porejide + neuroscience   439

Theodor Meynert - Wikipedia
> "The reader will find no other definition of 'Psychiatry' in this book but the one given on the title page: Clinical Treatise on Diseases of the Forebrain. The historical term for psychiatry, i.e., 'treatment of the soul,' implies more than we can accomplish, and transcends the bounds of accurate scientific investigation."[3]
psychiatry  neuroscience  history 
19 days ago by porejide
How to map the brain
> Meanwhile, Lichtman is working on the zebrafish (Danio rerio) connectome, as well as analysing a small piece of the human brain — a sample of the medial temporal gyrus obtained from a person who was undergoing brain surgery for epilepsy. That piece is also roughly one cubic millimetre in volume, but to capture the full thickness of the human cortex, the sample is shaped like a slab, rather than a cube. ... But advances in microscopy, as well as the development of more powerful computers and algorithms for image analysis, have propelled the field of connectomics forwards at a pace that has surprised even those involved. “Five years ago, it felt overly ambitious to be thinking about a cubic millimetre,” Reid says. Many researchers now think that mapping the entire mouse brain — about 500 cubic millimetres in volume — might be possible in the next decade. And doing so for the much larger human brain is becoming a legitimate long-term goal. “Today, mapping the human brain at the synaptic level might seem inconceivable. But if steady progress continues, in both computational capabilities and scientific techniques, another factor of 1,000 is not out of the question.”
connectomics  2019  neuroscience  microscopy 
28 days ago by porejide
Obesity remodels activity and transcriptional state of a lateral hypothalamic brake on feeding | Science
> Until now, obesity’s effects on the [lateral hypothalamus] have been unclear. We hypothesize that the excitatory LHAVglut2 signal represents the activation of a brake on feeding to suppress further food intake. Here, we demonstrate that LHAVglut2 neurons are sensitive to satiety state: when motivation for food is low, they are more excitable than when motivation is high. Chronic [high fat diet] modification within LHAVglut2 cells ultimately hinders their neuronal activity, thereby weakening an endogenous attenuator of feeding to promote overeating and obesity.
obesity  neuroscience  reward  hypothalamus  high_fat  diet 
7 weeks ago by porejide
Oxytocin-dependent reopening of a social reward learning critical period with MDMA | Nature
> we show that a single dose of (+/−)-3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) reopens the critical period for social reward learning and leads to a metaplastic upregulation of oxytocin-dependent long-term depression. MDMA-induced reopening of this critical period requires activation of oxytocin receptors in the nucleus accumbens, and is recapitulated by stimulation of oxytocin terminals in the nucleus accumbens. These findings have important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental diseases that are characterized by social impairments and of disorders that respond to social influence or are the result of social injury3.
MDMA  oxytocin  circuitry  neuroscience 
april 2019 by porejide
Pat McGeer - Wikipedia
This neuroscientist started a company in his mid 80s.
neuroscience  entrepreneurship  biotech 
april 2019 by porejide
After ghoulish allegations, a brain-preservation company seeks redemption - STAT
> He continues his pitch on the ride home. After McIntyre dashes into his apartment building, the Uber driver considers whether he would give his brain to a company that would preserve all his memories even with no promise that they could ever be read out or uploaded. “Sure, why not?” he said. “Even a small chance is better than definitely dead and gone forever, right?”
nectome  robert_mcintyre  memory  neuroscience  glutaraldehyde 
february 2019 by porejide
Synaptotagmin-3 drives AMPA receptor endocytosis, depression of synapse strength, and forgetting | Science
> Forgetting is important. Without it, the relative importance of acquired memories in a changing environment is lost. We discovered that synaptotagmin-3 (Syt3) localizes to postsynaptic endocytic zones and removes AMPA receptors from synaptic plasma membranes in response to stimulation. AMPA receptor internalization, long-term depression (LTD), and decay of long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength required calcium-sensing by Syt3 and were abolished through Syt3 knockout. In spatial memory tasks, mice in which Syt3 was knocked out learned normally but exhibited a lack of forgetting
neuroscience  memory  forgetting  synapse  AMPA 
january 2019 by porejide
Corpus Colossal: A Bibliometric Analysis of Neuroscience Abstracts and Impact Factor | bioRxiv
> Approximately 50,000 neuroscience abstracts were analyzed over the years 2014-2018. Several broad trends emerged from the analysis of which terms were biased towards high-impact journals. Generally speaking, high-impact journals tended to feature: genetic or psychiatric studies, use of the latest and most sophisticated methods, examinations of the orbitofrontal cortex or amygdala, and/or use of human or non-mammalian subjects. Medium-impact journals tended to feature motor or cardiovascular studies, use of older methods, examinations of caudal brain regions, and/or rats as subjects
neuroscience  publishing 
january 2019 by porejide
Does ECT alter brain structure? - PubMed - NCBI
> In animal ECS studies that used a stimulus intensity and frequency comparable to human ECT, no neuronal loss was seen when appropriate control animals, blind ratings, and perfusion fixation techniques were employed. Controlled studies using quantitative cell counts have failed to show neuronal loss even after prolonged courses of ECS. Several well-controlled studies have demonstrated that neuronal loss occurs only after 1.5 to 2 hours of continuous seizure activity in primates, and adequate muscle paralysis and oxygenation further delay these changes. These conditions are not approached during ECT. Other findings indicate that the passage of electricity, thermal effects, and the transient disruption of the blood-brain barrier during ECS do not result in structural brain damage.

