudest #eruption: #Krakatau, 1883
Largest stratospheric SO2 release in Common Era: Samalas, 1257
#VolcanoCup"

"Largest number of historically active volcanoes: Indonesia (78)
Deadliest eruptions: Tambora (1815) & #Krakatau (1883)
Coupled with high levels of #volcanic activity, Indonesia has some of the world's most densely populated islands (like Java). #VolcanoCup

"This population density #map of #Indonesia is meant to compliment my previous tweet: A huge and densely populated country. Source: https://buff.ly/2nQkQV9 "
https://twitter.com/simongerman600/status/963051323435507714 "

"There are few greater challenges in volcanic hazard mitigation. Kudos to @vulkanologi_mbg, @id_magma and @BNPB_Indonesia for dealing with this so effectively on a daily basis. And to @BoM_VAAC_Darwin for tracking #volcanic ash clouds in the region 24/7. #VolcanoCup"

"#Agung made the headlines recently, though its 2017-18 activity has been relatively minor. Its larger 1963 #eruption was sulfur-rich and provided a 1st test of model simulations of #volcanic impacts on climate (before #ElChichón and #Pinatubo). #VolcanoCup http://science.sciencemag.org/content/199/4333/1065 "

"The ~74 ka #Toba #eruption has been linked to an ice age & bottleneck in human evolution. While undoubtedly a stupendous event, recent work suggests lesser impacts. Read @ultraplinian's 'Eruptions That Shook the World' for a review of #Toba as an 'ash giant' but 'sulphur dwarf'."

"Credit also to my @michigantech colleague Bill Rose for some pioneering studies of #Toba with his @NSF-funded student Craig Chesner in the 1980s-90s. The shape of Toba ash particles (bubble walls) favored wide dispersal. #VolcanoCup
http://pages.mtu.edu/~raman/papers/ChesnerGeology.pdf
http://pages.mtu.edu/~raman/papers/RoseTobaFallGeology.pdf "

""Prolific #Merapi is the 'flagship of Indonesian volcanoes'; 'Merapi-type nuée ardente' is used worldwide for PDCs produced by lava dome collapse. For exhaustive accounts of Merapi's history see C. Newhall's and B. Voight's papers in this JVGR special vol: https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/journal-of-volcanology-and-geothermal-research/vol/100 "

"Large eruptions of ancient #Merapi have been linked to shifts of power btw Central & East Java in the 10th Century AD. They also lead to burial or abandonment of the majestic Borobudur & Prambanan temples, the former 'rediscovered' by Raffles in 1814. (Photo: @TelegraphTravel) [photo]"

"#Merapi's major November 2010 eruption was a potent reminder of its ability to produce significant explosive eruptions in addition to periods of lava dome growth and collapse. #VolcanoCup
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377027312001862 [animated gif]"

"But my vote is #Krakatau, a name synonymous w/ volcanic catastrophe. Famously misplaced in the 1968's 'Krakatoa: East of Java', it combines infamy & explosivity with high levels of current activity at Anak Krakatau, so it's also my 'top trump'. #VolcanoCup
https://twitter.com/VolcTopTrumps/status/963100722098331649 [image]"

"Check out this gorgeous @planetlabs 🛰️ image of the #Krakatau caldera on August 3, 2017, with a gas plume from Anak Krakatau. If you look closely you can see boats making their way to/from the #volcano.

Image Copyright 2017 Planet Labs Inc. [image]"

