paulbradshaw + sources   124

A Lineage of Leakers?: The contingency of collective memory in coverage of contemporary leaking cases: Journalism Practice: Vol 12, No 10
This study draws on the theoretical framework of collective memory to ascertain the ways in which a story from journalism’s past—Daniel Ellsberg and the Pentagon Papers—was brought to bear in coverage and commentary of a broadly analogous story in journalism’s present—WikiLeaks, Chelsea (formerly Bradley) Manning, and Edward Snowden. The discourse was far from uniform, which we see as indicative of the contingencies of collective memory. We find four themes: (1) lack of consensus on whether Ellsberg, Manning, and Snowden constituted a lineage of leakers, as some journalists contended, or if there are distinctions to be drawn; (2) discussion about the contingencies of historical representation and awareness of the role of “victors” in shaping history; (3) celebrations of journalism and its storied history amid a backdrop of flux; and (4) discussion of changes in technology and how they impacted the methods of the leakers. Theoretical and methodological implications for the study of journalism and collective memory are discussed.
Research  leaks  sources 
6 weeks ago by paulbradshaw
Churnalism, Cultural (Inter)Mediation and Sourcing in Cultural Journalism: Journalism Studies: Vol 19, No 14
Taking a point of departure in theories about cultural (inter)mediation, this article provides a theoretical framework for explaining the pervasion of churnalism within the specialised beat of cultural journalism. Compared to other types of journalists, cultural journalists are “journalists with a difference”, since they are closely intertwined with sources, and public relations subsidies are “structurally embedded” in the beat’s professional rationales. This has intensified with the professionalisation of the culture industries’ media management during the past decades, prompting continuous critique of cultural journalists for not conforming to journalism’s norms of sourcing. However, such critical claims are typically based on the conventional ideologies of Western journalism and often sidestep the distinct nature of this particular beat. These theoretical arguments are backed by a case study of the interplay of the publishing industry and the Danish press in relation to the publicising of the fourth Millennium book in 2015, a sequel to deceased author Stieg Larsson’s successful trilogy from the mid-2000s. This case exemplifies cultural journalism’s inclination towards “churnalism”, and how churnalism may, in fact, comply with the beat’s professional logics. However, it also shows that churnalism can spark critical meta-reflections among journalists on the interplay of the culture industries and the press.
Research  sources  culture  arts  specj 
10 weeks ago by paulbradshaw
Networking and Political Alignment as Strategies to Control the News: Interaction between journalists and politicians: Journalism Studies: Vol 19, No 14
Political coverage is strongly influenced by interactions between journalists and political actors. Especially for political actors, these interactions present an opportunity to increase their influence on the news. However, what strategies political actors use in their attempts to steer political journalists when exchanging with them has not been studied comprehensively and on a broad basis. Furthermore, some studies suggest that interactions are dominated by political actors, while others conclude that journalists are at least equally influential. Building on extant research, we first draw an inventory of strategies used by political actors in their exchanges with journalists and investigate their importance based on a mixed-methods study. Our study was conducted in Austria and included a full sample of N = 173 political journalists surveyed with a standardized instrument, and open interviews with 10 additional journalists and 10 political actors. Results show that politicians build political alliances, network with specific journalists, and use intimidation as strategies to control the interactions. In the survey, journalists mentioned basing exchanges on political alignment as the most important strategy. While this strategy indeed helps politicians to control coverage, networking strategies benefit journalists.
Research  sources  networks 
10 weeks ago by paulbradshaw
Sourcing the Sources: An analysis of the use of Twitter and Facebook as a journalistic source over 10 years in The New York Times, The Guardian, and Süddeutsche Zeitung: Digital Journalism: Vol 6, No 7
Social media today are playing a more important role as a news source than ever before. Yet, there have been no longitudinal studies on journalists’ sourcing practices in recent years that allow us to consider the mechanisms of innovation diffusion. Comparative studies of different social platforms in different media systems are just as rare. We therefore examine the use of Facebook and Twitter as journalistic sources in newspapers of three countries. A main finding is that, after a period of stagnation at the beginning of this decade, the use of social media sources has resurged massively in recent years. The patterns of this second rise of social media in journalism are almost identical in the analyzed newspapers. A comparison of the platforms has shown that Twitter is more commonly used as a news source than Facebook. Compared to Facebook, Twitter is primarily used as an elite channel. An unsupervised topic clustering approach (LDA) also revealed that the issues on which social media are sourced and the quantities of social media references are similar in The New York Times and The Guardian. In Süddeutsche Zeitung, however, journalists source social media considerably less, and in different thematic contexts.
Research  sources  Twitter  fb  nytimes 
12 weeks ago by paulbradshaw
On the Street and/or on Twitter?: The use of “every day” sources in economic news coverage by online and offline outlets: Digital Journalism: Vol 6, No 7
By means of a large-scale manual content analysis of Dutch economic news coverage in 2015 (n = 4251 articles), we compare the use of “every day” sources by online and offline outlets. The use of those sources is argued to increase news consumers’ attentiveness to the news item. We investigate whether online outlets use the “ordinary citizen” less frequently, both generally speaking as well as a source, while relying more on social media posts. Our empirical analysis focuses on a comparison between two online quality outlets ( and, two online popular outlets ( and, two offline quality outlets (NRC Handelsblad and de Volkskrant) and two offline popular outlets (Algemeen Dablad and de Telegraaf). Overall, results suggest a limited use of ordinary citizens as news sources, and even less use of social media. Multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for the length of news items as well as the day of publishing, ‘show that offline outlets use ordinary citizens more often, while online outlets rely more on social media’. Additionally, we find the differences between popular and quality outlets a lot less pronounced, with the latter only making slight more use of social media sources.
Research  sources  Twitter  netherlands 
12 weeks ago by paulbradshaw
Much Ado About Nothing?: The low importance of Twitter as a sourcing tool for economic journalists: Digital Journalism: Vol 6, No 7
Digitalisation has changed journalistic sourcing techniques and affected the way journalists approach sources. This study examines how new information channels change the relationship between journalists and their (potential) sources in this evolving environment and analyses the role of these channels. We are not only interested in the sources that make it into the news, but study the broader networks of people and institutions journalists rely on to help them monitor and gather information. We combine online Twitter network analysis with in-depth interviews to create a detailed mapping of the professional source networks of 33 economic journalists in Belgium. Our results identify that the Twitter networks of economic journalists to a large extent reflect their broader sourcing practices. Overall, the same actor groups are important in both the online and the offline source networks with the exception of the more prominent presence of other journalists and media organisations in the Twitter network of journalists. We conclude that Twitter is implemented within existing sourcing practices without fundamentally changing the news production process.
sources  Research  Twitter 
12 weeks ago by paulbradshaw
Digitally Empowered: New patterns of sourcing and expertise in cultural journalism and criticism: Journalism Practice: Vol 0, No 0
In January 2013, Peter Bradshaw, a film critic for The Guardian, said that Twitter users had become the favourite “critics” of the film industry. The implicit concern in this article on a subject dear to cultural journalism—“Would be criticism bankrupted when we are all ‘critics’ on the Web?”—became evident in the following years. It is pertinent, then, to explore the media answer not only to this subject but both to sourcing and expertise in general in the culture section. Did they embrace these new news sources (and which) that emerged in the digital environment, such as the reader, blogs or artists tweets? Assuming the first hypothesis, how did they include them in their editorial model, alongside with the “traditional” experts and sources? We conducted a content analysis to the culture section of an international media—The Guardian—between 2014 and 2016 (n = 992), identifying the role of what we would like to call digitally empowered sources and the presence of new “experts” in cultural criticism. We concluded that these digitally empowered sources play an important role in the overall editorial, business and engagement media's strategy and are deeply engaged with a new digital feature: hypertextuality. New patterns of expertise also reflect an editorial positioning supported in an engagement strategy and in the recognition of the readers’ added value to content.
sources  Research  arts  specj  engagement  ugc  cm 
september 2018 by paulbradshaw
How local newsrooms can make the most of 'social listening' - BBC Academy
Our social shifts are built around social listening. Our early social broadcast journalist looks through the main Facebook groups every morning to find the biggest talking points overnight, then they’ll use Crowdtangle to spot the stories that are doing well for our competitors. We’ll then pull that all together into a briefing note that’s sent to editorial leads in online, TV and radio. We’ll then decide if we’re going to follow up a story. That could be a piece for the index, or digital-first video we’ll go out and shoot on the day.