CONCLUSIONS:
There is no credible evidence that ECT causes structural brain damage.
ECT  psychiatry  neuroscience 
december 2018 by porejide
Large and fast human pyramidal neurons associate with intelligence | bioRxiv
> Finally, we find that human pyramidal neurons of individuals with higher IQ scores sustain faster action potentials during repeated firing. These findings provide first evidence that human intelligence is associated with neuronal complexity, action potential speed and efficient information transfer in cortical neurons.
intelligence  neuroscience  speed_accuracy 
december 2018 by porejide
Really fascinating to see : neuro
> The entire timelapse spans 16 hours, and you can see sensory neurons send their branches out from the spinal cord across the entire fish, keeping their cell bodies in the same place. These will allow the fish to sense touch. Most of the cells of this fish’s body are invisible, so you can imagine these branches squeezing their way through tens of thousands of cells to reach their targets.
neuroscience  zebrafish  video  development 
october 2018 by porejide
Transhumanism: A Secular Sandbox for Exploring the Afterlife? - Science Not Fiction : Science Not Fiction
> Worth noticing amidst the rancor is a recent result by friend and colleague Konrad Kording, who just showed that the number of neurons that we can simultaneously record from is following Moore’s Law. Not long ago, we were limited to recording the activity of a single brain cell at a time; more recently, we can record from several hundred at once. When you examine the trend over 56 different studies, Kording and his student showed that the number is doubling every seven years. Although this is a longer interval than Moore’s Law (two year doublings), what’s really important is that the growth is exponential. Exponential growth lies at the heart of the arguments for the nearness of the Singularity. Given Kording’s result, however, how long do you think it will be before we can record from every neuron in the brain at once? You might be surprised: even with this incredible exponential growth, it will take 220 years.
konrad_kording  moores_law  neuroscience 
october 2018 by porejide
Treating The Prodrome | Slate Star Codex
> This theory fits the “duration of untreated psychosis” model very well. The longer you’re psychotic, with weird prediction errors popping up everywhere, the more thoroughly your brain is going to shift from its normal mode of evidence-processing to whatever mode of evidence-processing best suits receiving lots of random data. If you start antipsychotics as soon as the prediction errors start, you’ll have a few weird thoughts about how a buzzing fly might have been a sign from God, but then the weirdness will stop and you’ll end up okay. If you start antipsychotics after ten years of this kind of stuff, your brain will already have concluded that the world only makes sense in the context of a magic-wielding conspiracy plus also normal logic doesn’t work, and the sudden cessation of new weirdness won’t change that.
schizophrenia  prodrome  plasticity  neuroscience  scott_alexander 
september 2018 by porejide
Amazon.com: Customer reviews: The Perspectives of Psychiatry
> The heart of the problem is that The Perspectives attempts to address the real issues of psychiatry with the over-valued ideas of an inpatient psychiatric philosopher having written 100 year ago without the benefit of today's neuroscience, understandings of computational science, information theory, complex system's theory, or even the full impact of an understanding of evolution and adaptation. And so the book, intended as a complaint or an alternative approach to viewing patients than that offered by the categorizations of the DSM, fails to actually address certain central dichotomies and nebulous clinical diagnostics. Other troublesome issues for the underpinnings of psychiatry, such as free will or the mind-brain relationship are also not addressed. Yet, there is an available neuroscience literature to help reflect the relevance of these persistent questions for budding psychiatrist attempting to develop a more thoughtful approach to a deeper understanding of psychophenomenology. And it is not in this book! At least 4 other books, all written by individuals working directly for P. McHugh, intend to extend his "perspectives" model . However, none of them ever respond to the significant conflicts on which psychiatry's progress has been blocked.
psychiatry  neuroscience 
september 2018 by porejide
Amazon.com: Brainwashed: The Seductive Appeal of Mindless Neuroscience (2015465062911): Sally Satel, Scott O. Lilienfeld: Books
> On the plus side, this book is a lucid critique of how neural imaging has been abused within recent science. Neural images are representations, not descriptions of what is going on in the brain; even worse, they show areas of oxygenation, which can indicate places in the brain that are activating or suppressing neural connections. The fMRI is indeed in the hands of charlatans a neo-phrenology. On the negative side, the cold water is more often than not somewhat obvious, and it is only the hyperbolic enthusiasm surrounding fMRIs that makes such a corrective seem like such a breath of fresh air. Who really believes activity in region A means that the person prefers one candidate over another or that I love my iPhone?: oxygenation is a long ways away from the content of a thought or feeling. Ruth Leys has performed a much more powerful critique of the work of Benjamin Libet; see her "The Turn to Affect: A Critique."
neuroscience  book_review 
july 2018 by porejide
Prefrontal cortex as a meta-reinforcement learning system | Nature Neuroscience
Hypothesis: > the dopamine system trains another part of the brain, the prefrontal cortex, to operate as its own free-standing learning system. This new perspective accommodates the findings that motivated the standard model, but also deals gracefully with a wider range of observations, providing a fresh foundation for future research
PFC  neuroscience  meta_learning  dopamine 
june 2018 by porejide
Closed-loop stimulation of temporal cortex rescues functional networks and improves memory | Nature Communications
> "In a proof-of-concept study, researchers used direct brain stimulation to improve memory performance in epilepsy patients. Electrodes implanted to block seizures were instead used to stimulate the lateral temporal cortex to help encode memory. When the devices were switched on, participants saw a 15% boost in memory performance without adverse effects or knowledge that the device was in use. The authors are hopeful that the technique can be adapted to a non-invasive approach."