"Did the vivid European sunsets observed after the 1883 #Krakatau eruption inspire Edvard Munch's 'The Scream', painted in 1893? Probably not (it might just be nacreous clouds), but it's a good story. #VolcanoCup [image]"]
the21balloons  anakkrakatau  volcanoes  classideas  krakatoa  krakatau  indonesia  2018 
february 2018 by robertogreco
Ephemeral Urbanism: Cities in Constant Flux - YouTube
urbanism  urban  cities  ephemerality  ephemeral  2016  rahulmehrotra  felipevera  henrynbauer  cristianpinoanguita  religion  celebration  transaction  trade  economics  informal  formal  thailand  indi  us  dominicanrepublic  cochella  burningman  fikaburn  southafrica  naturaldisaters  refugees  climatechange  mozambique  haiti  myanmar  landscape  naturalresources  extraction  mining  chile  indonesia  military  afghanistan  refuge  jordan  tanzania  turkey  greece  macedonia  openness  rigidity  urbandesign  urbanplanning  planning  adhoc  slums  saudiarabia  hajj  perú  iraq  flexibility  unfinished  completeness  sustainability  ecology  mobility 
october 2017 by robertogreco
A World Without People - The Atlantic
"For a number of reasons, natural and human, people have evacuated or otherwise abandoned many places around the world—large and small, old and new. Gathering images of deserted areas into a single photo essay, one can get a sense of what the world might look like if humans were to suddenly vanish from the planet. Collected here are recent scenes from abandoned construction projects, industrial disaster zones, blighted urban neighborhoods, towns where residents left to escape violence or natural disasters, derelict Olympic venues, ghost towns, and more."
landscape  photography  apocalypse  worldwithoutus  multispecies  riodejaneiro  brasil  brazil  us  nola  neworleans  alabama  germany  belarus  italy  italia  abandonment  china  bankok  thailand  decay  shengshan  athens  greece  lackawanna  pennsylvania  tianjin  russia  cyprus  nicosia  indonesia  maine  syria  namibia  drc  fukushima  congo  philippines  havana  cuba  vallejo  paris  libya  wales  england 
may 2017 by robertogreco
Field Experiments
"Field Experiments is a nomadic design collective that explores traditional crafts by engaging in collaborative making with local craftspeople in diverse regions around the world. Underpinned by cross-cultural exchange, we produce projects, products and ideas across multiple formats including furniture, clothing, video works, publications, exhibitions, interiors, installation and printed materials."



"Field Experiments is Benjamin Harrison Bryant, Karim Charlebois-Zariffa and Paul Marcus Fuog. Under the collective Field Experiments they create their own exploratory work and are commissioned by others to create new projects and collaborative product ranges.

Field Experiments was established in 2013. Outcomes from FE: Indonesia have been shown at Ventura Lambrate (ITA), Sight Unseen OFFSITE (USA) and DesignEx (AUS) in 2014. Field Experiments gives presentations and conducts workshops to share learnings on exploratory modes for experimental research. Past presentations / workshops include: Semi-Permanent (NZ), Monash University Art Design and Architecture (AUS) Design As Activity (AUS)."
benjaminharrisonbryant  paulmarcusfuog  karimcharlebois-zariffa  design  indonesia  clothing  furniture  art  video  making  collaboratives  craft  crafts  cocreation 
july 2016 by robertogreco
61 Glimpses of the Future — Today’s Office — Medium
"1. If you want to understand how our planet will turn out this century, spend time in China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria and Brazil.

2. If you’re wondering how long the Chinese economic miracle will last, the answer will probably be found in the bets made on commercial and residential developments in Chinese 3rd to 6th tier cities in Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai and Tibet.

4. Touch ID doesn’t work at high altitude, finger prints are too dry.

5. You no longer need to carry a translation app on your phone. If there’s someone to speak with, they’ll have one on theirs.

6. A truly great border crossing will hold a mirror up to your soul.

9. The art of successful borderland travel is to know when to pass through (and be seen by) army checkpoints and when to avoid them.

10. Borders are permeable.

12. The premium for buying gasoline in a remote village in the GBAO is 20% more than the nearest town. Gasoline is harder to come by, and more valuable than connectivity.

13. After fifteen years of professionally decoding human behaviour, I’m still surprised by the universality of body language.

14. Pretentious people are inherently less curious.

15. Everything is fine, until that exact moment when it’s obviously not. It is easy to massively over/under estimate risk based on current contextual conditions. Historical data provides some perspective, but it usually comes down to your ability to read undercurrents, which in turn comes down to having built a sufficiently trusted relationship with people within those currents.

16. Sometimes, everyone who says they know what is going on, is wrong.

17. Every time you describe someone in your own country as a terrorist, a freedom is taken away from a person in another country.

18. Every country has its own notion of “terrorism”, and the overuse, and reaction to the term in your country helps legitimise the crack-down of restive populations in other countries.

