pierredv + eu   58

Threat Landscape and Good Practice Guide for Software Defined Networks/5G — ENISA Jan 2016
"This study reviews threats and potential compromises related to the security of SDN/5G networks. More specifically, this report has identified related network assets and the security threats, challenges and risks arising for these assets. Driven by the identified threats and risks, existing security mechanism and and good practices for SDN/5G/NFV has been identified. Finally based in the collated information technical, policy and organizational recommendations for proactively enhancing the security of SDN/5G is provided."

January 27, 2016
security  cybersecurity  cellular  SDR  5G  ENISA  EU 
september 2018 by pierredv
A survey of the existence of GPS interference in Europe « Electronic Environment
"One of the objectives of STRIKE3 is the deployment and operation of an international GNSS interference monitoring network to capture the scale and dynamics of the problem, and to work with international GNSS partners to develop, negotiate, promote and implement standards for threat reporting and receiver testing."

"This article presents measurement results from a survey of the existence of GPS interference and jammers within Europe. The measurement started in the late March 2016 and ended in the beginning of July 2016. Interference detection equipment were deployed ‘as is’ in seven European countries; Sweden, UK, France, Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Finland, see fig. 1. In total eleven different site locations are covered among these countries."

"there is a huge variation in the number of weekly events at each site, with some sites having only a few detections per week whereas others have several hundred ... The most active sites appear to be those next to major roads or in city center locations. These are also the busiest sites in terms of vehicles (which may carry jammers) and other sorts of activity"

", the greatest number of chirp type events (which are likely to be intentional and are associated with vehicle jammers) are seen at site 8 and site 10, with a significant number also seen at site 5. Those three sites are close to busy roads and hence that probably explains the high number of these types of events."
EU  Horizon2020  GNSS  GPS  cybersecurity  vulnerability  measurement  jamming  spectrum 
july 2018 by pierredv
July 2018 - On the EU's Space Program and new EU Agency for Space Proposal | Via Satellite
"The European Commission (EC), seeking to assert more control over European space policy, regulation and governance, has published a proposal for a regulation establishing the EU space program and the EU Agency for the Space Program."
ViaSatellite  EC  EU  space  ESA  Europe  EuropeanCommission 
july 2018 by pierredv
EU institutions reach agreement on Electronic Communications Code | PolicyTracker June 2018
"It adds that countries must allow the use of at least 1 GHz of the 26 GHz band, provided there is clear evidence of market demand and no significant constraints from existing users. The 32 GHz and the 40 GHz bands have also been identified as priority bands for 5G deployment.

The code says the EU welcomes increased cooperation among member states in spectrum management but underlines that spectrum usage varies across the Union and that flexibility for national governments must be preserved. For instance, the EECC proposes that the Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications (BEREC) will issue standardised declarations for service providers, but national regulatory authorities (NRAs) will continue to have the lead role in general authorisations. "

“Peer review should contribute to a better exchange of best practices between Member States and increase transparency… but it should not be a formal condition of national authorisation procedures,” the draft document says. The peer review of national spectrum assignments will be led by the European Commission’s advisory body the Radio Spectrum Policy Group (RSPG), not BEREC.

"The decision to increase spectrum licences to 20 years, short of the 25 years the industry wanted, aims to secure return on investment."
EU  PolicyTracker  Europe  spectrum  BEREC  regulations  mmwave  RSPG  licensing  spectrum-licensing 
june 2018 by pierredv
5G is about opportunity not uncertainty says Commission spectrum boss | PolicyTracker, June 2018
The gigabit per second speeds being demonstrated by Verizon in the US were commercially unimaginable a few years ago, but equally unprecedented is the skepticism among senior industry figures:

= There is no current business model for mmWave, said Deutsche Telecom;
= An EU study predicts no aggressive roll out of mmWave;
= a book by a former Chief Technology Officer for UK’s Ofcom argues that the economics do not stack up.

