paulbradshaw + objectivity   96

Back to the Future: How UK-based news organisations are rediscovering objectivity: Journalism Practice: Vol 0, No 0
The emergence of “fake news” during the Brexit referendum and Trump election campaign sent news organisations scurrying to establish teams of journalists to debunk deliberately misleading stories and verify facts. This paper examines steps to counter false stories and asks whether normative values of objectivity are about to enjoy a comeback. Typical markers of objectivity (freedom from bias, detachment and fact-based reporting) date back to the nineteenth century and, despite being ingrained in the Anglo-American news culture, have always been subject to challenge. Recently, the growth of partisan and populist media has illustrated deep distrust in traditional news outlets and is questioning whether it is time to jettison objectivity. But are we experiencing a backlash? Through interviews with senior UK-based journalists at legacy news organisations and analysis of editorial policy statements prompted by a UK parliamentary inquiry, the paper explores how fake news is rekindling debate about objectivity and its potential to make quality journalism stand out. It argues that legacy news organisations in the United Kingdom have seized the opportunity to highlight the value of normative practices that draw on familiar components of the objectivity paradigm. But few have the financial strength to bolster the rhetoric with additional editorial resources.
Research  objectivity 
july 2018 by paulbradshaw
54 newsrooms, 9 countries, and 9 core ideas: Here’s what two researchers found in a yearlong quest for journalism innovation » Nieman Journalism Lab
news media most successful at creating and maintaining ties with their readers, users, listeners and viewers will increasingly be media that dare challenge some of the journalist dogmas of the last century: the dogma of arm’s length; the dogma of neutrality; the dogma of objectivity; the belief that journalists have a special ability to find and choose what is important for citizens. And not least: the basic idea, that journalism is primarily about transporting news and information from A to B.
innovation  bm  research  t  s  cm  objectivity  membership  intrapreneurship 
july 2018 by paulbradshaw
Public and private, the limits of transparency in Charlie Gard’s case – an update | The Transparency Project
But being paid only by the media and not by the source is surely not a complete answer to the point. Detachment and objectivity are no less relevant to conflict of interest here, and Alison Smith-Squire has made her support for Charlie’s parents and their view of the case quite clear in the account published on her own website.  In The Times on Saturday 29 July, Alexi Mostrous, the paper’s head of investigations, wrote an article about the publicity campaign and its series of protagonists: Alison Smith-Squire, the Rev Patrick Mahoney, director of the US Christian Defense Coalition, and former UKIP council candidate Alasdair Seton-Marsden.  The article questioned whether the publicity had been in the family’s best interests, and quoted Charlie Beckett, professor of media at LSE as saying
ethics  interviews  charliegard  pr  objectivity  impartiality  reallife 
december 2017 by paulbradshaw
Food for Thought in Restaurant Reviews: Lifestyle journalism or an extension of marketing in UK and Australian newspapers: Journalism Practice: Vol 0, No 0
Coverage of food journalism has increased in contemporary media and restaurant reviews are a regular feature in newspapers. The reaction to a rating of zero for a restaurant in The Weekend Australian newspaper in 2016 highlighted the role and expectations of critics. It also raised the issue of whether this form of lifestyle journalism included traditional journalistic objectives, or was influenced more by commercial factors. In this environment, it is therefore valuable to explore whether restaurant reviews are more aligned with detached journalism or an extension of marketing. Utilising a content analysis, this pilot study examines the ratings of food critics in four broadsheet/quality newspapers in Australia and the United Kingdom. During the three years of the data collection, 550 restaurant reviews were coded. The pattern of review marks suggested more supportive judgements than critical ones, and was consistent with the softer side of journalism.