memory  neuroscience  neurosurgery 
february 2018 by porejide
Convergent evolution of bilaterian nerve cords | Nature
> Here we study representatives of Xenacoelomorpha, Rotifera, Nemertea, Brachiopoda, and Annelida to assess the conservation of the dorsoventral nerve cord patterning. None of the studied species show a conserved dorsoventral molecular regionalization of their nerve cords, not even the annelid Owenia fusiformis, whose trunk neuroanatomy parallels that of vertebrates and flies. Our findings restrict the use of molecular patterns to explain nervous system evolution, and suggest that the similarities in dorsoventral patterning and trunk neuroanatomies evolved independently in Bilateria.
neuroscience  evolution  nerves 
december 2017 by porejide
Amia Srinivasan reviews ‘Other Minds’ by Peter Godfrey-Smith and ‘The Soul of an Octopus’ by Sy Montgomery · LRB 7 September 2017
> Octopuses encountering divers in the wild will frequently meet them with a probing arm or two, and sometimes lead them by the hand on a tour of the neighbourhood. Aristotle, mistaking curiosity for a lack of intelligence, called the octopus a ‘stupid creature’ because of its willingness to approach an extended human hand. Octopuses can recognise individual humans, and will respond differently to different people, greeting some with a caress of the arms, spraying others with their siphons. This is striking behaviour in an animal whose natural life cycle is deeply antisocial. Octopuses live solitary lives in single dens and die soon after their young hatch. Many male octopuses, to avoid being eaten during mating, will keep their bodies as far removed from the female as possible, extending a single arm with a sperm packet towards her siphon, a manoeuvre known as ‘the reach’.
octopus  neuroscience  consciousness 
december 2017 by porejide
Minimally Invasive “Stentrode” Shows Potential as Neural Interface for Brain
> Whereas traditional electrode arrays are implanted into the brain through a surgical procedure that requires opening the skull, the stentrode is delivered via catheter angiography, a much lower-risk procedure. The catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the neck. Researchers then use real-time imaging to guide the stentrode to a precise location in the brain, where the stentrode then expands and attaches to the walls of the blood vessel to read the activity of nearby neurons. The stentrode technology leverages well-established techniques from the field of endovascular surgery, which uses blood vessels as portals for accessing deep structures while greatly reducing trauma associated with open surgery. Endovascular techniques are routinely used for surgical repair of damaged blood vessels and for installation of devices such as stents and stimulation electrodes for cardiac pacemakers.
electrode  neurology  endovascular  neuroscience 
december 2017 by porejide
Non-homeostatic body weight regulation through a brainstem-restricted receptor for GDF15 : Nature : Nature Research
> GDF15 regulates food intake, energy expenditure and body weight in response to metabolic and toxin-induced stresses; we show that Gfral knockout mice are hyperphagic under stressed conditions and are resistant to chemotherapy-induced anorexia and body weight loss. GDF15 activates GFRAL-expressing neurons localized exclusively in the area postrema and nucleus tractus solitarius of the mouse brainstem. It then triggers the activation of neurons localized within the parabrachial nucleus and central amygdala, which constitute part of the ‘emergency circuit’ that shapes feeding responses to stressful conditions7. GDF15 levels increase in response to tissue stress and injury, and elevated levels are associated with body weight loss in numerous chronic human diseases
GDF15  weight_loss  hypothalamus  neuroscience 
september 2017 by porejide
BBC - Future - How flying seriously messes with your mind
Didn't realize this was such a thing. > Physicist and television presenter Brian Cox and musician Ed Sheeran have both admitted they can get a bit over-emotional when watching movies on aircraft. A new survey by Gatwick Airport in London found 15% of men and 6% of women said they were more likely to cry when watching a film on a flight than they would if seeing it at home... The boredom on a flight and relief given by an inflight movie, combined with the privacy of the small screen and headphones used to watch one, could lead to tears of joy, not sadness, he says.
crying  psychology  neuroscience  movies  airplanes  gender 
september 2017 by porejide
Noninvasive Deep Brain Stimulation via Temporally Interfering Electric Fields: Cell
Potentially game-changing neuroscience study, showing that you might be able to have the same effects of deep brain stimulation without neurosurgery, by modulating the frequency of transcranial electrical field stimulation.