We’ll then keep across the social agenda through the day, spotting breaking stories in groups or Twitter lists and using Crowdtangle to spot the stories over-performing for our competitors. 

We’ve also established working relationships with admins from the biggest groups. We’ve invited them to visit us here at BBC Yorkshire and see how we work in TV, radio and online and generally got to know them better. This means they often come to us when there’s a story they think is important in their group.
engagement  sources  ugc 
august 2018 by paulbradshaw
Personal and Organizational Predictors of Compassion Fatigue Symptoms in Local Television Journalists: Journalism Practice: Vol 12, No 5
Compassion fatigue is a form of traumatic stress that results from repeated encounters with victims of trauma and traumatic situations. Most often studied in counselors, nurses, and first responders, this study applies the concept to journalists who often encounter the same victims and traumatic scenes. Seventy reporters from different television markets were measured for the personal and professional factors that contribute to compassion fatigue symptoms and its components of secondary traumatic stress and burnout. Results showed personal traumatic events and perceived peer support were the strongest predictors of compassion fatigue symptoms in television reporters. Implications for reporter self-care and newsroom protocols are discussed.
Research  compassionfatique  sources  victims  mentalhealth 
june 2018 by paulbradshaw
Ex-Senate Aide Charged in Leak Case Where Times Reporter’s Records Were Seized - The New York Times
It is not clear whether investigators exhausted all of their avenues of information before confiscating Ms. Watkins’s information. She was not notified before they gained access to her information from the telecommunications companies. Among the records seized were those associated with her university email address from her undergraduate years.
law  security  t  privacy  sources 
june 2018 by paulbradshaw
You’re probably not quoting enough women. Let us help you. - Columbia Journalism Review
There have been other attempts to help journalists address this problem. Several databases that compile contact information for women and other marginalized experts have been put together by institutions such as the Women’s Media Center SheSource list, the Brookings Institution’s Women in Tech Source list, NPR’s Source of the Week, and this list of women and nonbinary people of color working in sports media. (And if you’re looking for diverse journalists and writers to talk to these sources, check out Writers of Color.)
diversity  gender  t  sources 
june 2018 by paulbradshaw
UNESCO releases new publication on Protecting Journalism Sources in the Digital Age
The present research provides a comprehensive review of developments that can impact on the legal frameworks that support protection of journalistic sources. Interviews, panel discussions, thematic studies and a review panel ensured the input of legal and media experts, journalists and scholars. This in-depth study thus seeks to assess the evolution of protective legal frameworks over the eight years from 2007-2015, and provides recommendations for the future of journalistic source protection.