Research  food  reviews  lifestyle  objectivity  specialistjournalism 
november 2017 by paulbradshaw
The New York Times released new staff social media guidelines, so phew, thankfully that’s settled » Nieman Journalism Lab
linking to other sources, aim to reflect a diverse collection of viewpoints. Sharing a range of news, opinions or satire from others is usually appropriate. But consistently linking to only one side of a debate can leave the impression that you, too, are taking sides…
sm  Guidelines  nytimes  objectivity  s 
october 2017 by paulbradshaw
Social Media’s Challenge to Journalistic Norms and Values during a Terror Attack: Digital Journalism: Vol 5, No 9
Over the past decade, the frequency of terror attacks around the world has increased. In the context of the 22 July 2011 terror attacks in Norway, social media use by citizens, and even victims, became an essential feature of reporting. Social media confronted the legacy media’s way of covering crisis events. It raised questions about traditional journalism’s ability to handle audience’s as, not only news consumers, but also producers. In the present article, we look at the ways in which the professional norms and values of traditional journalism are specifically challenged by social media use in times of terror, using the 22 July 2011 attacks as a case study. We find that Norwegian journalists initially held to their professional roles, and to the classic self-representational principles of journalism, including objectivity, autonomy and immediacy. When they integrated social media into their traditional platforms and modes of coverage, they framed it as a “source” of sorts. As the 22 July 2011 event coverage became more focused on the collective grief felt by the nation, in turn, the traditional journalistic principles of objectivity and autonomy became less relevant, enabling yet more audience participation and social media use in relation to the attack.
sm  terrorism  ugc  objectivity 
october 2017 by paulbradshaw
Veritable Flak Mill: A case study of Project Veritas and a call for truth: Journalism Studies: Vol 0, No 0
Flak may be concisely defined as political harassment and is detrimental to community for its strained ethical posture, cynicism, and corrosive impact on social and political bonds of trust. Following conceptualization of flak that differentiates it from scandal and activism, this investigation focuses on Project Veritas as its case study. Veritas is a right-wing flak mill that, using media, has set out to professionally damage people and organizations across almost a decade. The investigation telescopes in on two Veritas stunts that provoked reviews by the justice systems of California and Texas. In these cases, the California Attorney General and Texas special prosecutors delivered astringent criticisms of Veritas’ covertly-recorded “sting” videos, while largely or wholly exonerating their flak targets (Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now [ACORN], Battleground Texas). Along with conceptualizing and critiquing flak, the investigation concludes with a call for news that extends beyond fact-checking and the limited, complacent techniques of objectivity in favor of more ambitious pursuit of truth.
Research  ij  undercover  factchecking  objectivity 
october 2017 by paulbradshaw
Precarious Balance: How journalists negotiate notions of autonomy in the trade-off with political actors: Journalism Practice: Vol 0, No 0
This article explores how journalists negotiate notions of autonomy in their daily exchanges with politicians. Based on qualitative data analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted in Chile, this article argues that, when analysed from the perspective of journalists, notions of autonomy appear to be negotiated in three distinct dimensions. First, a professional narrative built upon news values firmly grounded in commercial considerations; second, an organizational narrative that rests upon editorial lines that occasionally become explicit editorial biases, and third, a sense of belonging to an encapsulated community inhabited by journalists, politicians and communication officers. Data analysis suggests that core claims of autonomy in political reporting stem from values of newsworthiness greatly influenced by a commercial logic of audience maximization. This professional autonomy, though, has to be upheld at the organizational and the relational level, and appears tensioned by the appearance of new media and political actors who push journalists towards a public-oriented role. The implications of these findings for journalistic practice are discussed.
Research  objectivity  Independence 
may 2017 by paulbradshaw
From Separation to Collaboration: Perspectives on editorial–business collaboration at United States news organizations: Digital Journalism: Vol 0, No 0
The separation of editorial and business departments has long been regarded as central to the identity and integrity of journalism in the United States. Financial challenges confronting news organizations are seeing a gradual relaxation of this separation, though tensions remain. This study examines the perspectives of those involved in creating, developing, and executing specific editorial–business collaborative initiatives intended to enhance the financial standing of their respective news organizations. Drawing on organizational theory, it uses qualitative interviews with individuals at editorial and business departments of various news organizations to ascertain the scope and nature of these initiatives and the factors that participants attribute to their success. It identifies a range of different initiatives, finds that such initiatives have organization-wide effects, and categorizes factors affecting the success of collaborative initiatives into individual, organizational, and institutional levels.