DBS  neuroscience  electricity 
september 2017 by porejide
Long Live the Microglia! Studies Trace Their Lifespans in Mice and Humans | ALZFORUM
> In another study published in Cell Reports on July 25, researchers led by Jonas Frisén of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm leveraged traces of carbon-14 left over from atomic bombs to estimate the lifespan of microglia in the human brain. They reported that human microglia live for an average 4.2 years, and that nearly a third of the cells are replenished annually.
microglia  neuroscience 
august 2017 by porejide
Rapid binge-like eating and body weight gain driven by zona incerta GABA neuron activation | Science
> Patients receiving deep brain stimulation of the subthalamus, including the zona incerta (ZI), for the treatment of movement disorders can exhibit characteristics of binge eating (1–3), a common eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of consuming large quantities of food, particularly highly palatable food (4, 5). ...Laser stimulation (20 Hz) above the PVT of ChIEF-tdTomato mice significantly inhibited normal, sweet, and high-fat food intake during 1-hour tests (Fig. 4D and fig. S8B). The mean latency for mice to stop eating was 6.1 ± 2.0 s after the laser (20 Hz) was turned on
weight  appetite  neuroscience  optogenetics  zona_incerta 
june 2017 by porejide
Short and long term memory: For half a century, neuroscientists thought they knew how memory worked. They were wrong — Quartz
> Short-term memory, Cleeremans says, allows you to find the specific street and space where you parked the car that day. But long-term memory accumulates all these individual instances into a broad set of data, so you know the streets where you’re most likely to find a parking space and enables you to develop a great car-parking strategy.
memory  hippocampus  pfc  neuroscience 
may 2017 by porejide
The genetic basis of parental care evolution in monogamous mice : Nature : Nature Research
> Together, our results indicate that variation in an ancient neuropeptide contributes to interspecific differences in parental care.
genetics  parenting  psychology  neuroscience 
april 2017 by porejide
Evolution: Diet drives primate brain size : Nature : Nature Research
> The primates that ate fruit had significantly larger brains than those that ate just leaves; and the more fruit they ate, the larger was the ratio of their brain size to their body size. The authors think this could be due to a combination of factors — one being the high nutritional content of fruit, another being cognitive adaptations that help the primates to forage for fruit. Such adaptations could allow them, for example, to extract fruit from protective skins. The team also found no correlation between brain size and the level of social complexity. This contradicts a widely accepted theory that states that large brains evolved to help primates manage large social networks.
diet  brain  neuroscience  evolution 
march 2017 by porejide
Mapping of a non-spatial dimension by the hippocampal–entorhinal circuit : Nature : Nature Research
Pretty cool neuroscience. > The relationship between this general function and the specialized spatial activity patterns is unclear. A conceptual framework reconciling these views is that spatial representation is just one example of a more general mechanism for encoding continuous, task-relevant variables. Here we tested this idea by recording from hippocampal and entorhinal neurons during a task that required rats to use a joystick to manipulate sound along a continuous frequency axis. We found neural representation of the entire behavioural task, including activity that formed discrete firing fields at particular sound frequencies. Neurons involved in this representation overlapped with the known spatial cell types in the circuit, such as place cells and grid cells. These results suggest that common circuit mechanisms in the hippocampal–entorhinal system are used to represent diverse behavioural tasks, possibly supporting cognitive processes beyond spatial navigation.
hippocampus  neuroscience 
march 2017 by porejide
Peter Mansfield (1933-2017) : Nature : Nature Research
> Millions of people have benefited from an insight that Peter Mansfield had in 1972, which led to the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A classically trained physicist, Mansfield realized he could exploit the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to create cross-sectional images of living tissue. The safe and non-invasive technique he developed images soft tissue and organs in a 'slice' of an organism in spectacular detail, revolutionizing medical diagnosis and changing how the human brain is studied.
obituary  neuroscience  history  science  mri 
march 2017 by porejide
Reactivation of latent working memories with transcranial magnetic stimulation | Science
> Using multivariate pattern analyses to decode brain activity patterns, we found that the active representation of an item in working memory drops to baseline when attention shifts away. A targeted pulse of transcranial magnetic stimulation produced a brief reemergence of the item in concurrently measured brain activity. This reactivation effect occurred and influenced memory performance only when the item was potentially relevant later in the trial, which suggests that the representation is dynamic and modifiable via cognitive control.
neuroscience  memory  TMS 
december 2016 by porejide
The intelligent invertebrate | Science
> The two evolutionary experiments started about 600 million years ago, with the branching of invertebrates and vertebrates. Neurons probably evolved earlier, 700 to 800 million years ago. The last common ancestor that we share with cephalopods was likely a bilaterian, a creature with left and right sides, as well as a top and bottom (or front and back). After the split, our bodies and brains evolved in very different ways, ultimately achieving both remarkably similar and very different functions.

Cephalopods do more than offer a contrasting case of cognitive evolution; they challenge the way we conceptualize the mind. Take, for instance, the division between peripheral nervous system and brain or between body and mind. The nervous system of octopi consists of autonomous local control of the creature's limbs, with simultaneous direction from central brain structures. “For an octopus, its arms are partly self—they can be directed and used to manipulate things,”
octopus  consciousness  neuroscience 
december 2016 by porejide
Extensive migration of young neurons into the infant human frontal lobe | Science
New form of adult neurogenesis discovered > A large collection of cells express­ing doublecortin (DCX), a marker of young migrating neurons, traveled and integrated within the infant frontal lobe. This migratory stream, which was most prominent during the first 2 months after birth and persisted until at least 5 months, formed a caplike structure surround­ing the anterior body of the lateral ventricle. We refer to this population of young neurons as the Arc
neurogenesis  neuroscience 
october 2016 by porejide
A cross-modal genetic framework for the development and plasticity of sensory pathways : Nature : Nature Research
> the transcriptional homologies identified here may relate to synaesthesia and to the ability of sensory pathways to extensively rewire across modalities following lesions at early developmental stages25. The input-dependent genetic logic for sensory circuit construction presented here thus provides a unifying mechanism for the evolutionary emergence and cross-modal plasticity of sensory pathways.