The study found that the legal frameworks that protect the confidential sources of journalism are under significant strain in the digital age. This context is leading journalists to adapt their work methods in an effort to shield their sources from exposure. A further finding is that all stakeholders have a crucial role to play in the introduction, development or updating of better legal safeguards for all acts of journalism, including for whistleblowers. The research also provides recommendations on journalistic source protection, starting with independent oversight on surveillance and data retention, through to the development of education and training programs in digital safety.

A major output of the study is an 11-point assessment tool for measuring the effectiveness of legal source protection frameworks in the digital era. In this way, the research serves as guidance for UNESCO, Member States and other stakeholders to promote and implement more protective frameworks for the confidentiality of journalistic sources.
surveillance  Research  book  Security  law  sources 
may 2018 by paulbradshaw
News Consumer Perceptions of New Journalistic Sourcing Techniques: Journalism Studies: Vol 19, No 5
This study examines how news consumers evaluate the use of digital sources in the journalistic news production process. It also assesses to what extent credibility judgments depend on whether consumers learn that journalists have visibly verified the information they have obtained from a certain source. Using a scenario study, we found that scenarios picturing online sourcing techniques, such as using information from Twitter and Facebook, are perceived as non-credible. This negative judgment is not mitigated by visible verification.
Research  sources 
march 2018 by paulbradshaw
Re-evaluating journalistic routines in a digital age: A review of research on the use of online sourcesNew Media & Society - Sophie Lecheler, Sanne Kruikemeier, 2016
This review article provides a critical discussion of empirical studies that deal with the use of online news sources in journalism. We evaluate how online sources have changed the journalist–source relationship regarding selection of sources as well as verification strategies. We also discuss how the use of online sources changes audience perceptions of news. The available research indicates that journalists have accepted online news sourcing techniques into their daily news production process, but that they hesitate to use information retrieved from social media as direct and quoted sources in news reporting. Studies show that there are differences in the use of online sources between media sectors, type of reporting, and country context. The literature also suggests that verification of online sources requires a new set of skills that journalists still struggle with. We propose a research agenda for future studies.
Research  sources  sm 
november 2017 by paulbradshaw
More of the Same?: Influences on source use and source affiliation diversity in for-profit and nonprofit news organizational content: Journalism Studies: Vol 0, No 0
Sources are an indicator of news quality. They cue readers to the extent that journalists are invested in reporting a topic. Moreover, a diversity of sources may help readers reach more informed decisions. This study investigates the amount and diversity of sources nonprofit and for-profit news organizations use and what factors affect sourcing behaviors. Results indicate that nonprofit organizations use more, but not more diverse sources. In addition, journalists more often covering conflict and enacting roles beyond dissemination are likely to use more and more diverse sources. Increased workload, though, predicts stories with fewer and less-diverse sources.
Research  sources  ngos  nonprofit 
september 2017 by paulbradshaw
Churnalism on the Rise?: Assessing convergence effects on editorial practices: Digital Journalism: Vol 5, No 8
Scholars conceptualize journalism’s transformation and explain the changes occurring at different levels under the rubric of convergence. Contrary to optimistic views of convergence, claiming for its potential to satisfy both good journalism and good business practices, the paper argues that at times of economic uncertainty, hyper-competition and diminishing accountability levels, convergence is used as a cost-effective strategy fostering low-cost and spreadable news production. Engaging in quantitative analysis, the article provides empirical evidence showing that the recycling of news content from established elite sources and across popular news sites has increased between 2013 and 2016, posing serious threats for content plurality and independent reporting. Despite online journalism’s development as a field, and the appearance of social networks and user-generated content as alternative and easyily accessible sources, a pervasive survival and monetization culture has turned churning into a mainstream journalistic practice.
churnalism  Research  sources  convergence 
september 2017 by paulbradshaw
Research (£): The Effects of Mass Surveillance on Journalists’ Relations With Confidential Sources: A constant comparative study: Digital Journalism: Vol 0, No 0
This qualitative study explores how national security journalists communicate online using digital security technologies to evade potential surveillance by government authorities. This study follows a panopticism framework, which states that those under real or perceived observation will alter their behavior to be more subservient to authority. Through a series of seven in-depth interviews with journalists, using a constant comparative method, journalists who participated in this study reported that the way they work has changed under a real or perceived threat of mass government surveillance, making their work more difficult and potentially damaging their communications with sources. Many potential interview subjects refused to participate on the record because of the sensitivity and potential risks involved in the discussion of the subject matter.
surveillance  t  Research  chillingeffect  sources 
september 2017 by paulbradshaw
BBC Academy Original journalism: Finding stories
BBC Academy Original journalism: Finding stories
sources  t  leads 
july 2017 by paulbradshaw
Measuring and Explaining the Diversity of Voices and Viewpoints in the News: A comparative study on the determinants of content diversity of immigration news: Journalism Studies: Vol 0, No 0
News media can be considered to fulfil their democratic role as a “marketplace of ideas” only if they present a diverse content that gives space to a wider range of ideas and viewpoints. But how can content diversity be assessed? And what determines actor and viewpoint diversity in the first place? By employing measurements of actor and viewpoint diversity at the article and newspaper level, this study provides a complete overview on the content diversity of immigration news, and it investigates factors that have an impact on content diversity of immigration newspaper articles in Belgium, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom (2013–2014). The results of a multilevel analysis indicate that both the articles’ size and the elite character of a newspaper play a key role in enhancing news’ multiperspectivalness. Also, the findings show that these two measurements of content diversity are different yet related to each other.
diversity  Research  sources 
july 2017 by paulbradshaw
News Selection Within Customer Magazines: A quantitative survey among editors-in-chief in Germany: Journalism Practice: Vol 0, No 0
Customer magazines blur the boundaries between journalistic reporting and organizational information. On the one hand, customer magazines are intended to communicate the interests, brands, products, and services of an organization. On the other hand, their topics, style, and layout resemble those of journalistic publications, from which readers expect independent and objective reporting. While customer magazines are distributed in high numbers throughout different industries and play an increasingly important role in the media landscape, they have hardly been the focus of researchers to date. It is therefore quite unclear how editorial decisions are made within these publications. This study investigated the relevance of journalistic news factors for topic selection in customer magazines and the extent to which these factors differ from those of journalistic publications. We conducted a quantitative survey of customer magazines’ editors-in-chief in Germany (N = 143). We compared their responses on the relevance of news factors to the findings of a survey of senior journalists. The findings revealed clear differences in the use of news factors between the two groups.
Research  Magazines  gatekeeping  selection  sources 
july 2017 by paulbradshaw
The Intercept’s Russian hacking report also seems to be a good example of how not to handle leaks » Nieman Journalism Lab
By Monday evening, a 25-year-old federal contractor, Reality Leigh Winner, was charged with leaking the documents (the first criminal leak case under Trump). If Winner was indeed The Intercept’s source, there are questions about whether The Intercept could have done more to protect her — starting with those PDFs it published as part of its story.
leaks  metadata  intercept  sources  whistleblowing 
june 2017 by paulbradshaw
Journalistic exemption from the Data Protection Act under threat from EU law change – Press Gazette
The GDPR will give people greater rights over their personal data and strengthen the rules on consent. It will also enshrine the ‘right to be forgotten’ into EU legislation.