Research  Advertising  objectivity  conflictsofinterest 
may 2017 by paulbradshaw
The Epistemology of Environmental Journalists: The case of China: Journalism Studies: Vol 18, No 6
This paper offers a case study of the epistemology of Chinese environmental investigative journalists, drawn from 42 in-depth interviews conducted between 2011 and 2013. The study proposes that it is the knowledge that journalists form, rather than whether the knowledge is objective, which is important for understanding the epistemology of environmental investigative journalists. The analysis reveals that four types of knowledge are central to what participants come to know about environmental issues in the process of validating evidence and making judgments. The importance of experience, cognition and evidence-based judgment in the knowledge formation process means there is an inevitable (but covert) involvement of journalists’ subjectivity in their reports. This suggests that the participants practise an advocacy and ethnographic journalism, characterised by pragmatism, existentialism and particular standpoints, while making a strong claim to “truth”. These standpoints are generated in the pre-writing investigation stage rather than in the writing-up stage. Therefore, in this case study, the epistemology of environmental investigative journalism is concerned with how and when meanings and opinions are generated in the process of knowledge acquisition, rather than whether the knowledge is objective.
environment  Research  objectivity 
may 2017 by paulbradshaw
Data Journalism, Impartiality and Statistical Claims: Data Journalism, Impartiality and Statistical Claims: Journalism Practice: Vol 0, No 0
The use of data is often viewed as a potentially powerful democratic force in journalism, promoting the flow of information sources and enriching debates in the public sphere. We explore a key feature of the relationship between data and journalism, drawing upon the largest ever study of statistical references in news reporting (N = 4285) commissioned by the BBC Trust to examine how statistics inform coverage in a wide range of UK television, radio and online media (N = 6916). Overall, our study provides a cautionary tale about the use of data to enlighten democratic debate. While we found that statistics were often referenced in news coverage, their role in storytelling was often vague, patchy and imprecise. Political and business elites were the main actors referencing statistics and interpreting them, but many of their claims were neither questioned nor interrogated further by journalists, with statistics often traded by opposing sides of an argument without independent analysis. In order to enhance the independent scrutiny of statistics, we argue a radical shift in newsgathering and journalistic interpretation is needed, which allows reporters to draw on a wider range of statistical sources and to adopt more critical judgements based on the weight of statistical evidence.
dj  Research  ethics  statistics  objectivity 
november 2016 by paulbradshaw
How to Cover a Charlatan Like Trump -
If a known con artist peddles a potion that he claims will make people lose 25 pounds and enjoy a better sex life, we don’t just quote the man and a critic; we find ways to signal to readers that he’s a fraud. Why should it be different when the con man runs for president?
verification  hesaidshesaid  objectivity  trump  elections  balance 
september 2016 by paulbradshaw
Media should rethink coverage in wake of Brexit vote, says Justin Webb | Television & radio | The Guardian
“One of the clearest messages during the referendum campaign was that audiences were hungry for real knowledge. People wanted to go beyond claim and counter-claim so that they could work out what was true.”

The aftermath of the vote has been marked by leading leave campaigners backtracking on claims made before the vote, such as the pledge by Vote Leave to spend £350m “sent to the EU every week” on the NHS.
impartiality  objectivity  euref  bbc 
july 2016 by paulbradshaw
US study suggests volume of coverage matters more than tone — Medium
Statistical models that try to account for potential inter-relationships between media coverage and polls show that the volume of [US Presidential wannabe Donald] Trump’s coverage is helping to drive his poll numbers, and vice versa. But the tone of coverage has no apparent relationship to poll numbers, once you account for volume.””
objectivity  politics  coverage  bias 
june 2016 by paulbradshaw
City AM takes a revolutionary step by opening website to advertisers | Media | The Guardian
In addition, certain freelance writers and industry specialists will also be given special access to the paper’s content management system to enable them to upload articles to the site. As with the advertisers’ contributions, these will not be edited by City AM’s editorial team.

Corporate brands wishing to take part will be charged a monthly fee for a package, and their name will appear at the top of what will be regarded as their home page. Unlike native advertising, the content - and the company responsible for placing it - will be obvious.
Advertising  native  cityam  objectivity  chinesewall 
june 2016 by paulbradshaw
Writing for brands 'feels shitty' says Mashable Asia editor as panel debates credibility of content marketing - Mumbrella Asia
Lau Joon-Nie, a lecturer for journalism and publishing at the Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information at Singapore’s Nanyang Technological University, said that she was “fascinated” by Yahoo’s approach to newsroom structure, but believed editorial and sales teams should be kept separate.