17. China is still arguably the lowest-trust consumer society in the world. If a product can be faked it will be. Out of necessity, they also have the most savvy consumers in the world.

18. After twenty years of promising to deliver, Chinese solar products are now practical (available for purchase, affordable, sufficiently efficient, robust) for any community on the edge-of-grid, anywhere in the world. Either shared, or sole ownership.

20. When a fixed price culture meets a negotiation culture, fun ensues.

21. The sharing economy is alive and well, and has nothing to with your idea of the sharing economy.

25. Chinese truckers plying their trade along the silk road deserve to be immortalised as the the frontiersmen of our generation. (They are always male.)

29. The most interesting places have map coordinates, but no names.

30. There are are number of companies with a competitive smartphone portfolio. The rise of Oppo can be explained by its presence on every block of 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th tier Chinese cities.

32. People wearing fake Supreme are way more interesting than those that wear the real deal.

33. An iPhone box full of fungus caterpillar in Kham Tibet sold wholesale, is worth more than a fully specced iPhone. It’s worth 10x at retail in 1st/2nd Tier China. It is a better aphrodisiac too.

35. One of the more interesting aspects of very high net worth individuals (the financial 0.001%), is the entourage that they attract, and the interrelations between members of that entourage. This is my first time travelling with a spiritual leader (the religious 0.001%), whose entourage included disciples, and members of the financial 0.01% looking for a karmic handout. The behaviour of silicon valley’s nouveau riche is often parodied but when it comes to weirdness, faith trumps money every time. Any bets on the first Silicon Valley billionaire to successfully marry the two? Or vice versa?

37. For every person that longs for nature, there are two that long for man-made.

38. Tibetan monks prefer iOS over Android.

40. In order to size up the tribe/sub-tribe you’re part of, any group of young males will first look at the shoes on your feet.

42. After the Urumqi riots in 2009 the Chinese government cut of internet connectivity to Xinjiang province for a full year. Today connectivity is so prevalent and integrated into every aspect of Xinjiang society, that cutting it off it would hurt the state’s ability to control the population more than hinder their opposition. There are many parts to the current state strategy is to limit subversion, the most visible of which is access to the means of travel. For example every gas station between Kashi and Urumqi has barbed wire barriers at its gates, and someone checking IDs.

43. TV used to be the primary way for the edge-of-grid have-nots to discover what they want to have. Today it is seeing geotagged images from nearby places, sometimes hundreds of kilometres away.

44. Facebook entering China would be a Pyrrhic victory, that would lead to greater scrutiny and regulation worldwide. Go for it.

45. The sooner western companies own up to copying WeChat, the sooner we can get on with acknowledging a significant shift in the global creative center of gravity.

48. Green tea beats black tea for acclimatising to altitude sickness.

49. The most interesting destinations aren’t geotagged, are not easily geo-taggable. Bonus points if you can figure that one out.

50. The first time you confront a leader, never do it in front of their followers, they’ll have no way to back down.

51. There is more certainty in reselling the past, than inventing the future.

55. Pockets of Chengdu are starting to out-cool Tokyo.

56. To what extent does cultural continuity, and societal harmony comes from three generations under one roof?

58. If you want to understand where a country is heading pick a 2nd or 3rd tier city and revisit it over many years. Chengdu remains my bellwether 2nd tier Chinese city. It’s inland, has a strong local identity and sub-cultures, and has room to grow. Bonus: its’ only a few hours from some of the best mountain ranges in the world.

60. The difference between 2.5G and 3G? In the words of a smartphone wielding GBAO teenager on the day 3G data was switched on her town, “I can breathe”."
janchipchase  2016  travel  technology  borders  authenticity  pretension  curiosity  china  tibet  japan  eligion  culture  capitalism  wechat  facebook  android  ios  tokyo  chengdu  future  past  communication  tea  greentea  certainty  monks  translation  nature  indonesia  nigeria  brasil  brazil  india  shoes  connectivity  internet  mobile  phones  smartphones  sharingeconomy  economics  negotiation  touchid  cities  urban  urbanism  location  risk  relationships  consumers  terrorism  truckers  oppo  siliconvalley  wealth  nouveauriche  comparison  generations 
july 2016 by robertogreco
Identity 2016: 'Global citizenship' rising, poll suggests - BBC News
"People are increasingly identifying themselves as global rather than national citizens, according to a BBC World Service poll.