On the other hand, modelling by Ericsson suggests we may be too pessimistic about propagation at higher frequency bands."
PolicyTracker  5G  EU  EuropeanCommission 
june 2018 by pierredv
Study workshop on using mm-waves bands for the deployment of the 5G ecosystem in the Union | Digital Single Market, June 2018
Via Scott Marcus

"The aim of this workshop was to inform relevant stakeholders and experts about insights and preliminary results of the on-going study on the use of millimeter waves bands for the deployment of 5G as well as to gather concrete feedback."

Related documents:

1) Presentation of initial findings - IDATE and plum
2) Perspectives on study on using mm-waves bands for 5G - P. Curnow-Ford - Viatec Associates
3) Some perspectives on 5G / ‘IMT-2020’ - K. Singarajah - Avanti
4) Perspectives on study on using mm-waves bands for 5G – W. Bocquet- eutelstat
5) mmWave bands for 5G - K.-H. Laudan - Deutsche Telekom
6) millimetre waves for 5G in Europe - Y. Bellego - Orange Group
EU  5G  mmwave 
june 2018 by pierredv
New EC competence remains question mark for future negotiations | PolicyTracker apr 2018
The European Court of Justice (ECJ) ruled in favour of the EC when it annulled the Council’s conclusions establishing the European Union’s (EU) negotiating position for the ITU World Radiocommunication Conference in 2015 (WRC-15), judging that they were contrary to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).

At the heart of this issue is the extent to which the EC can regulate extra-European negotiations where the EU is not a party itself—like those that take place in the run-up to and during WRCs—and whether it has external jurisdiction over issues relating to those negotiations, as it does with cross-border spectrum coordination.

While this may have initially seemed like essentially a technical issue, it has evolved into a complex case with broader constitutional connotations. It may be too early to determine whether the ECJ ruling has direct implications for EU member states’ bargaining positions in future spectrum negotiations, it can be considered a meaningful resolution.
PolicyTracker  EU  EC  EuropeanCommission  WRC  ITU  ECJ 
april 2018 by pierredv
[pdf] European Parliament 2017 = Online Platforms - How to Adapt Regulatory Framework to the Digital Age?
via Gabor Molnar


• Platforms, understood as a method of organising digital markets that allows two groups of users (suppliers and customers) to meet, are one of the pillars of the digital market. They facilitate its development, providing adequate solutions to the needs of the sharing, collaborative, data, and P2P economies.

• Platforms that often operate as marketplaces have a triangle structure where users must first conclude a contract with the platform to be subsequently able to conclude contracts between themselves. The status of platform user is very often difficult to define, as platforms allow a rapid development of the pursued activities, which pushes the users outside the realm of consumer. These two characteristics make platforms difficult to fit with the EU market and consumer regulations.

• The question as to whether to pursue legislative measures for the platform economy at the EU level is a political one. Some member states have already introduced national legislation, while others oppose the idea of introducing EU regulation.

• If the legislative agenda is pursued, it can be done either as a platform-specific act, or as a “light touch” legislation, i.e. by amending the existing EU legal schemes (the most appropriate place: the market regulation directives).

• The areas that offer the best impact while being the least interventionist are: clarifying the platform’s status, clarifying the users’ status and, regulating reputational systems.
EU  economics  EuropeanParliament  platforms  ICT  regulation 
march 2018 by pierredv
Who’s Afraid of a Pan-European Spectrum Policy? The EU and the Battles Over the UHF Broadcast Band | Ala-Fossi | International Journal of Communication Jan 2018

Several European Union (EU) member states have consistently opposed European Commission (EC) efforts to create a supranational EU spectrum policy, but only Finland voted against the EC at the World Radiocommunication Conference in 2015, proposing the release of the entire ultra-high frequency (UHF) band for mobile use. Originally, in 2007, the EC and Finland wanted quick release of the UHF for mobile, but the EC has changed its UHF policy completely. Based on a new institutionalism approach, this article argues that one of the main reasons for this development is that the EU’s spectrum policy planning system has become intergovernmental. The EU members are now able to force the EC to seek a wide consensus on spectrum policy. The unique Finnish spectrum policy stand is based on certain nation-specific institutional factors: concentration of power in the spectrum policy, strong economic orientation of the communication policy, and oversupply of UHF frequencies.
IJOC  spectrum  EU  EC  EuropeanCommission 
february 2018 by pierredv
EU plan to erase digital borders will further isolate Brexit UK | New Scientist issue 3145, 30 Sep 2017
"Estonia wants the EU to adopt data as a “fifth freedom” – alongside goods, services, capital and people – promoting its free movement across EU borders. But is pooling half a billion people into a single digital nation a good idea?"