The regulation does not include a journalistic exemption. It leaves EU states to provide their own.

And this gives the UK government the opportunity to introduce a new, less generous exemption, as suggested by the Leveson Inquiry.
dp  dataprotection  law  sources 
may 2017 by paulbradshaw
Tracing the Sources: A comparative content analysis of Belgian health news: Journalism Practice: Vol 0, No 0
This article explores health journalists’ sourcing patterns in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium across a range of different media including newspapers, magazines, radio, television and online health news websites. A cross-sectional quantitative content analysis of health news items collected in February 2015 (N = 981) was established to examine the number and origin (e.g. industry, citizens, experts) of sources (N = 1998) mentioned in health news stories with particular attention paid to differences across various media types. Despite recent claims of media convergence, cross-media comparisons are scarce and, for a specialized beat such as health, nonexistent. The key findings of this study indicate that ordinary citizens and academic experts constitute the two largest source categories. The small share of industry-related sources confirms journalists’ skeptical attitude towards content provided by the industry. But on closer inspection, large differences can be observed across various media types. On the one hand, ordinary citizens occur with relatively high frequency on television but hardly make an appearance in online news items. Academic sources, on the other hand, are dominant online but nearly absent in television news items. In sum, this analysis demonstrates that health journalists’ source uses differ across various media platforms.
Research  sources  health 
march 2017 by paulbradshaw
Investigating A Cyberwar | Global Investigative Journalism Network
Generally I tend to be extremely honest when I contact people. I say who I am and that I appreciate the reasons why they would not talk to me, and then ask if there is anything that could change their mind. I find that instead of telling people what I want them to do, asking them what they would like to do works wonders, even with people who operate outside the law. As a TV reporter I need quite a degree of collaboration to get my interviewees in front of the camera, and email exchanges or phone calls don’t give me a film.
sources  Interviewing  gamejournalism 
march 2017 by paulbradshaw
Report: Newsrooms must improve source protection in face of government attacks – Press Gazette
It also called for journalists working with confidential sources to be given more training on the “practicalities and limitations” of their care and protection and said this should also be offered to trainee journalists “as an integral part” of university or NCTJ journalism courses.
Security  Report  sources  t 
february 2017 by paulbradshaw
Understanding fake news in 2016: Before the truth gets its pants on* – Jeanine Finn
Below is my effort at basic reading list on some good academic work discussing how people get their news, why they believe what they do, and how models from traditional news work may or may not apply to the social media world. People study this question in mass communication, but also within the disciplines of information science and human-computer interaction. This is a small slice of the research, but these are some articles and books that have been the most useful to me.
Research  fakenews  newsroom  sources 
january 2017 by paulbradshaw
Canadian Journalist’s Detention at U.S. Border Raises Press Freedom Alarms - The New York Times
He was ultimately denied entry, and he said though he was not given a reason, he was told his name matched that of a “person of interest.” During the hours of detention, he was asked to describe how and why he had traveled to each country he had visited in the past five years, and questioned about whether he had seen anyone die.