sensory  neuroscience 
september 2016 by porejide
Cool by neuronal decision | Science
Apparently people have found the channel inside the preoptic area that regulates body temperature. > Inside the well-protected and well-ventilated human skull, the temperature of a few hundred thousand neurons can deviate by several degrees centigrade from that of the surrounding 100 billion or so cells. These cells constitute around 15% of the neurons in the brain's preoptic area (POA) and can change their firing rate dramatically upon a 1° to 3°C change in local temperature (1). Astoundingly, this change in activity can alter the body's core temperature. Cellular and molecular details of the warm and cold sensitivity of these neurons are not well understood. Although the induction of fever has been well studied, the mechanisms that terminate fever are not yet clear. On page 1393 of this issue, Song et al. (2) report that a transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel (3, 4) is key to the function of these neurons in thermoregulation, particularly in response to fever.
hypothalamus  neuroscience  temperature 
september 2016 by porejide
ElMindA - Visualizing your brain – revolutionizing treatment.
> Post-hoc statistical analysis of EEG/ERP data enables physicians to determine if the brain reacts to a task in a way that is similar to the reaction of the average normal brain.  If dis-similar, how far is it from the normal reaction?  This is an independent layer of objective information that can be used by physicians to gain additional clarity on brain processes.
eeg  neuroscience  brain_interface 
september 2016 by porejide
Lighting the Brain - The New Yorker
> He remains a preternaturally fast and retentive reader. At a recent conference, he attended a talk by David and Nic Sheff, the father-and-son authors of the addiction memoirs “Beautiful Boy” and “Tweak.” In the course of an hour, while listening to the two men, Deisseroth read both books in their entirety. He does not use the standard techniques of speed-reading but, instead, sees printed pages “in blocks,” he says, and instantly “fills in gaps.” Colleagues suggest that this ability helped Deisseroth to acquire the wide-ranging knowledge necessary for the development of optogenetics, which required a working familiarity with virology, optics, animal behavior, genetics, 3-D imaging, microbiology, materials science, and chemistry.
karl_deisseroth  hero  reading  neuroscience  optogenetics  nerd_interest 
september 2016 by porejide
Cilia-based flow network in the brain ventricles | Science
Turns out CSF flow in ventricles is actually pretty non-linear, and this is based on which direction cilia (little rod-like objects outside of cells) beat.
ventricles  neuroscience  csf 
july 2016 by porejide
Predominant left hemisphere metabolic dysfunction in dementia. - PubMed - NCBI
Left hemisphere changes may be larger in AD. > A significantly greater number of individuals in both patient groups exhibited predominant left rather than right hemisphere hypometabolism. In addition, for patients with Alzheimer's disease, the degree of asymmetry was not related to either the severity or duration of dementia. These findings could be explained by greater susceptibility of the left hemisphere to degenerative or ischemic brain disease, by a specific sampling effect, or most likely, by greater metabolic deficits resulting from left rather than right hemisphere impairment.
hemisphere  alzheimers  neuroscience 
july 2016 by porejide
The role of the anterior commissure in callosal agenesis. - PubMed - NCBI
> M.M., whose anterior commissure was within normal limits, was much worse at matching colors and letters between visual fields than within visual fields, whereas J.P., whose anterior commissure was greatly enlarged, showed no evidence of interhemispheric disconnection. This suggests that in some cases of callosal agenesis, probably a minority, an enlarged anterior commissure may compensate for the lack of the corpus callosum
neuroscience  corpus_callosum 
july 2016 by porejide
viennabound comments on Help finding studies using electrophysiological recordings (LFP) from many sites in the brain
> There's only so much space on a rodent's skull, and the device needed to accurately control the depth and placement of electrodes, as well as connectors for the wiring, are large relative to a rodent skull. Thus it is technically difficult to implant multiple electrodes across multiple brain structures.
neuroscience 
july 2016 by porejide
Nervana - can headphones really stimulate Vagus & increase dopamine, serotonin and oxytocin? | Student Doctor Network
> The lay public likes to think of neurotransmitters as good or bad. Chocolate makes you release dopamine! Chocolate = good, therefore dopamine = good! Let's all release more dopamine with these earbuds! In reality, it's the relative distribution of these neurotransmitters resulting from discontinuously firing neurons in positively and negatively influenced neural circuits, all interacting in different areas of the brain, that modulate complex phenotypes like mood and attention. But the emphasis is on modulation, not inducement. You might be able to help yourself achieve a trance-like state by sitting in a quiet room and chanting "Om" to yourself. But shouting "Om" while you're riding a rollercoaster doesn't result in trance. Based on actual science*, vagal nerve stimulation seems to have the biggest neurotransmitter effects on norepinephrine in the prefrontal cortex.
neurotransmitter  typhoonegator  vagus  neuroscience  music 
june 2016 by porejide
Whole exome sequencing in patients with white matter abnormalities - Vanderver - 2016 - Annals of Neurology - Wiley Online Library
> Using an intention to treat analysis,[33] and if the combined initial cohort of 191 families is considered in which 101 families achieved a diagnosis through standard approaches, the use of the WES approach would result in an ∼20% diagnostic increase. This yields an overall rate of diagnosis of ∼73% for the combination of standard and WES approaches. Clinical integration of WES (or whole genome sequencing), therefore, may decrease the number of patients with unsolved genetic white matter disorders from 50% to <30%. Taking into consideration the clinical and psychosocial costs of prolonged diagnostic odysseys in these families, this is substantial.