"When Estonia published a paper explaining its digital vision in July, it gave the example of an Estonian start-up selling software to universities. The system is used by 150 institutions across Europe, but the company is struggling, as many states require student data to be kept in the same country as their university, forcing the company to navigate local laws."

"There are 8 million journeys between Estonia and Finland every year, says Ilves. To get health insurance, some people end up printing out a form, carrying it across on the ferry and handing it over on the other side – where it gets digitised again"

EU’s General Data Protection Regulation's "strict privacy policies are at odds with Estonia’s plan, says Theodorakopoulos. How do you square the right to control your own data with its free flow across borders?"
NewScientist  Estonia  EU  data  borders  GDPR 
december 2017 by pierredv
EU citizens might get a 'right to explanation' about the decisions algorithms make, Splinter Jul 2016
"Late last week, though, academic researchers laid out some potentially exciting news when it comes to algorithmic transparency: citizens of EU member states might soon have a way to demand explanations of the decisions algorithms about them. In April, the EU approved a data protection law called the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)."

"In a new paper, sexily titled "EU regulations on algorithmic decision-making and a 'right to explanation,'" Bryce Goodman of the Oxford Internet Institute and Seth Flaxman at Oxford's Department of Statistics explain how a couple of subsections of the new law, which govern computer programs making decisions on their own, could create this new right."

"While the new provision may seem great at first glance, the word "solely" makes the situation a little more slippery, says Ryan Calo ... Calo explained over email how companies that use algorithms could pretty easily sidestep the new regulation. "All a firm needs to do is introduce a human—any human, however poorly trained or informed—somewhere in the system," Calo said."
EU  GDPR  algorithms  automation  AI 
november 2017 by pierredv
Commission-backed study urges harmonised timing of EU spectrum auctions | PolicyTracker: Oct 2014
Study on Spectrum Assignment in the European Union looked at which spectrum assignment procedures and usage conditions have the most positive effect on the whole electronic communications market in Europe. It was written by PolicyTracker’s consulting arm together with LS Telcom and VVA.

The research found that several elements of auction design have “minimal” impact on the mobile market and that member states should have “the flexibility to include any elements they wish in their award to facilitate their individual market needs (within reason).”

For example, when amounts paid at auction and reserve prices were low, licence lengths long and coverage obligations flexible, some countries showed better network deployments, quality of choice of services, subscriber take-up and increased competition.
PolicyTracker  spectrum-auctions  EU 
november 2017 by pierredv
Spectrum dispute at heart of European mobile industry’s existential crisis | PolicyTracker, Sep 2017
“The message from operators and investors at yesterday’s ETNO (European Telecommunications Networks Operators) event was clear: the European mobile industry is having an existential crisis and “the shifting sands of micro-regulation and incrementalism are swallowing essential reforms”.

“This was the opening comment at the event. ETNO chair Stephen Tas was talking about the European Commission’s proposed Electronic Communications Code (ECC), which includes the proposed controversial rules on auctions and licence durations. These have been repeatedly rejected by the European Council, regulatory group BEREC and spectrum advisory body the RSPG.

“Painting a bleak economic picture, Timotheus Höttges, chief executive of Deutsche Telekom (DT), cited a study that suggests European operators’ earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) have fallen by 44 per cent in the last 10 years.”

“Höttges repeatedly said that a new deal would have to include “deregulation”, taking aim at regulators for investigating DT’s StreamOn streaming service and what he described as an un-level playing field between over-the-top tech providers and telcos. He said that the cost of laying fibre would go into the hundreds of billions of euros and this should guarantee exclusivity to those who build those networks.”