The trend is particularly marked in emerging economies, where people see themselves as outward looking and internationally minded.

However, in Germany fewer people say they feel like global citizens now, compared with 2001.

Pollsters GlobeScan questioned more than 20,000 people in 18 countries.

More than half of those asked (56%) in emerging economies saw themselves first and foremost as global citizens rather than national citizens.

In Nigeria (73%), China (71%), Peru (70%) and India (67%) the data is particularly marked.
By contrast, the trend in the industrialised nations seems to be heading in the opposite direction.

In these richer nations, the concept of global citizenship appears to have taken a serious hit after the financial crash of 2008. In Germany, for example, only 30% of respondents see themselves as global citizens."

[See also: http://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/people-increasingly-identify-as-globalnot-nationalcitizens ]
identity  cosmopolitanism  nigeria  china  perú  india  spain  españa  kenya  uk  greece  brazil  brasil  canada  pakistan  ghana  indonesia  us  mexico  chile  germany  russia  ethnicty  citizenships  globalization 
may 2016 by robertogreco
Benedict Anderson, Man Without a Country | New Republic
"Benedict Anderson, who died yesterday at age 79 in Malang, Indonesia, is internationally famous for his 1983 book Imagined Communities, far and away the most influential study of nationalism. Unlike earlier scholars who took a negative view of the subject, Anderson saw nationalism as an integrative imaginative process that allows us to feel solidarity for strangers. “In an age when it is so common for progressive, cosmopolitan intellectuals (particularly in Europe?) to insist on the near-pathological character of nationalism, its roots in fear and hatred of the Other, and its affinities with racism, it is useful to remind ourselves that nations inspire love, and often profoundly self-sacrificing love,” Anderson wrote in Imagined Communities. “The cultural products of nationalism—poetry, prose fiction, music, plastic arts—show this love very clearly in thousands of different forms and styles.”

For a scholar of nationalism, it is surprisingly difficult to say what nation Benedict Anderson belonged to. Anderson was a peripatetic child of the British Empire. Born in 1936 in Kunming, China, where his Anglo-Irish father worked for Chinese Maritime Customs, an imperial consortium that collected taxes, the Andersons had to flee to California in 1941 when the Japanese Empire began to expand into the country. The family returned to Ireland in 1945, but occupied an ambiguous position in their ancestral land. One strand of the family had been Irish nationalists of long-standing, but as Anglo-Irish they existed as a privileged minority, enjoying prestige but often excluded from the nation’s core Catholic identity.

If the Andersons weren’t quite Irish, they weren’t completely English either. The family’s experience in China gave them appreciation for the underside of Empire. As Perry Anderson, Benedict’s younger brother and himself a distinguished historian, once noted, their father’s experience fighting corruption in the colonial management of China left a lasting mark on the children. In 1956, as an undergraduate at Cambridge, Benedict Anderson was radicalized by the protests over the Suez crisis, where he found himself taking sides with anti-imperialist students—many of them born, like him, in the formerly colonized world—against British nationalists who supported the Anglo-French attempt to seize the Suez Canal. Out of his Cambridge experience, Anderson started on the path to becoming a Marxist and an anti-colonialist scholar.

After Cambridge, Anderson attended Cornell for graduate school and immersed himself in the study of Indonesia. While Anderson spent much of his life in the United States, it wasn’t quite accurate to say that he became an American. In truth, if Anderson had a homeland, it was Indonesia, which he threw his whole heart and mind into not just studying, but also emotionally inhabiting.

Anderson’s linguistic fluency was almost superhuman. Perry Anderson could read all the major European languages but once ruefully declared his big brother was the true polyglot of the family: Benedict could read Dutch, German, Spanish, Russian, and French and was fully conversant in Indonesian, Javanese, Tagalog, and Thai; he claimed he often thought in Indonesian. (The ability to acquire languages ran in the family—Melanie Anderson, an anthropologist and the younger sister of Perry and Benedict, is fluent in Albanian, Greek, Serbo-Croatian).