myelin  genetics  neuroscience 
june 2016 by porejide
Could a neuroscientist understand a microprocessor? | bioRxiv
> We also want to suggest that it may be an important intermediate step for neuroscience to develop methods that allow understanding a processor. Because they can be simulated in any computer and arbitrarily perturbed, they are a great testbed to ask how useful the methods are that we are using in neuroscience on a daily basis. Scientific fields often work well in situations where we can measure how well a project is doing. In the case of processors we know their function and we can know if our algorithms discover it. Unless our methods can deal with a simple processor, how could we expect it to work on our own brain?
neuroscience  comput 
may 2016 by porejide
Progranulin Deficiency Promotes Circuit-Specific Synaptic Pruning by Microglia via Complement Activation. - PubMed - NCBI
> Here, we use transcriptome profiling to demonstrate that deficiency in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) gene progranulin (Grn) leads to an age-dependent, progressive upregulation of lysosomal and innate immunity genes, increased complement production, and enhanced synaptic pruning in microglia. During aging, Grn(-/-) mice show profound microglia infiltration and preferential elimination of inhibitory synapses in the ventral thalamus, which lead to hyperexcitability in the thalamocortical circuits and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like grooming behaviors.
progranulin  FTD  microglia  neuroscience 
april 2016 by porejide
Natural speech reveals the semantic maps that tile human cerebral cortex : Nature : Nature Publishing Group
> This visualization suggests that semantic information is represented in intricate patterns that cover the semantic system, including broad regions of the prefrontal cortex, LTC and MTC, and LPC and MPC. Furthermore, these patterns appear to be relatively consistent across individuals
fMRI  neuroscience  speech 
april 2016 by porejide
Night Watch in One Brain Hemisphere during Sleep Associated with the First-Night Effect in Humans: Current Biology
> Next, we found that enhanced vigilance in the left hemisphere resulted in more arousals. An arousal is defined as an abrupt and short shift of electroencephalogram (EEG) frequency [17]. We counted how often arousals occurred per minute following a deviant sound during slow-wave sleep. Arousals occurred more frequently on day 1 than day 2 (Figure 3A).
neuroscience  sleep  sound 
april 2016 by porejide
Intelligence and brain size in 100 postmortem brains: sex, lateralization and age factors | Brain
> Numerous studies relating measures of brain size such as brain weight, head circumference, CT or MRI brain volume to different intelligence test measures, with variously defined samples of subjects have yielded inconsistent findings with correlations from ∼0 to 0.6, with most correlations ∼0.3 or 0.4. The study of intelligence in relation to postmortem cerebral volume is not available to date. We report the results of such a study on 100 cases (58 women and 42 men) having prospectively obtained Full Scale Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores. Ability correlated with cerebral volume, but the relationship depended on the realm of intelligence studied, as well as the sex and hemispheric functional lateralization of the subject. General verbal ability was positively correlated with cerebral volume and each hemisphere's volume in women and in right-handed men accounting for 36% of the variation in verbal intelligence.
brain_size  iq  neuroscience 
january 2016 by porejide
Single-cell transcriptomics reveals receptor transformations during olfactory neurogenesis
> The mature state in which expression of Olfr genes is restricted to one per neuron emerges over a developmental progression that appears independent of neuronal activity requiring sensory transduction molecules.
smell  neuroscience 
november 2015 by porejide
Brain cancer: Tumour cells on neighbourhood watch : Nature : Nature Publishing Group
> This carefully executed study advances our understanding of brain-tumour growth. For instance, it is now clear that the gap junctions formed by Cx43 are central to the success of glioma neighbourhoods. This protein has been thought to act as a tumour suppressor, preventing cell division in cancers, including gliomas9. By contrast, Osswald and colleagues' findings imply that tumour growth is enhanced by the presence of Cx43. This difference can be reconciled when one considers the organism-like growth of the syncytium — in this scenario, the connected cells protect and support one other, allowing the tumour mass to grow even when exposed to radiation.
glioma  tubes  cancer  neuroscience 
november 2015 by porejide
Lifelong memories may reside in nets around brain cells
> Tsien's group started by testing whether PNNs are durable, as a memory substrate must be. The team confirmed that proteins contained in the PNNs can survive for at least 180 days—almost a lifetime for a mouse
perineuronal_nets  neuroscience  memory 
october 2015 by porejide
Out of the darkness
Was the neuroscience community wrong about visual system critical periods? > In a series of groundbreaking studies in cats and monkeys that won them the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1981, Torsten Wiesel and David Hubel showed that if the brain is deprived of visual signals during a critical period soon after birth, vision is impaired for life. There have been no similar experiments in humans for ethical reasons, but scientists assumed our critical window slams shut between ages 6 and 8. That belief guided surgeons at Shroff, who turned away congenitally blind children older than 8 years.
vision  neuroscience  history  medicine  critical_period 
october 2015 by porejide
When Brains Attack! - Radiolab
First one (only one I listened to) is about a prospective neuroscience grad student who gets the symptoms she studied in lab while at an interview (due to a drug).