“Stéphane Richard, chief executive of French operator Orange, conveyed a similar message, calling on policymakers to act to make spectrum available.”

“That process is going to be explosive, one senior European regulatory source told PolicyTracker. The source said they had never seen anything like the disagreement forming between the Council on one side and the European Parliament and the European Commission on the other and had “no idea” what any compromise would look like.”

“Sebastian Soriano, the outgoing chair of BEREC, which is made up of Europe’s electronic communications regulators, said: “This morning the chief executive of DT evoked the image of the lighthouse in turbulent times. It is useful for the market to have strong messages to give to investors. The Council is fighting against the Commission’s proposal in the review. Our DNA is challenged. We hear about the gigabit society and 5G – political people are welcome to redefine the lighthouse but I strongly advise against turning it off in turbulent times.””
PolicyTracker  EU  EuropeanCommission  EuropeanCouncil  BEREC  EuropeanParliament 
september 2017 by pierredv
What is a Robot under EU Law? | Global Policy Watch, Aug 2017
EU institutions are increasingly focusing on the legal challenges posed by the robotics and artificial intelligence sector. On May 16, 2017, the European Commission published a paper announcing a series of regulatory and policy initiatives in response to the European Parliament’s resolution on European civil law rules on robotics of February 2017. These initiatives may shape the development of the sector in Europe as they will affect the EU’s rules on product liability and product safety, develop certification and insurance schemes for autonomous cars, and provide significant funding for research innovation.
Covington  Europe  EU  automation  robotics  law  regulation 
august 2017 by pierredv
Review of EU-third country cooperation on policies falling within the ITRE domain in relation to Brexit | Bruegel
"Bruegel scholars have just completed a study for the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) of the European Parliament that seeks to help Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) and the general public to understand the possible future relationship between the EU and the UK in light of Brexit. . . The scope of the study corresponds to the thematic areas for which the ITRE Committee is responsible: energy, electronic communications, research policy and small business policy."
Scott-Marcus  Bruegel  EU  UK  Brexit  EuropeanParliament 
july 2017 by pierredv
Spectrum emerges as new battleground in long-running fight over powers of EU bodies — PolicyTracker, May 2017
"PolicyTracker attended the hearing of the European Commission's case against the Council of the European Union - held at the European Court of Justice - which concerns the extent to which the Commission can determine the EU's position ahead of World Radiocommunication Conferences (WRCs).

"The Lisbon Treaty, which entered into force in 2009, made it clearer that it is the Commission’s role to represent EU member states in international negotiations. In that way, the case concerning WRC-15 is another step in determining the jurisdiction, or competence, of the European Commission.

"At issue is the extent to which the Treaties of the European Union regulate extra-European negotiations where the European Union is not a party to negotiations – which is the case with WRCs – but has external jurisdiction over issues relating to those negotiations, as it does with cross-border spectrum coordination."

"The Advocate General will now issue an advisory opinion on the case which the judges will take into consideration before reaching their verdict. This will be announced on 7 September"
PolicyTracker  EU  EuropeanCommission  EC  spectrum-policy  jurisdiction 
may 2017 by pierredv
Vademecum on European standardisation - European Commission
This Vademecum compiles key documents from the European Commission on European standardisation policy and related practice. It provides guidance without having legal status.
The main aim of the Vademecum is to serve as a guide for:
Commission officials - to enable them to use European standardisation as a tool for the implementation of European policies and legislation
EU countries - to help them to understand the Commission's European standardisation policy and the mechanisms of referring to European standards in European policies and legislation
Stakeholders - to gain a clear picture of the policies and processes of the Commission in this field.
EU  EC  standards 
april 2017 by pierredv
Computer says no? Europeans can now challenge that decision | New Scientist July 2016
Issue 3082

"In April this year, the European parliament approved the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), a new set of rules governing personal data. Due to go into effect in 2018, it introduces a “right to explanation”: the opportunity for European Union citizens to question the logic of an algorithmic decision – and contest the results."