An Indonesian friend of mine once marveled that Benedict Anderson was so at ease in Javanese that he could tell jokes in the language. The friend also favorably compared Anderson with another great expert on Indonesia, the anthropologist Clifford Geertz. “I always profit from reading Geertz but he simply deepens my understanding of Indonesia,” my friend said. “Anderson makes me see things about Indonesia that I never noticed. He knows Indonesia as well as any Indonesian.”

Between 1965 and 1966, Indonesia was engulfed in counter-revolutionary violence that led to the American-supported anti-Communist dictator Suharto taking power in 1967. Between 600,000 and one million Indonesians, most of them supporters of the nation’s largest communist party, were killed by the resulting purge. The Central Intelligence Agency, which actively participated in helping the Indonesian military choose targets, called it in a 1968 declassified study “one of the worst mass murders of the twentieth century.”

The violence of Suharto’s coup was a key turning point in Anderson’s life. It “felt like discovering that a loved one is a murderer,” he wrote. He threw himself into the cause of chronicling the true history of the coup and to countering the propaganda of the Suharto regime. While at Cornell in 1966, Anderson and his colleagues anonymously authored “The Cornell Paper,” a report which became a key document in debunking the official account of the coup, and which was circulated widely in Indonesian dissident circles. Anderson was also one of the only two foreign witnesses at the 1971 show trial of Sudisman, the general secretary of the Indonesian communist party, who was sentenced to death. Anderson would later translate and publish Sudisman’s testimony, another key text in Indonesian history.

In 1972, Anderson was expelled from Indonesia, becoming an exile from the nation he made his own. He would return to Indonesia only in 1998, after the overthrow of the Suharto regime. After a brief private visit to friends, Anderson had an emotionally charged public event sponsored by the leading Indonesian paper Tempo."
benedictanderson  indonesia  jeetheer  2015  anthropology 
december 2015 by robertogreco
Martin Roemers - Metropolis | LensCulture
"Dutch photographer Martin Roemers won the 1st prize in the LensCulture Street Photography Awards 2015 for his series, Metropolis, which documents street life in "mega-cities", defined as urban areas that are home to more than 10 million inhabitants. Here we present an extended slideshow of this project, as well as an interview with the photographer."

[via: http://globalvoices.tumblr.com/post/133898896954/archatlas-metropolis-martin-roemers ]
martinroemers  photography  streetphotography  2015  cities  urban  urbanism  global  kolkata  lagos  pakistan  bangladesh  cairo  nigeria  egypt  karachi  dhaka  mumbai  india  guangzhou  china  istanbul  turkey  jakarta  indonesia  buenosaires  argentina  manila  philippines  basil  brazil  riodejaneiro  mexicocity  mexicodf  mexico  nyc  sãopaulo  london  tokyo  japan  df 
november 2015 by robertogreco
Economists tested 7 welfare programs to see if they made people lazy. They didn't. - Vox
"All of the above evidence concerns the developing world. But it's worth being skeptical about welfare queen claims in rich countries as well. For one thing, the biggest program the US currently runs for prime-age poor adults is the earned income tax credit. There's a substantial body of evidence showing that the EITC encourages work, usually by pulling single parents into the workforce. That lets it have an anti-poverty impact beyond the actual cash that the tax credit provides to families.

But even unrestricted cash programs aren't likely to have a major effect on work in rich countries. A number of studies in the US in the 1970s examined "negative income tax" programs, where a set sample of poor households received cash grants whose size shrunk as the households earned more money through their jobs. The studies found very mild declines in work, largely due to people taking longer to find a good job while unemployed and spending longer in school. Even those estimates were exaggerated by participants underreporting the amount of work they were doing, perhaps to get bigger checks; when researchers examined administrative data, rather than survey responses, they found barely any effect on work at all.

A much better experiment in Canada, where an entire town got a guaranteed income by way of a negative income tax, found even milder reductions in work, and then only with new mothers (who spent longer at home with their newborns) and teenagers.

There's no doubt that poorly designed social programs can deter work. Aid to Families With Dependent Children, the pre–welfare reform welfare program, was found to decrease hours worked by 10 to 50 percent among recipients; that likely has something to do with the fact that AFDC benefits were taken away at a rate of 100 percent, so every dollar earned on the job was a dollar not received from AFDC. Who would work under that condition?