dopamine  basal_ganglia  neuroscience  stories 
september 2015 by porejide
A sexually dimorphic hypothalamic circuit controls maternal care and oxytocin secretion : Nature : Nature Publishing Group
Really interesting paper showing that the hypothalamus + oxytocin help mediate some of the nurturing-behavior differences between male and female mice. > Finally, although manipulation of TH+ AVPV neurons markedly altered sex-specific behaviours in both males and females, the behaviours displayed by manipulated animals of both sexes did not exceed the boundaries of sex-typical behaviours. These data highlight the critical role of intrinsic sex differences in the brain in setting the distinct behavioural repertoire displayed by males and females. Within these boundaries, changes in the activity of sexually-dimorphic neural circuits allow dynamic modulation of adaptive behavioural responses to sex-specific challenges.
neuroscience  sexual_dimorphism  sex  oxytocin  hypothalamus 
september 2015 by porejide
Octopus genome surprises and teases | Science/AAAS | News
> In vertebrates, axons—nerve fibers—are sheathed in myelin, a fatty tissue that helps speed the transmission of neural signals. Myelin may have allowed mammals to evolve larger bodies by enabling rapid communication between a central brain and distant body parts. The octopus’s neural system lacks myelin and thus evolved a different strategy that relies on local neural communication. Each of an octopus's eight arms has enough brain power to act independently to some extent. Even when severed, a tentacle will recoil from danger.
octopus  myelin  neuroscience  genomics 
august 2015 by porejide
Activating positive memory engrams suppresses depression-like behaviour : Nature : Nature Publishing Group
Why not just wirehead already? > We propose that direct activation of dentate gyrus engram cells associated with a positive memory offers a potential therapeutic node for alleviating a subset of depression-related behaviours and, more generally, that directly activating endogenous neuronal processes may be an effective means to correct maladaptive behaviours.
pleasure  depression  neuroscience 
june 2015 by porejide
Europe Leads the Way Toward Standardization and Brain Bank Networks | ALZFORUM
> “We need to engage the public and let them know this is an important endeavor,” Mash said. The Miami Brain Endowment Bank has done extensive outreach, and many healthy older people have participated in longitudinal studies through the bank and donated their brains for postmortem research, she added. One-third of the bank’s 2,000 brains came from people without a diagnosed illness.
brain_banking  neuroscience 
february 2015 by porejide
How Everyone Gets Pavlov Wrong
> The United States and other countries have embarked upon brain-mapping initiatives, and Pavlov would have endorsed their principal goal: to create a dynamic picture of the brain that demonstrates, at the cellular level, how neural circuits interact. As Todes points out, while Pavlov examined saliva in his attempts to understand human psychology, today we use fMRIs in our heightened search for the function of every neuron. When he delivered his lectures on the “larger hemispheres of the brain,” Pavlov declared, “We will hope and patiently await the time when a precise and complete knowledge of our highest organ, the brain, will become our profound achievement and the main foundation of a durable human happiness.”
michael_specter  neuroscience  pavlov  conditioning  behavior 
november 2014 by porejide
AMA Geoffrey Hinton : MachineLearning
Thoroughly recommended. Very interested in his discussion of "cortical capsules."
geoff_hinton  machine_learning  neural_networks  neuroscience  computational 
november 2014 by porejide
Randal Koene on whole brain emulation | Machine Intelligence Research Institute
Big on neural prostheses as a way of catalyzing research. > Attempt to use neural interfaces and neural prostheses in increasing numbers of patient populations for treatment of mental disorders, brain damage in select areas (hippocampus is one interesting candidate, obviously), and nerve damage (paralysis) as a way to accelerate experience with and development of those tools that share most of the same ultimate specifications as the ones needed to acquire activity data for WBE.
wbe  neuroscience  randal_koene 
march 2014 by porejide
Human brains, frozen for 11 years, still yield pluripotent stem cells - Signals Blog
> After showing that iPS cells could be grown from brain tissue (specifically, dura mater) frozen with cryoprotectants, the team tried their technique on nine more samples that were frozen without protection at all. Without cryoprotection, many people assume that cells are damaged and sheared by ice crystals during the freezing process, which is certainly true for most organisms that haven’t evolved to cope with freezing, like woolly bear caterpillars.
neuroscience  cryoprotection  systems_biology 
february 2014 by porejide
Higher glucose levels associated with lower memory and reduced hippocampal microstructure
Non-diabetic high glucose levels are asso w decr memory and decr hippocampal volume. > (A) Delayed recall score represents the number of words recalled after 30 minutes (best score: 15; r = −0.28, p = 0.001). (B) Learning ability score represents the total sum of correctly recalled words of 5 trials (best score: 75; r = −0.26, p = 0.002). (C) Consolidation score represents the number of recalled words after the fifth trial minus the number of recalled words after 30 minutes (best score: 0; results multiplied by factor −1; r = −0.21, p = 0.01). HbA1c = glycosylated hemoglobin.
diet  memory  neuroscience  hippocampus  correlation 
november 2013 by porejide
The Hand-Waver's Guide to The Brain - Neuroskeptic | DiscoverMagazine.com
> Neurotransmitter: The key to happiness. This single molecule has been called various names over the years: ‘serotonin’, ‘dopamine’, ‘oxytocin’, etc. It’s important, but sadly fragile. Its circuits often go wrong and cause a brain disease.