"The GDPR also specifically calls for companies to prevent discrimination based on personal characteristics such as race, religious beliefs or health data. This matters because experiments already show that online ad services preferentially show details of higher-paying jobs to male users; criminal justice algorithms suggest harsher sentences for African Americans."
NewScientist  algorithms  AI  automation  law  EU  EuropeanParliament 
march 2017 by pierredv
ETSI - 53 Shades of RE-D: Six months to go - Radio Equipment Directive
Following on from the workshop 53 shades of RE-D: how to place compliant radio equipment on the European market on 4 November 2015, ETSI, RED CA and ADCO RED are pleased to announce the workshop "53 shades of RE-D: 6 months to go. How to place compliant radio equipment on the European market".
RED  ETSI  receivers  EU  Directive 
march 2017 by pierredv
Proposal to Amend EU Comitology Rules: Stretching the Limits of the Precautionary Principle | Global Policy Watch
"The European Commission has presented a proposal to amend the EU’s examination comitology procedure with the aim of forcing Member States to vote and take responsibility in the adoption of controversial decisions mostly affecting health and the environment, such as pesticides, GMOs, and chemicals.  If adopted, the proposed amendments are likely to result in an even stronger precautionary approach and the adoption of fewer approvals of politically sensitive products in the EU.  The amendments would also mean that companies who seek to have such products approved will need to put more efforts into influencing Member States and their national constituencies.  They are also likely to result in increased litigation before the EU Courts."

"In practice, the examination procedure results in a no opinion situation that forces the Commission to decide on its own in around less than 2% of all the proposals that the Commission presents."

"Given the domestic political sensitivity of approvals on pesticides, GMOs and similar decisions, Member States will often prefer not to participate in the adoption of what is ultimately a political decision even if the Commission’s proposal is supported by the EU’s scientific bodies."

"In effect, the proposed amendments would emphasize the application of the precautionary principle in the EU and, are likely to discredit it in the long run."
Covington  EU  precaution  risk-assessment  EC  precautionary-principle 
february 2017 by pierredv
EUR-Lex - 32014L0030 - EN - EUR-Lex
Directive 2014/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to electromagnetic compatibility (recast) Text with EEA relevance
EU  EC  Directive 
january 2017 by pierredv
[pdf] Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Guide for the selection of technical parameters for the production of Harmonised Standards covering article 3.1(b) and article 3.2 of Directive 2014/53/EU
"The present document has been produced to help an ETSI Technical Committee to produce a Harmonised Standard
aimed at providing a presumption of conformity of radio equipment with the essential requirements in articles 3.1(b)
and 3.2 of the Radio Equipment Directive (Directive 2014/53/EU) [i.1]. "
ETSI  radio  RED  EU  EC 
january 2017 by pierredv
EUR-Lex - 32014L0053 - EN - EUR-Lex - Radio Equipment Directive 2014/53/EU
Directive 2014/53/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to the making available on the market of radio equipment and repealing Directive 1999/5/EC Text with EEA relevance
EU  EC  EuropeanUnion  regulations  Europe  spectrum 
january 2017 by pierredv
ETSI - RED - The Radio Equipment Directive 2014/53/EU
On 16 April 2014, the European Union adopted a new set of rules for placing radio equipment on the European market, and putting them into service.
EU Member States have to adapt their National laws to this new Radio Equipment Directive (RED) (2014/53/EU, published on 22 May 2014), and apply its provisions from 13 June 2016. Manufacturers who were compliant with the existing legislation (RTTED or LVD/EMCD) will have until 13 June 2017 to comply with the new requirements.
The existing Radio & Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive (R&TTED) (1999/5/EC) will be repealed on 13 June 2016.
ETSI  EU  EuropeanUnion  R&TTE  RED  standards 
january 2017 by pierredv
Significant Digits: Responsible Use of Quantitative Information - European Commission
In this workshop we will review a seminal essay by Andrea Saltelli and Mario Giampietro, The Fallacy of Evidence Based Policy. That paper contains positive recommendations for the development of a responsible quantification. The conference will be devoted to the analysis and development of those ideas.
EU  statistics  research  workshop  report  policy  science  Saltelli  Giampietro  economics 
october 2016 by pierredv
Significant digits - Information policy - EU Bookshop
Responsible use of quantitative information : inspirational workshop 2
The DG JRC organised in 9-10 June 2015 a workshop “Significant Digits: Responsible Use of Quantitative Information”, mostly targeted at European Commission’s colleagues, which invited to reflection on the problem of irresponsible misuse of quantitative information in policy relevant matters