“To me it might make a journalist feel schizophrenic. One day she is an objective journalist, the next day she is asked to write a branded piece about watches or whatever,” she said.
brandedcontent  branding  contentmarketing  objectivity  ethics  native 
may 2016 by paulbradshaw
Personal Branding on Twitter - Digital Journalism -
Social media are increasingly embedded into everyday communication. This challenges journalism to anticipate the changes that social media trigger in the use and production of (news) media. In this paper, we focus on personal branding on Twitter. Journalists are increasingly encouraged to develop a personal brand on Twitter. This offers them the opportunity to become news and opinion hubs and to increase their “market value”. Erving Goffman’s theatre metaphor is used as an analytical framework in which journalists are conceptualized as performers who are acting on a stage in front of an audience. Through a quantitative content analysis of the tweeting behaviour of 40 employed and freelance journalists, we explore the way they use social media to present themselves and which dilemma’s they are facing. We analyse tweeting behaviour in terms of the types of tweets, functions of tweets and modes of interaction. The quantitative content analysis is supplemented with in-depth interviews with 12 journalists, in order to analyse the reasoning behind their social media habits. Our findings show that journalists particularly struggle with being factual or opinionated, being personal or professional, how to balance broadcasting their message with engagement and how to promote themselves strategically.
Twitter  Research  branding  objectivity  ethics 
may 2016 by paulbradshaw
Who are we? - Journalism Practice -
This article scrutinises the usage of the words “we”, “us” and “our” by BBC radio journalists when reporting and discussing news and current affairs. By analysing reports and discussions on the “flagship” Radio 4 Today, a daily news programme whose centrality to political and public debate is widely recognised, the article raises substantive questions about clarity, accuracy and impartiality in senior broadcast journalists’ choice of language. In exploring the assumptions which may underlie the invocation, via such language choices, of an implied community, and against the backdrop of the BBC's commitment to impartiality in its Editorial Guidelines, the article identifies numerous recent examples where the choice of words and identifiers can be seen as undermining the BBC's impartiality and which show several of its senior journalists adopting the first-person plural “we” when reporting on matters of public policy. The findings therefore indicate a general need to codify norms which are seen to integrate the need for accuracy as well as impartiality, and for these norms to take into account issues which might at first glance seem to be inconsequential, micro-level features of the journalists’ language. The evidence suggests that more fine-grained guidelines on permissible circumstances for BBC journalists’ usage of “we” and “our” need revising and disseminating in the light of these findings.
Research  radio  bbc  objectivity 
january 2016 by paulbradshaw
Time To Engage - Digital Journalism -
This article explores De Correspondent as a specific example of slow journalism that aims to establish an alternative for quality journalism governed by the objectivity regime. It offers an analysis of the way the platform redefines journalism’s quality standards against the background of the tension between traditional modernistic claims to truth and competing postmodern ideas on the social construction of knowledge. Moreover, the article examines how these ideals are translated into journalistic texts. The article argues that both in its rhetoric and in its actual practice, the articles in De Correspondent deviate from the principles of quality journalism under the objectivity regime. They are structured around the mediating subjectivity of the journalists and are thus openly subjective. Yet, they also draw on empirical research and scientific knowledge. Moreover, they are transparent about the reporting process, which through their reflection becomes an integral part of the story itself. Thus, being transparent about their combination of different forms of knowledge, rooted in more traditional rational-positivistic inquiry as well as in personal experience and emotion, they try to reconcile the tension between the modernist and postmodernist claims to truth.
Research  slowjournalism  netherlands  objectivity 
january 2016 by paulbradshaw
This study examines whether citizen journalists adhere to traditional journalistic norms when reporting. A nationwide survey and follow-up interviews with selected US citizen journalists showed they do consider traditional norms such as objectivity, gatekeeping, and balance to be very important. This is contrary to what some previous studies have found. Citizen journalists also indicated that both official and unofficial sources were integral to storytelling. This study's findings point to the need to examine further how citizen journalists incorporate traditional notions of journalism practice into their approaches to gathering and reporting news.