But most welfare programs are better than AFDC. Whether they're in the US or in developing countries, they don't tend to keep people from working."
welfare  labor  economics  2015  behavior  honduras  indonesia  mexico  morocco  philippines  nicaragua  universalbasicincome  canada  afdc  ubi 
november 2015 by robertogreco
James & Other Apes
"While watching a nature program on primates I was struck by their facial similarity to our own. Humans are clearly different to animals, but the great apes inhabit that grey area between man and animal. I thought it would be interesting to try to photograph gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos and orangutans using the aesthetic of the passport photograph- its ubiquitous style inferring the idea of identity.

I decided against photographing in zoos or using ‘animal actors’ but traveled to Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo and Indonesia to meet orphans of the bush meat trade and live pet trade."
animals  apes  gorillas  chimpanzees  bonobos  orangutans  jamesmollison  portraits  faces  photography  identity  multispecies  congo  indonesia  drc  cameroon 
may 2015 by robertogreco
The Look of Silence
"The Look of Silence is Joshua Oppenheimer’s powerful companion piece to the Oscar®-nominated The Act of Killing.

Through Oppenheimer’s footage of perpetrators of the 1965 Indonesian genocide, a family of survivors discovers how their son was murdered, as well as the identities of the killers. The documentary focuses on the youngest son, an optometrist named Adi, who decides to break the suffocating spell of submission and terror by doing something unimaginable in a society where the murderers remain in power: he confronts the men who killed his brother and, while testing their eyesight, asks them to accept responsibility for their actions. This unprecedented film initiates and bears witness to the collapse of fifty years of silence."
film  towatch  joshuaoppenheimer  theactifkilling  thelookofsilence  indonesia  genocide  silence  history  documentary 
may 2015 by robertogreco
The reality | Music for Deckchairs
"Here’s a story that ought to be filling us all with hope: a big tale of resilience, creativity, cooperation and opportunity, driven by a remarkable and gifted Australian. Look at him here: he is young, and healthy, and doing so much good. He has time left. If I was his mother watching this, I’d be awash with pride at what he’s achieved."

[video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aAP2xWlEfNU ]

"But his reality is this: that right at this minute plans are being made for him to be taken to a field, tied to a post and shot. Let’s not mince words, this is what we mean by “death penalty” and “firing squad”, and anyone who is still championing this as a just outcome needs to look much more closely at the violence in the details. There is nothing at all separating this killing from that of Kenji Goto, and the only whisper of daylight between this and the shooting of Kajieme Powell is the premeditation, the forced contemplation of what’s to come. Nothing at all distinguishes what his mother will feel when his body is returned, from the grief of Junko Ishido.

None of us are going to live for ever, and this is why mortality really is inseparable from love. We all wonder how, when, in what condition we’ll end our turn; we wonder who will be with us, and how they will get up and carry on without us when we stop. Atul Gawande’s Being Mortal, an intensely personal discussion of what happens to individuals and their families at the end of life, suggests that this is why humans really cannot bear the idea of dying. So we go on suffering because we don’t know how to accept that what’s around the next bend—the next birthday, the next family wedding—isn’t going to be part of our life time. The weather will continue, the buildings will stay up and the clocks won’t stop; it’s just that we won’t be here to see it, and people we love will have to go on without us.

Gawande and many others are now arguing that it’s vital to good healthcare that we learn to make peace with human dying, and let that direct us towards living while we’re here in a way that reflects our values. This isn’t a simple thing: it takes time to untangle our own values and beliefs from those of our community and the cultures that shape us. It’s easy to get taken up with the things that seem to matter to others, the achievements that are celebrated, the stuff that is envied. But in the end we all have a fairly strong sense of what we each really care about—what we would go on doing if it was the last day of our lives.

UK palliative care specialist and cancer patient Kate Granger, for example, has taught me a great deal about what it means to value work, and to fight to continue working while thinking that this might be the last year for doing anything at all. Lisa Bonchek Adams advocates tirelessly for the right of patients with metastatic breast cancer to have their condition recognised as a disease stage that can be lived with, and in so doing she continues to love and care for her children, her family and friends. Both have made hard personal choices to continue in treatment, and to do this in public, because this is what enables them to go on living with purpose.