Agents requested access to his phones and to look through his photos so that they could make sure he was “not posing next to any dead bodies,” he said. When he refused, citing the need to protect his sources as a journalist, they took the phones, he said.

The phones were later returned and showed signs that the SIM cards had been replaced, he said. Giving up the contents of his private phone would be akin to a doctor giving up confidential patient information, he said.
pressfreedom  sources  Security 
december 2016 by paulbradshaw
Eric King and Daniella Lock: Investigatory Powers Bill: Key Changes Made by the Lords | UK Constitutional Law Association
protections for journalistic material that have been added to the Bill are a far cry from the kind of protections provided for in Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984, which requires a hearing on notice in front of a judge in order for journalistic material to be accessed – with the Government and the affected party both permitted to make legal representations. Indeed, there is no opportunity for such representations in the Investigatory Powers Act. What’s more, the new amendments contain no formal requirement that the relevant authority treats the case any differently just because they see that journalistic material may be involved. The National Union of Journalists have since condemned the passing of the bill along with many other free expression groups.
IPBill  law  surveillance  ipact  sources 
december 2016 by paulbradshaw
Journalists urged to resist proposed laws which threaten sources and photographers – Press Gazette
A clause in the Digital Economy Bill will make it a criminal offence to pass on information that has not been “authorised for sharing”. Which of us has not been given internal documents by a whistleblower to provide the basis for a story about corruption, bad employment practices or wasted public money?  In future, both journalist and whistleblower will risk criminal prosecution.

And finally there is the Police and Crime Bill, intended to make possible the prosecution of stalkers.  But its implications for journalism – particularly photography – are chilling. It would criminalise taking multiple images of a person without their permission.

There is a public interest defence but, as the amendment is currently framed, an individual photographer might potentially be arrested and thrown in the cells before they were given a chance to make the case that their work was legitimate.  If the subject of the photography was wealthy and powerful, a photographer could find themselves making their case from behind bars, in the face of expensive lawyers trying to ensure that they remained locked up.
law  surveillance  whistleblowing  sources  medialaw 
november 2016 by paulbradshaw
Australian Government Using Data Retention Law To Seek Out Journalists' Sources, Hunt Down Whistleblowers | Techdirt
Media and Arts Alliance, has warned that they’re likely to become a test case for a little known provision snuck into the Government’s Data Retention laws, the Journalist Information Warrant Scheme. The new laws allow police and other investigative bodies to seek access to the phone records, emails and browser histories of journalists in order to track down sources they suspect of leaking confidential information.
Obviously, this raised concerns when the data retention law was first proposed. A band-aid was presented by legislators who threw in a few token "safeguards" to protect journalists' sources. But in practice, these safeguards aren't guarding anything. At best, they only give the appearance of adversarial proceedings before the government is given the greenlight to go digging through metadata.
whistleblowing  sources  Australia  surveillance  law 
september 2016 by paulbradshaw
Facebook recommended that this psychiatrist’s patients friend each other | Fusion
“He laughed and said, ‘I don’t know any of these people who showed up on my list— I’m guessing they see you,'” recounted Lisa. “He showed me the list of friend recommendations, and I recognized some of my patients.”

She sat there awkwardly and silently. To let him know that his suspicion was correct would violate her duty to protect her patients’ privacy.

Another one of her female patients had a friend recommendation pop up for a fellow patient she recognized from the office’s elevator. Suddenly, she knew the other patient’s full name along with all their Facebook profile information.
Privacy  sources  psychiatry 
august 2016 by paulbradshaw
News Consumer Perceptions of New Journalistic Sourcing Techniques - Journalism Studies -
This study examines how news consumers evaluate the use of digital sources in the journalistic news production process. It also assesses to what extent credibility judgments depend on whether consumers learn that journalists have visibly verified the information they have obtained from a certain source. Using a scenario study, we found that scenarios picturing online sourcing techniques, such as using information from Twitter and Facebook, are perceived as non-credible. This negative judgment is not mitigated by visible verification.
sources  Research  trust  verification 
june 2016 by paulbradshaw
No More Sources? - Journalism Practice -
From June 2013, documents leaked by the National Security Agency (NSA) dissident Edward Snowden revealed that Western intelligence agencies are capable of bulk collection of electronic communications flowing through global telecommunication systems. Surveillance data shared by the “Five Eyes” eavesdropping agencies of the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand include journalist’s communications. In the wake of the Snowden leak, Zygmunt Bauman and colleagues called for a systematic assessment of the scale, reach and character of contemporary surveillance practices. This paper explores a specific part of Bauman’s task by assessing the impact of the Snowden revelations on confidential source-based journalism. Interviews were conducted with a range of investigative journalists who have experience of covering national security in Five Eyes countries. All expressed serious concern over the intelligence agencies’ greatly enhanced capability to track journalists and to identify and neutralise their sources. The paper concludes that there is clear evidence of a paradigmatic shift in journalist–source relations as those interviewed regard Five Eyes mass surveillance as a most serious threat to the fourth estate model of journalism as practised in Western democratic countries.
sources  Research  lashmar  nsa  surveillance 
may 2016 by paulbradshaw
“Just Doing His Job” - Journalism Studies - Volume 17, Issue 5
In May 2013, newspaper reports revealed that, three years earlier, the Department of Justice had searched the email account of Fox News' reporter James Rosen in an effort to find the source who had leaked him classified information. In the search warrant application, Rosen had been named as a co-conspirator, rendering the legal protections that generally prevent such searches of journalists' work materials inapplicable. This essay provides an in-depth look at this episode and argues that by reacting to this news as a profession defending its turf, the news media ignored some of the troubling ethical aspects of this case.
Research  surveillance  ethics  leaks  sources 
may 2016 by paulbradshaw
UK spy agencies have collected bulk personal data since 1990s, files show | World news | The Guardian
A cache of more than 100 memorandums, forms and policy papers, obtained by Privacy International during a legal challenge over the lawfulness of surveillance, demonstrates that collection of bulk data has been going on for longer than previously disclosed while public knowledge of the process was suppressed for more than 15 years.