cj  Research  sources  objectivity 
august 2015 by paulbradshaw
Journalism: New Challenges
the role of the journalist in a democratic society, including where questions of truth and free speech are concerned;
the changing priorities of newspaper, radio, television, magazine, photography, and online news organisations;
the political, economic and technological pressures on news and editorial independence;
the impact of digital convergence on the forms and practices of newsgathering and storytelling;
the dynamics of professionalism, such as the negotiation of impartiality and objectivity in news reports;
journalists’ relationships with their sources, not least where the ‘spin’ of public relations shapes what’s covered, how and why;
evolving genres of news reporting, including politics, business, sports, celebrity, documentary, war and peace journalism;
journalism’s influence on its audiences, from moral panics to the trauma of representing violence and tragedy;
the globalisation of news, including the role of international news agencies;
new approaches to investigative reporting in a digital era;
and the rise of citizen journalism, live-blogging and social media, amongst many others.
book  Research  Journalism  cj  moralpanic  sources  impartiality  objectivity  convergence 
july 2015 by paulbradshaw
A Three-Decade Retrospective on the Hostile Media Effect - Mass Communication and Society -
Some 30 years ago, Vallone, Ross, and Lepper (1985) conducted a pioneering study of the hostile media effect in which they demonstrated that partisans perceive media coverage as unfairly biased against their side. Over the ensuing decades, scores of experiments and surveys have extended their findings, demonstrating hostile media effects in a variety of domains. Taking the measure of the research more than 30 years later by systematically reviewing the many studies conducted in different locales, this article summarizes the knowledge base on the hostile media effect. The paper integrates findings, clarifies conceptual issues, and presents two research-based models of the effect. Future scholarly pathways are suggested, with a focus on how hostile media biases may change – or continue – in an era vastly different than the mass communication-dominated age in which the concept was pioneered.
hostilemedia  homophily  Research  bias  objectivity 
june 2015 by paulbradshaw
“These Grey Areas” - Journalism Studies -
International non-governmental organizations (INGOs) are known to employ freelancers to produce multimedia and to pitch it for them to mainstream news outlets. So it seems odd that research about the blurring of news organizations and INGOs has been largely focused upon the practices of full-time staff at these kinds of organizations. To help fill this lacuna, this article constructs a model capable of interrogating the multiple forms of structure and agency at the heart of such forms of freelancing by blending Critical Realist theory with work by Bourdieu. It then uses this model to analyse semi-structured interviews with six freelancers who were involved in the production of media items about sub-Saharan countries. All of them were found to erode the distinction between INGOs and news organizations through different kinds of commissioning and syndication practices. But this article's main critical contribution lies in its efforts to illuminate why freelancers chose to engage in such liminal work; for the legitimating rationales they employed enabled them to avoid the “inter-role conflicts” experienced by freelancers who work for news outlets and commercial public relations organizations.
freelance  Research  NGO  activism  objectivity 
june 2015 by paulbradshaw
Taylor & Francis Online :: BIASED INTERROGATIONS? - Journalism Studies - Volume 14, Issue 3
This study, based on Swedish data from three elections (2002, 2006 and 2010) and on a revised version of Clayman's and Heritage's conceptualization of aggressive questioning, examines bias in election campaign interviews with leading political figures. In the first part of the study, the prevalence of partisan bias is explored, and this analysis confirms that such bias does not exist. Informed by Conversation Analysis, a limited number of interviews from the 2006 election are investigated in the second part. This analysis also involves questions scripted by journalists, and it compares both quantitatively and qualitatively the differences between the manuscripts and live interaction. The results question the assumption that bias is solely related to journalistic values and actions. The level of aggressiveness in the interviews is also dependent on how the politicians manage the interview questions.
Research  elections  bias  objectivity  sweden  methodology 
april 2015 by paulbradshaw
The newsonomics of telling your audience what they should do » Nieman Journalism Lab
Let’s consider where the genesis of the expanded health coverage. It awoke out of WNYC’s earlier sleep project in the city that never sleeps. In spring, Clock Your Sleep involved 5,200 listeners in a project that involved good reporting and then invited people to join teams, led by WNYC hosts, to “compete” for better sleep, tracking their results. The quick data:

More than 40 percent of respondents said they noticed a change in their sleep since they started tracking it.
19.4 percent reported getting more sleep.