This is Gawande’s point: we each approach the question of what it would take to live the best possible day today on our own terms, whatever the constraints we’re facing. This isn’t just a question for people who are sick; the best possible day is a wish we can all offer each other, for the simple reason that we’re all mortal too. And this really should be the basis for how we treat each other, how we value each other’s time, and how we react to the knowledge that someone is facing their death. This isn’t just about ethics in institutional or constitutional decision-making, or state sovereignty: we stop in our tracks for death, and we try to bring every possible resource of care and hope to the end of someone’s life, because one day that’s exactly how it will be for each of us.

"How people die and how we participate in their deaths is as much about us as about them. Our own humanity is at stake."
– Eric Manheimer, MD, Twelve Patients

And so I can’t make peace with this dying at all. I wander round the house thinking about him, and I know that thousands of us are doing exactly the same, right at this moment. Those close to him have said goodbye and look exhausted with grief. I can’t imagine their pain.

Execution strips all possibility of dignity or care from the event of dying, which is why it’s used wherever the aim is to brutalise and terrify. The aim isn’t simply to end life, but to cause its end to be a spectacle, and to force the whole world to contemplate the violence and abjection of life being ended in this way. Kenji Goto’s mother, pleading for his release, said that she would sacrifice her life for his, and we all knew that this was an unbearable cruelty that she should be made to suffer the knowledge of his death, and her exclusion from it. Nothing is different here.

Myuran Sukumaran is an Australian artist. With persistence and vision he has created a studio and an educational enterprise filled with generosity, and inspired an incredible campaign to try to keep him alive. And at this last minute, he’s still there painting, caring for his family, thinking it all through, making a portrait of himself and the island of Nusakambangan, where prisoners are taken to be shot.

He is one of us, and he is still alive. Don’t disturb him. Let him paint."
balinine  mortality  atulgawande  2015  via:audreywatters  myuransukumaran  crime  punishment  deathpenalty  australia  indonesia  rehabilitation  dignity 
february 2015 by robertogreco
Millions of Facebook users have no idea they’re using the internet - Quartz
"Facebook bosses generally dismiss suggestions that the whole internet.org project might be self-interested. Writing in Time, Lev Grossman was granted access to Mark Zuckerberg when the Facebook CEO went to India to promote internet access. When Grossman asks whether internet.org is self-serving, Zuckerberg allows only that it may, one day, several decades down the line, pay off: “If you do good things for people in the world, then that comes back and you benefit from it over time.”

Dave Wehner, Facebook’s finance chief, is more forthright. “I do think that over the long term, that focusing on helping connect everyone will be a good business opportunity for us.” If Facebook becomes one of the top services in these countries, he explained in a recent earnings call, “then over time we will be compensated for some of the value that we’ve provided.”
That is a fair goal for any profit-seeking company. And besides, isn’t some access better than none at all? John Naughton of the Guardian argues that this is not the case:
This is a pernicious way of framing the argument, and we should resist it. The goal of public policy everywhere should be to increase access to the internet—the whole goddam internet, not some corporate-controlled alcove—for as many people as possible. By condoning zero-rating we will condemn to a lifetime of servitude as one of Master Zuckerberg’s sharecroppers. We can, and should, do better than that.

"Already services are starting to move away from the open web and to Facebook. And it’s happening not just in the poor world, but in poor parts of the developed world, where there also exists a sense among some that using an app isn’t the same as using the internet, which requires a web browser like Safari or Internet Explorer. Salix Homes manages government-owned subsidized housing in some the poorest parts of Salford, a deprived area in the north of England. Salix recently decided to accept complaints and rent payments from its tenants on Facebook."
facebook  internet  culture  mobile  technology  2015  myanmar  burma  indonesia  philippines  thailand  walledgardens  nigeria  internet.org  web  online 
february 2015 by robertogreco
Educ-ação | Uma jornada em busca de inspiração
[Book (in Portuguese) is here: http://educ-acao.com/o-livro/ ]
[See also: http://educ-acao.com/

"Este projeto nasceu de uma motivação coletiva pela busca de modelos inspiradores de educação. Todos fomos e somos impactados profundamente por modelos educacionais desde cedo. Nosso aprendizado formal é um dos grandes responsáveis pelo que “vamos ser”. Quando crianças, nossa vida gira em torno das escolas. Quando jovens, nos deparamos com escolhas de disciplinas que vão delinear nosso futuro. Quando adultos, temos que tomar as mesmas decisões para nossos filhos. Movidos por inquietações ligadas à forma como entendemos educação hoje, um pequeno grupo se uniu em busca de reflexões e aprendizados em torno do assunto.