Corporate author(s): European Commission, Joint Research Centre

Private author(s): Ângela Guimarães Pereira, Jerome Ravetz, Andrea Saltelli

Themes: Information policy, Social sciences research

Target audience: Scientific
Key words: information society, information policy, information analysis, quantitative analysis, social sciences, information processing, research report
EU  statistics  research  workshop  report 
october 2016 by pierredv
EUR-Lex - 52016SC0303R(01) - EN - EUR-Lex
COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT Accompanying the document Proposals for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing the European Electronic Communications Code (Recast) and a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing the Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications

"Indeed, the majority of respondents (spanning from telecom and non-telecom associations to virtual mobile operators, converged operators and vendors) in the public consultation considered that the lack of coordination of selection methods and assignment conditions has impaired the development of electronic communications services. Operators have also criticized the ineffectiveness in addressing interference issues and ensuring usage efficiency."

"Even those parties seeing little or no benefit from the existing regime (M(V)NOs, cable, converged operators, non-ECS associations) acknowledge the achievements in technical harmonisation, but stress persistent regulatory fragmentation. Points of criticism concern the ineffectiveness in addressing interference issues (transport) and ensuring usage efficiency."
EU  EC  EuropeanCommission  Spectrum 
october 2016 by pierredv
EU chief promises modernised spectrum policy to avoid mistakes of LTE • The Register Sep 2016
"The European Union announced its 5G Action Plan last week, and president Jean-Claude Juncker set out some ambitious connectivity goals in his State of the Union address. These include promises to enable free Wi-Fi in public spaces in every town and village in the EU states, and to achieve “full deployment” of 5G by 2025 (including railways). As an interim goal, it repeated the goal of having commercial 5G in at least one town or city per EU country by 2020."
TheRegister  EU  5G  spectrum 
september 2016 by pierredv
Brussels announces regulatory framework review results — PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
The legislative proposal on the Electronic Communications Code recognises that spectrum should be a national competence but then goes on to say that “there is a need for a more convergent and consistent EU regulation for market entry to eliminate the obstacles that appear due to undue divergent conditions for the assignment of individual rights of use for spectrum, numbers or land.”
The assessment said setting up an EU-wide regulator would be the most expensive and inefficient option, although it found it the second most desirable option, after setting up a "binding but non-centralised" approach. The other options were no-change and “voluntary coordination”.
PolicyTracker  EU  spectrum  regulation 
september 2016 by pierredv
Standardisation bodies face a struggle to meet RED deadline - PolicyTracker Nov 2015
"The timetable of a new law that subjects broadcasting receivers to pan-European regulation is unrealistic, according to one of the bodies responsible for its implementation." "The Directive is perceived as part of a broader shift among spectrum policymakers from preventing interference by regulating emissions to a more holistic approach that includes receivers. This approach is encapsulated by harm claim thresholds, which have been advocated in the US. Programme making and special events (PMSE) receivers were already subject to pan-European regulation under the R&TTED."
PolicyTracker  harm-claim-thresholds  receivers  receiver-standards  RED  EU  interference-limits 
november 2015 by pierredv
EU’s Highest Court Invalidates Safe Harbor with Immediate Effect - Covington & Burling Oct 2015
"Yesterday, the Court of Justice of the European Union (the “CJEU”) invalidated the European Commission’s Decision on the EU-U.S. Safe Harbor arrangement (Commission Decision 2000/520 – see here). The Court responded to pre-judicial questions put forward by the Irish High Court in the so-called Schrems case. More specifically, the High Court had enquired, in particular, about the powers of European data protection authorities (“DPAs”) to suspend transfers of personal data that take place under the existing Safe Harbor arrangement. The CJEU ruled both on the DPAs’ powers and the validity of the Safe Harbor, finding that national data protection authorities do have the power to investigate in these circumstances, and further, that the Commission decision finding Safe Harbor adequate is invalid. This decision affects all companies that rely on Safe Harbor. They now need to consider alternative data transfer mechanisms."
privacy  EU  SafeHarbor  Covington 
october 2015 by pierredv
Something economists thought was impossible is happening in Europe - Vox Feb 2015