77 percent of respondents reported learning something while participating in the project.
cta  advocacy  health  objectivity 
november 2014 by paulbradshaw
The Twitterization of News Making: Transparency and Journalistic Professionalism - Revers - 2014 - Journal of Communication - Wiley Online Library
Revers conducted hundreds of hours of observation at the New York State Capitol between 2009 and 2011, focusing on journalistic tweeting habits as they developed. He also interviewed media members and political communications persons as part of the case study. He details the widely differing views among journalists about professional boundaries and notions of serving the public. Traditional norms gave way before the researcher’s eyes. “Journalists of this study felt less bound to keep themselves, their appreciation of others and assessments out of tweets, contrary to requirements of authoritative distance, competitive lines of division and stringent notions of objectivity,” Revers writes. “The faceless gatekeeper has given way to a more human and status-equal interlocutor who shares expertise and informed judgments.”
Twitter  Research  Transparency  objectivity  gatekeeping 
september 2014 by paulbradshaw
Opinion: Gay people have been given a chilling message about discussing their lives on air
In a response to a complaint, the BAI has ruled that any discussion by lesbian and gay people about their status and aspirations as Irish citizens can no longer be broadcast without being directly challenged on the same programme at the same time. The ruling sets a dubious standard for providing “balanced” broadcasting that forces broadcasters to turn every discussion into an argument.
balance  objectivity  ireland  sexuality 
august 2014 by paulbradshaw
Impartial Journalism's Enduring Value
mpartial journalism is a profession. That means exercising a skill that's separate from personal beliefs.

Doctors may not like their patients' politics, but they don't kill them in the operating room. Lawyers eloquently defend even the sleaziest clients. Journalists who seek to be impartial should be able to cover people and events irrespective of personal feelings.

Critics also confuse impartial reporting with impartial conclusions. Just because a reporter canvasses all points of view doesn't mean her completed story will be a mishmash of he-said, she-said.
objectivity  impartiality 
july 2014 by paulbradshaw
Taylor & Francis Online :: Partisans and Controversial News Online: Comparing Perceptions of Bias and Credibility in News Content From Blogs and Mainstream Media - Mass Communication and Society -
Based on the hostile media effect (HME), this 2 (partisan opinion) × 2 (news source) × 2 (content valence) factorial experiment investigated how partisans (N = 132), in terms of perceived bias and credibility, assess same-sex marriage coverage by either an online mainstream news source or a citizen blog. Partisans who disagreed with the content's valence evaluated both mainstream online news and the blog posting as more biased and less credible than did partisans who agreed with the content's valence. The perceived reach of blog postings appears to generate a relative HME similar to that triggered by mainstream news. In particular, this study suggests that user-generated content—specifically blog postings—might generate a stronger relative HME than that observed with mainstream news.
Research  Blogging  objectivity  bias 
may 2014 by paulbradshaw
Taylor & Francis Online :: Challenges to Selective Exposure: Selective Seeking and Avoidance in a Multitasking Media Environment - Mass Communication and Society -
The present research investigated selective exposure online, treating selective seeking and selective avoidance as independent phenomena. A behavior tracking measure was employed. Study 1 used an online quasi-experiment with voluntary national samples (n = 271). Consistent with early reviews on selective exposure, participants sought out attitude consonant information but did not systematically avoid attitude dissonant information compared to neutral information. Study 2 involved an experiment with student samples (n = 185) to examine the impact of cognitive load on selective behavior. The results revealed that those who were asked to multitask during an information search did not exercise any selectivity in information selection. The implications of information selection behavior in a multitasking media environment are discussed.
multitasking  newsroom  journalism  Research  objectivity 
may 2014 by paulbradshaw
The Functional Art: An Introduction to Information Graphics and Visualization: Weekly resources (3): Objectivity, data journalism, visualization, infographics
If objectivity means trying to ground truth claims in verifiable facts, I am definitely for that. If it means there’s a “hard” reality out there that exists beyond any of our descriptions of it, sign me up. If objectivity is the requirement to acknowledge what is, regardless of whether we want it to be that way, then I want journalists who can be objective in that sense.