The files show that GCHQ, the government’s electronic eavesdropping centre based in Cheltenham, was collecting and developing bulk data sets as early as 1998 under powers granted by section 94 of the 1984 Telecommunications Act.

The documents offer a unique insight into the way MI5, MI6, and GCHQ go about collecting and storing bulk data on individuals, as well as authorising discovery of journalists’ sources.
surveillance  law  sources  noda16 
april 2016 by paulbradshaw
Send a media enquiry | ResponseSource Journalist Enquiry Service
The ResponseSource media request service saves time for journalists by putting you in touch with PR professionals who have the information you need. Ask for expert comment, review products, images and any other help you need to create features and news. About sending ResponseSource enquiries.
sources  tools 
april 2016 by paulbradshaw
Political Journalists’ Interaction Networks - Journalism Practice -
This article examines with whom political journalists interact on Twitter and what information they share. These relations are explored by combining a content analysis and a network analysis of interaction patterns. The activities published on journalists’ personal accounts are studied. Prior research has shown that elite journalists, in particular, mainly seek to remain gatekeepers and tend to normalize emerging communication spaces. Only one-quarter of the parliamentary correspondents in the German Federal Press Conference had an individual Twitter profile as of February 2014. The content analysis of all tweets published during a week in March 2014 (N = 2210) reveals that German political journalists clearly normalize Twitter to fit existing practices: the journalists mostly tweeted about publicly relevant communication and reported in an information-oriented style. Transparency was limited on their topics of interest, and they did not provide direct opportunities for the audience to become more active in the news-creation process. The network analysis shows that the correspondents especially incorporated politicians into their regular circle of contacts. Nevertheless, the interaction networks were clearly dominated by exchanges between journalists. In this way, journalists’ tweets allow us to observe expert talks rather than encouraging users to participate in a discussion.
germany  Research  Twitter  networks  sources 
april 2016 by paulbradshaw
Viewpoint, Testimony, Action - Journalism Studies -
In the production of news, the frames presented by selected sources play a critical role. However, to create coherent, authoritative, and relevant news stories from the selected input, journalists need to actively transform the available material and fit it within a journalistic news frame. In our study, we investigate how Israeli, Palestinian, and foreign (US, UK, German) newspapers made use of highly salient source statements in their coverage of the kidnapping and murder of three Israeli and one Palestinian teenager in summer 2014. Performing a qualitative analysis, we identify three characteristic ways in which journalists reposition selected sources’ frames within their coverage: journalists can rely on selected source frames to present specific, subjective viewpoints; they can present multiple source frames as testimonies about newsworthy events; and they can interpret them as communicative actions in sources’ struggle for recognition in the public arena. Each strategy contributes to the construction of a different, broad class of news frames, reflecting different journalistic styles and norms. We discuss implications for the study of news frames and the different roles of political sources within the news.
Research  sources 
april 2016 by paulbradshaw
Sourcing the BBC’s Live Online Coverage of Terror Attacks - Digital Journalism -
The live blog or live page has emerged as a bespoke format for covering breaking news online and represents an important “site” to investigate the impact of social media on news sourcing. This article assesses whether the adoption of live online coverage has facilitated a more “multiperspectival” journalism through the inclusion of “non-official” sources. The article is based on comparative content analyses of the BBC’s coverage of Anders Behring Breivik’s killing spree in 2011 and the Mumbai terror attacks in 2008. The article is strengthened by “triangulating” data from interviews, access to BBC documents and observation work at the BBC. The comparison reveals that the incorporation of eyewitness accounts has driven an increase in the inclusion of “non-official” sources in the BBC’s live online coverage, but it suggests that further significant increases are unlikely. In particular, the use of Twitter was becoming normalised by 2011 both in the range of actors who use the microblogging tool and the BBC’s approach to sourcing content from Twitter. The article suggests that journalists’ approach to sourcing continues to depend as much on conceptions of news values and editorial approach as it does on the live blogging platform through which the news is disseminated.
Research  Liveblogging  bbc  terrorism  sources 
april 2016 by paulbradshaw
Tips for persuading reluctant news sources to talk | The Buttry Diary
I’m going to generalize (and thus perhaps miss a few rare situations) that in most of these situations, the reluctance stems from one or more of these factors:

The information you seek is confidential, protected by law or policy.
The person doesn’t know (or fully know) what you want to know.
The person doesn’t trust you.
The information you seek is personal and painful.
I’ll address these in order.
Interviewing  sources 
april 2016 by paulbradshaw
GroundSource is trying to help news sites build community through text-message conversations » Nieman Journalism Lab
Often, especially in lower-income communities, the media only enters the community in times of crisis, when there’s been a crime or disaster. GroundSource can eliminate many of the barriers between communities and news organizations by making it as simple as sending a text to communicate and share an experience.