"Something really weird is happening in Europe. Interest rates on a range of debt — mostly government bonds from countries like Denmark, Switzerland, and Germany but also corporate bonds from Nestlé and, briefly, Shell — have gone negative. And not just negative in fancy inflation-adjusted terms like US government debt. It's just negative. As in you give the owner of a Nestlé bond 100 euros, and four years later Nestlé gives you back less than that.* In my experience, ordinary people are not especially excited about this. But among finance and economic types, I promise you that it's a huge deal — the economics equivalent of stumbling into a huge scientific discovery entirely by accident."
bonds  economics  interest-rates  europe  euro  eu  finance 
february 2015 by pierredv
BEREC and member states question EU spectrum reforms - PolicyTracker May 2014
The European Parliament may have made already questionable European Commission proposals for a new spectrum management regime worse, EU regulators said on 17 May ... BEREC, which represents national regulators, broadly welcomed the MEPs' ["connected continent" package but] it added that lawmakers' actions on the spectrum provisions were not helpful.
BEREC  spectrum  EC  EU  PolicyTracker 
may 2014 by pierredv
New EU law could shift burden of interference mitigation - PolicyTracker Jan 2014
R&TTED revision... the definition of “radio equipment” has been changed to include receivers. Article 2, paragraph 1, point 1 of the draft Directive now says: “‘radio equipment’ means a product which intentionally emits or receives radio waves for communication, or a product which must be completed with an accessory, such as antenna, so as to emit or receive radio waves for communication.” An Opinion from RSPG in June 2013, Recommendation 4d of the opinion says there is “a need for a clear EU policy on improving spectrum efficiency, where it would be an essential requirement to construct TV receivers so as to avoid harmful interference”. In July 2013, the RSPG adopted a report on interference management that included ways to promote improved receiver standards, and examination of the role EU spectrum policy could play in promoting improved receiver standards.
receivers  interference  RSPG  EU  PolicyTracker 
february 2014 by pierredv
EFSC (European Forum for Spectrum Coexistence) calls for improved spectrum coexistence
European PMSE organisation APWPT, sought assurances from the RSPG and DG Connect that further use of the spectrum by mobile broadband would not cause interference for PMSE equipment. European railways organisation CER, raised the issue of further interference between GSM-R (the wireless communications network used by the rail industry) and LTE. The EFSC has just released a white paper arguing that coexistence is the missing element in current spectrum policy. The paper is highly critical of the regulatory status quo. . . . In order to solve these perceived deficiencies, the EFSC proposes eight measures. These include an enhanced role for the European Commission in spectrum policy.
GSM-R  RSPG  European  Parliament  spectrum  PMSE  EC  EFSC  interference  EU  PolicyTracker  DG  Connect 
november 2013 by pierredv
Leaked document suggests Brussels spectrum power grab — PolicyTracker: Jul 2013
"The European Commission wants pan-EU licences, more policy harmonisation and control over member states' assignment procedures according to a document available on the internet. "Leaked draft legislation that was planned to be published in September reveals the Commission's ambitions for a substantial competence grab. "The document calls for licences that cover several member states; the synchronisation of spectrum auctions; similar licence conditions across the European Union; and a mechanism enabling the European Commission to prevent member states holding spectrum auctions improperly. The document fleshed out details of ideas that Kroes laid out in a speech to the European Parliament on 9 July."
auctions  harmonization  spectrum  EuropeanCommission  EU  PolicyTracker 
july 2013 by pierredv
Spinelli Group || Manifesto
European federalist movement: "what Europe needs is more Europe". Link via Pierre-Yves after lunch in Brussels 1/16/2013.
politics  federalism  EU  Europe 
january 2013 by pierredv
Digital Enlightenment Forum
"Founded in Luxembourg in 2011, the DIGITAL ENLIGHTENMENT FORUM aims to shed light on today’s rapid technological changes and their impact on society and its governance.
It takes its inspiration from the 18th century Enlightenment period (also Age of Reason) as well as from transformations and evolutions that have taken place since then."
EU  internet  governance 
january 2013 by pierredv
EC communication: Promoting the shared use of radio spectrum resources in the internal market
This Communication lays out the regulatory background, the drivers and enablers, and the challenges for more shared use of spectrum. Section 5 describes the proposed new approach to give incentives for and legal certainty to spectrum sharing. Section 6 proposes next steps to foster the shared use of spectrum in the internal market in unlicensed and licensed bands.
sharing  spectrum  EuropeanCommission  EU 
october 2012 by pierredv
eCommunications | Europa - Information Society
"The allocation and management of radio spectrum in Europe is administered by national regulatory authorities. These authorities work together within a harmonised framework that is established through international and European policy initiatives."