satire  neuroscience  cliche 
november 2013 by porejide
Preservation of cell structures in a medieval infant brain: A paleohistological, paleogenetic, radiological and physico-chemical study
> The question remains: why was brain tissue, which is the tissue most prone to post-mortem dissolution (Aufderheide, 2003), the only tissue preserved? Hess and colleagues (1998) suggest that the myelin sheaths and the collagen fibres show remarkable resistance to tissue disintegration and therefore may be preserved even up to the final stages of decomposition. This thesis has been adopted also by other researchers (Kim et al., 2008) reporting cases of human brain preservation under unknown conditions.
history  neuroscience  biopreservation  myelin 
october 2013 by porejide
Andart: Ring the bells of freedom
> I have always been concerned when people defend gay rights based on sexual essentialism: that our preferences are unyielding and unchangeable. The claim is not really well supported empirically. One does not need to buy into wishy-washy relativism or tabula-rasa ideas to conclude that at least some aspects of sexual preferences are plastic and can be changed by ourselves or our conditions. So while "born this way" makes a good rhetorical club, it is not necessarily a good argument against discrimination. A much better argument is that what two (or more) consenting adults do in private is their own business. This is independent of what the actual neuropsychosociology of sexual preference is - and covers far more ethical cases.
neuroscience  anders_sandberg  homosexuality 
september 2013 by porejide
Spermidine cures flies of senior moments : Nature Neuroscience : Nature Publishing Group
> How does spermidine act at the level of cells and molecules to promote the retention of cognitive functioning in aged flies? A leading model is that spermidine promotes autophagy, the catabolic process of degrading and recycling dysfunctional macromolecules and organelles to keep the cell healthy and functioning optimally (Fig. 1). This makes some sense. Spermidine has been shown to stimulate autophagy in yeast, flies and worms and to promote longevity
neuroscience  sperm  aging 
september 2013 by porejide
PLOS ONE: Human Brain Activity Patterns beyond the Isoelectric Line of Extreme Deep Coma
> Therefore, the νC state represents the deepest form of coma obtained so far, and demonstrates that the brain may remain operational beyond the EEG isoelectric line. However, in many clinical situations, the brain might cease to operate due to anoxic or toxic insults compromising neuronal integrity itself. Our results indicate that if the integrity of neuronal elements is preserved, then the brain may survive. Moreover, the discovery of this novel brain state and its underlying mechanisms draw attention to the difficulties in establishing clinical brain death and could thus revive discussions about the usefulness of depth recordings as an additional assessment criteria for brain death, as suggested by Walker in 1977 [43], to establish the irreversibility of brain damage not only from the scalp level.
neuroscience  death  coma  eeg 
september 2013 by porejide
Changing brains: why neuroscience is ending the Prozac era | Science | The Observer
> the National Institute of Mental Health has promised to move its seven-figure funding away from research into conditions such as schizophrenia and depression towards a system that looks at how brain networks contribute to difficulties that are shared across diagnoses. This project, given the unspectacular name Research Domain Criteria or the RDoC Project, is being cited as an eventual replacement for the diagnostic system used by current-day psychiatrists.
neuroscience  nimh  2013  psychiatry  vaughan_bell 
september 2013 by porejide
They’re Taking Over! by Tim Flannery | The New York Review of Books
> But box jellyfish are different. They are active hunters of medium-sized fish and crustaceans, and can move at up to twenty-one feet per minute. They are also the only jellyfish with eyes that are quite sophisticated, containing retinas, corneas, and lenses. And they have brains, which are capable of learning, memory, and guiding complex behaviors.
neuroscience  animals  jellyfish 
september 2013 by porejide
The Quantum Lobe Chronicles: Just a mild electric current through the brain to increase memory gain
> They investigated the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over multiple days on 20 very lucky people. They found that mild electrical stimulation to the brain, right after the learning sessions, enhanced language learning over time for both familiar and novel words. But wait! That's not all. They also observed that the effects lasted over an extended period of time. They suggest that this technology could possibly benefit stroke patients during rehabilitation.
neuroscience  cognitive_enhancement  tcds  memory 
september 2013 by porejide
Adam Gopnik: The New Neuro-Skeptics : The New Yorker
Gopnik is no Specter. Obvious counter is that "everything is obvious once we know it" and that needed to be addressed > Minds give us the illusion of existing as fixed, orderly causal devices, when in fact they aren’t. Looking at our minds with our minds is like writing a book about hallucinations while on LSD: you can’t tell the perceptual evidence from your own inner state. “The mind is and will always be a mystery,” Burton insists. Maybe so, and yet we’re perfectly capable of probing flawed equipment with flawed equipment: we know that our eyes have blind spots, even as we look at the evidence with them, and we understand all about the dog whistles we can’t hear
neuroscience  2013  skepticism 
september 2013 by porejide
“Brain Radio” Records and Emits Electrical Pulses | MIT Technology Review
> Instead of implanting a stimulator that changes electrical activity without responding to the current state of the brain, “now we can consider a more sophisticated process where you look at what’s going on in the brain and then stimulate accordingly,” he says. Many neurological diseases are episodic—that is, the symptoms come and go or fluctuate in intensity, says Fisher. If new devices can detect and interpret electrical signals that correlate with symptoms and then respond with electrical pulses to alter brain function, doctors could have a completely new way of treating those disorders
neuroscience  medicine 
august 2013 by porejide
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