The Public Insight Network was much more focused on the concept of becoming part of a network of sources who are shaping the news. That can be powerful, but it’s only appealing to people who believe the following: 1. Journalism is important to our community. 2. I have a role in shaping that journalism. 3. I have the ability to articulate that experience in a way that someone else may find valuable. 4. I have the time to sit down and fill out a survey.
txt  chat  diversity  sources  tools  cm 
march 2016 by paulbradshaw
women also know stuff
This site is intended to provide an  accessible database of female scholars in political science in a variety of areas.

This site was created and is maintained by political scientists and, as such, focuses on politics, policy, and government, but also on methods in the social sciences. (We’re certain that women know stuff in other fields too, though!)
gender  diversity  experts  sources  people 
march 2016 by paulbradshaw
The small hyperlocal with the big story | Centre for Community Journalism
Our approach to running the story was different from many other media outlets. For example, we contacted as many of the individuals named in the email as we could and asked for their consent to name them. Several were shaken by the email and asked not to be named and we honoured that. We did not reproduce the email in full because to do so would identify the residents involved, particularly the main target of the proposed smear campaign. As a hyperlocal serving our city, it is important to Star & Crescent that we acknowledge and respect the power differential not only between politicians and citizens, but also between citizens and journalists. By the next day, The Guardian had the story and everyone was named, whether they liked it or not.
sources  ethics  Hyperlocal 
february 2016 by paulbradshaw
Where Does BuzzFeed Source Its Content From?
We wrote a simple crawler (see code) using the Priceonomics Analysis Engine, our tool that makes it easy to crawl and analyze web data, and then analyzed what the sources were used for the images that BuzzFeed includes in their articles.  In the last year, BuzzFeed published about 69,000 articles, included 830,000 images/videos with attribution strings, and linked to approximately 74,000 distinct sources.
scrapingeg  buzzfeed  Tumblr  sources  plagiarism 
february 2016 by paulbradshaw
Victimized On Plain Sites - Digital Journalism - Volume 4, Issue 2
This study employs a content analysis of the Steubenville (Ohio) sexual assault case to explore the mainstream media characterization of the victim and perpetrators. Researchers examined articles from local news organizations (N = 422) and national news organizations (N = 156) to answer the overall research question centering on how new technologies are being employed as sources by traditional media sources. The results outline implications for scholars and practitioners as it relates to how the use of social media sources can shape the narrative of the victim and perpetrators.
sources  gender  rape  Research 
february 2016 by paulbradshaw
News sources and follow-up communication - Journalism Practice -
For sports actors, social media provide the opportunity to bypass sports journalism's gatekeeping function and to disseminate sports-related information to target groups directly. Thus, social media have been conceptualized as a competitor to journalism. We argue that the relation is much more diverse. We differentiate between competitive, integrative, and complementary facets of the relationship between sports journalism and social media. Our study focuses on complementarity and analyzes how far social and mainstream media serve as sources for each other. Therefore, we combine an online survey among 122 German sports journalists, an analysis of the Twitter networks of German sports journalists during the Winter Olympics 2014, and a content analysis of the most popular news items in social media. Results suggest that sports journalists perceive social media accounts of athletes as beneficial news sources, especially to gather inside information. Huge sports events influence the social media activities of sports journalists as they tend to have stronger connections to athletes at these times. Whereas social media appear to be significant sources for sports journalism, sports media content receives little attention in social media. However, our results indicate that sports journalism and social media indeed maintain a complementary relation.
sources  Research  sm  sport 
february 2016 by paulbradshaw
Bill Goodwin: Journalists still get a raw deal in court | Media | The Guardian
The information showed that the financial performance of Tetra, a computer software company, was at odds with the rosy picture portrayed in the company's public announcements and press releases. But this cut little ice with the courts, who ruled, as they have done in the Interbrew case, that under a piece of law known as Norwich Pharmacal, I was mixed up in the wrongdoing of my source, and had a duty to disclose his identity.