Includes video

1. Managing the spectrum use
2. Allocating and assigning spectrum
3. Managing the radio spectrum
video  EuropeanCommission  EU  spectrum  regulation 
july 2012 by pierredv
EUROPA - Press Releases - Radio spectrum: harmonised EU rules to foster high-speed wireless internet services and avoid harmful interference
May 2010: "The European Commission has adopted a Decision establishing harmonised technical rules for Member States on the allocation of radio frequencies in the 800 MHz band that contribute to the deployment of high-speed wireless internet services by avoiding harmful interference"
via Pierre-Yves Saintoyant
EU  radio  spectrum 
may 2010 by pierredv
Eurostrategies LS telcom 2007 (PDF) = Study on radio interference regulatory models in the European Community
"This is the final report for the above study carried out for the Information Society and
Media Directorate-General of the European Commission under contract INFSO-B-
2006/45682 (SMART n°2006/0011) signed on 29 December 2006. The study was
carried out between January and November 2007 by Eurostrategies sprl of Brussels
and LS telcom AG of Lichtenau, Germany.
This final report was submitted to the European Commission on 26 October 2007 and
finalised on 29 November 2007."
via Scott Marcus
wireless  interference  EU  ***  filetype:pdf  media:document  RF  Examples 
december 2009 by pierredv
French beach toxic enough to kill a horse | Seattle Times Newspaper
"There had been signs of a crisis for years in this idyllic corner of Brittany. But scaring away tourists was in no one's interest, including the farming industry — the region's economic backbone — whose nitrate-packed fertilizers power algae blooms."
ecosystems  complexity  politics  France  EU 
august 2009 by pierredv
eGovernment: FP7 Projects : ICT for Governance & Policy Modelling
Objective 7.3: consultation on ICT for Governance & Policy Modelling was taking place in Budapest, Hungary on the 21st of January 2009
Includes links to meetings and presentations
EU  governance  computationalpublicpolicy  ** 
june 2009 by pierredv
EC recommendation On Relevant Product and Service Markets within the electronic communications sector (PDF)
... susceptible to ex ante regulation in accordance with Directive 2002/21/EC of the
European Parliament and of the Council on a common regulatory framework for
electronic communication networks and services
EU  europeancommission  communications  policy  filetype:pdf  media:document 
march 2008 by pierredv
Innovation and Market Definition under the EU Regulatory Framework for Electronic Communications
Tambiama Madiega, European University Institute, Florence
analysis of market definition under the EU regulatory framework
EU  regulation  policy  communications  antitrust 
march 2008 by pierredv
IDABC - The 'European Interoperability Framework for pan-European eGovernment services
"The EIF is the reference document on interoperability for the IDABC programme. It is the result of an extensive consultation process with the Member States and thus represents the highest ranking module for the implementation of European eGovernment serv
EU  policy  technology  software  standards 
december 2007 by pierredv
What Microsoft's EU Ruling Means to
analysis of the implications for MS and it's competitors of the EU court ruling - bottom line: bye-bye integration, hello modularity
Microsoft  EU  antitrust 
september 2007 by pierredv

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