Foi assim, com estes desafios em mente, que um grupo de provocadores sonhou junto e desenhou um propósito em comum. Foi com um olhar não acadêmico em busca de inspiração que encontramos escolas, espaços de aprendizado, cursos formais e não formais que estão propondo novos formatos. Foi assim que chegamos a diversos modelos mundo afora: na India, na Suécia, na Indonesia, na Espanha, na Inglaterra, nos Estados Unidos… e no Brasil. Por acreditarmos na importância de escutar as experiências de quem está vivendo estes novos modelos, decidimos fazer uma jornada presencial por 13 destes espaços, em diferentes países e continentes. Vamos visitar estes locais, conversar com pessoas que compõem as histórias que dão vida e cor a estas iniciativas de educação.

Se quiser nos apoiar de alguma forma, por favor entre em contato: contato@educ-acao.com

//

This project was born out of a collective motivation to search for inspirational educational models. We are all profoundly impacted by educational models from an early age. Our formal training is largely responsible for the individual we’ll become when “we grow up”. When we are kids, our life revolves around school. When we are young adults, the disciplines we choose will help determine our future. As adults, we have to make these same decisions for our kids. Motivated by questionings related to the way we understand education today, a small group united in search for insights and learnings related to the subject. With this challenges in mind, a group of provocateurs came together, dreamt and designed a common goal.

It was with a non-academic viewpoint that we set out in search for inspiration, and we found schools, learning spaces, formal and informal courses that are proposing new formats. This is how we found diverse new models around the world: in India, Sweden, Indonesia, Spain, England, the US… and in Brazil. Some of these initiatives are still being selected in other countries. Because we believe in the importance of listening to whom is actually experiencing these new models, we decided to personally visit 13 of these spaces, in different countries and continents. We will visit them, talk to the people that are creating these stories and giving life and color to these new educational initiatives.

We believe this journey must be shared with the world, so the book will have a version for free download and will also share its contents through Creative Commons."
books  education  unschooling  alternative  deschooling  schools  northstar  quest2learn  argentina  brasil  brazil  spain  españa  cpcd  amorimlima  politeia  cieja  teamacademy  escuelasexperimentales  schumachercollege  yip  sweden  riversideschool  india  indonesia  greenschool  southafrica  sustainabilityinstitute  international  johnholt  paulofreire  rudolfsteiner  autonomy  openstudioproject  tcsnmy  lcproject 
january 2014 by robertogreco
Facebook provides community for Indonesia's street kids - CSMonitor.com
"Adi Danando is a child-labor activist who has been working with and researching street children for more than three decades. Kids living on the street 24 hours a day are under a lot of pressure, he says. They are excluded and judged, which leads to identity problems. Many don't have birth certificates, which are required to enroll in school, so on paper they don't actually exist.

"Facebook provides these kids with a sort of identity, which gives them a sense of pride and belonging," Mr. Danando says.

The social-networking site also allows them to communicate with people from different backgrounds. And games can teach them business skills like negotiating and idea sharing."
facebook  youth  teens  indonesia  identity  learning  informallearning  informal  language  unschooling  deschooling  holeinthewall  lcproject  socialnetworking  inclusion  exclusion  inclusivity  inlcusivity  from delicious
december 2010 by robertogreco
Green School - Bali, Indonesia | Linking Learning to Life
"Green School students are exceptionally curious, engaged, and passionate about their education. Our dedicated teachers, challenging curriculum, and inspirational learning environment enable every child to succeed and become leaders of their generation."
bali  schools  schooldesign  lcproject  sustainability  entrepreneurship  education  indonesia  innovation  environment  green  international 
july 2008 by robertogreco

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