The Engineer, like the Guardian, relied on section 10 of the Contempt of Court Act for its defence. Section 10 gives journalists the right to protect their sources unless it is necessary to disclose them in the interests of justice or national security, or to prevent disorder or crime.
sources  law 
october 2015 by paulbradshaw
THE POWERS THAT TWEET - Journalism Studies -
This article examines the impact of social media on Czech news media content. The study relies on a content analysis of a six-month sample of news articles collected in 2013 and focuses on social networking sites (SNSs), namely Facebook and Twitter, in their capacity as acknowledged sources in the agenda of traditional news media in the Czech Republic. The results include information on the differences between tabloid and quality press, the topics and actors that are likely to be associated with social media in their capacity as sources, the links between social media sources and the geographical focus of the news, and the type of social media content that the news media are inclined to use. The main features of the utilization of SNSs as news sources in the Czech Republic can be characterized by low intensity, a preference for domestic affairs, and a bias toward tabloidization. In several examined categories, we found evidence of consistently disparate uses of Facebook and Twitter that caution against generalizations about the role of social media in journalism and signal the requirement for a more nuanced approach to individual platforms. The article concludes that Czech news media do not fully exploit the democratic potential of SNSs and favor elite sources.
Twitter  Research  czech  sources 
august 2015 by paulbradshaw
This study examines whether citizen journalists adhere to traditional journalistic norms when reporting. A nationwide survey and follow-up interviews with selected US citizen journalists showed they do consider traditional norms such as objectivity, gatekeeping, and balance to be very important. This is contrary to what some previous studies have found. Citizen journalists also indicated that both official and unofficial sources were integral to storytelling. This study's findings point to the need to examine further how citizen journalists incorporate traditional notions of journalism practice into their approaches to gathering and reporting news.
cj  Research  sources  objectivity 
august 2015 by paulbradshaw
When Critical Voices Should Speak Up - Journalism Practice - Volume 8, Issue 6
Routine journalistic coverage relies heavily on official sources, which are least likely to raise critical questions about the causes and consequences of disasters such as the 2010 BP oil spill. It is possible, though, that disasters—precisely because they are unexpected—at least temporarily dislodge journalistic routines that sideline independent, more critical voices. This study uses Gulf Coast newspaper coverage of the BP oil spill to examine whether there are two discernible stages of crisis reporting, the first marked by the more frequent use of unofficial sources (and thus, a more critical tone to the coverage), followed by a narrowing of those perspectives seen as being legitimate as the official interpretation of the crisis emerges, and journalists index their coverage to match that interpretation.
Research  sources 
july 2015 by paulbradshaw
Safe Harbour - Tomorrow
For information and sources of information, we apply the following rules, developed by Tristan Stewart-Robertson in August 2011, from the notion of Isaac Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics.

Three Laws for Digital Systems and Journalists:
1. Digital systems must be designed to protect, to the fullest extent possible, personal data and its exchange and communication.

2. Journalists must pursue all stories deemed to be in the public interest, even where that may require challenging the security of digital systems.

3. Journalists must protect their sources as well as innocent public to the same extent as the digital systems of the First Law, where it would otherwise render the impossibility of the Second Law.
ethics  sources  from twitter
july 2015 by paulbradshaw
Journalism: New Challenges
the role of the journalist in a democratic society, including where questions of truth and free speech are concerned;
the changing priorities of newspaper, radio, television, magazine, photography, and online news organisations;
the political, economic and technological pressures on news and editorial independence;
the impact of digital convergence on the forms and practices of newsgathering and storytelling;
the dynamics of professionalism, such as the negotiation of impartiality and objectivity in news reports;
journalists’ relationships with their sources, not least where the ‘spin’ of public relations shapes what’s covered, how and why;
evolving genres of news reporting, including politics, business, sports, celebrity, documentary, war and peace journalism;
journalism’s influence on its audiences, from moral panics to the trauma of representing violence and tragedy;
the globalisation of news, including the role of international news agencies;
new approaches to investigative reporting in a digital era;
and the rise of citizen journalism, live-blogging and social media, amongst many others.
book  Research  Journalism  cj  moralpanic  sources  impartiality  objectivity  convergence 
july 2015 by paulbradshaw
New research: 11-point plan for protecting journalism sources in the digital age - World News Publishing Focus by WAN-IFRA
Acts of journalism should be shielded from targeted surveillance, data retention and handover of material connected to confidential sources. That’s a key early finding of a study on the state of journalistic source protection in 121 countries undertaken for UNESCO by the World Editors Forum (within WAN-IFRA). Preliminary outcomes from the research were launched in Washington DC today during the World News Media Congress.
Research  sources  surveillance  Security  report  law 
july 2015 by paulbradshaw
What Journalists and Researchers Have in Common About Ethics - Journal of Mass Media Ethics - Volume 20, Issue 1
The past several decades have seen an increase in the concern for the treatment of human participants in research. Similarly, the ways journalists treat their subjects and sources have generated much concern. The ethics of these 2 endeavors share much in common, because both must use people in various ways to reach their goals. The well-developed guidelines in research designed to protect research participants' autonomy, to guard against needless deception, and to recognize the special needs of vulnerable research participants have direct application to journalism. They can provide easy reference heuristics for journalists to use in making ethical decisions.
Research  Ethics  sources 
june 2015 by paulbradshaw
Taylor & Francis Online
Despite their assertion of a First Amendment or common law reporter's privilege in federal courts, journalists continue to face jail sentences and exorbitant fines for refusing to divulge their confidential sources when subpoenaed. Efforts to pass even a limited federal shield law have failed so far. This article offers another avenue to protect journalists—examining the roots of contempt law and policy to highlight limits on the contempt power of judges. It argues that because journalists are part of a group resting on steadfast moral and professional convictions, they may validly argue that confinement and excessive fines are improper sanctions. The article also suggests refinements in shield law proposals and other legislation to clarify the extent of judicial contempt power.
Research  sources  law  contempt 
june 2015 by paulbradshaw
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