objectivity  dj 
may 2014 by paulbradshaw
Taylor & Francis Online :: The Travelling Objectivity Norm - Journalism Studies -
This study investigates the significance of Xu Baohuang's 1919 textbook Xin wen xue on the articulation of an objectivity norm in the early Republican era in China. It addresses issues raised by cross-cultural or comparative analysis of journalistic norms. It also considers the need to maintain awareness of differences in the political and journalistic field in Republican-era China. Following Michael Schudson's essay, “The Objectivity Norm in American Journalism”, our analysis focuses on the articulation of the objectivity norm and looks for unique aspects of norm formation arising out of the Chinese context. As such, we see Xu's role as more than importing an American norm into China. Rather he codifies and legitimizes a norm that has a distinct relationship to local issues and media practice. We argue that while Xu's text articulates what can only be considered a nascent ideal, and not a fully matured objectivity norm, his work nevertheless codifies a new sense of news, and also a journalistic commitment to the cultivation of healthy public opinion.
objectivity  Research 
march 2014 by paulbradshaw
Taylor & Francis Online :: Do old Norms Have a Place in New Media? - Journalism Practice - Volume 8, Issue 1
Emerging business models for news have the potential to affect the nature of democracy. As the economic foundations of mainstream journalism become increasingly shaky, a new economic model is emerging in the form of news organizations operating as nonprofits. These are mostly run by former newspaper journalists bringing with them traditional journalistic norms they worked under previously; now they are operating under a vastly different economic framework. These organizations are producing a growing amount of public affairs news while mainstream news production shrinks. The research question examined here is whether this emergent form (1) changes but maintains core norms and practices of the journalistic culture from which it arose, or (2) transforms norms and practices into something new. I briefly review norms and practices of traditional journalism to create a framework against which to compare behaviors at one nonprofit news organization, MinnPost, through ethnographic observation and in-depth interviews. My findings indicate that MinnPost values some traditional norms (e.g. loyalty to citizens); other norms are valued but not fulfilled in a traditional way (e.g. comprehensiveness of news coverage); yet others are largely eschewed (e.g. forum provision). This suggests a set of evolving journalistic tenets, which observations indicate are linked to MinnPost's economic structure. It points toward how emerging business models are changing journalism, and by extension could be affecting American democracy. This paper is part of a larger project investigating how nonprofit news organizations are changing the information available in local news environments.
ethics  values  norms  objectivity 
january 2014 by paulbradshaw
Despite an increasing flow of images and video clips in digital news media, empirical studies of journalistic transparency have, so far, mostly investigated verbal messaging. This study examines to what extent expressed principles of accountability, interactivity, and background openness might also apply to the digital dissemination of visual storytelling. An inductive examination of global surveillance videos forwarded mainly by online news sites in Scandinavia indicates that independent of their factual accountability, surveillance videos serve a role as visual “proof” in the news. This study suggests that visual transparency in journalism, defined as visual disclosure of events, issues, and situations that have earlier been inaccessible to the public, is often accompanied by factual opaqueness. Thus, the reliance on surveillance videos as “objective” information allows media to reinforce existing power structures within society while appearing to be transparent. It emerges from the data that the growth of visual transparency in the news calls for closer examinations of the interrelationship between transparency and objectivity in journalism.
Research  surveillance  objectivity 
september 2013 by paulbradshaw
Objectivity and the decades-long shift from “just the facts” to “what does it mean?” » Nieman Journalism Lab
From this historical look, fast forward to the web era. The last several years have seen a broad conversation about “context” in news. From Matt Thompson’s key observation that a series of chronological updates don’t really inform, to Studio 20′s Explainer project, to a whole series of experiments and speculations around story form, context has been a hot topic for those trying to rethink Internet-era journalism.

I believe this type of contextual journalism is important, and I hope we will get better at understanding and teaching it. The Internet has solved the basic distribution of event-based facts in a variety of ways; no one needs a news organization to know what the White House is saying when all press briefings are posted on YouTube. What we do need is someone to tell us what it means. In other words, journalism must move up the information food chain — as, in fact, it has steadily been doing for five decades!
explainers  objectivity  Research  context 
june 2013 by paulbradshaw
A Bet is a Tax on Bullshit
A properly structured bet is the most credible guarantor of rigorous disinterest. In order to prove his point, Silver is not required to take the Obama side of the bet! At the odds implied by his model (currently between 3 and 4 to 1) Silver should be willing to take either side of a modest bet. Indeed, we could hold a coin toss, heads Silver takes the Obama side, tails he takes Romney.
gambling  objectivity 
november 2012 by paulbradshaw
Why political journalists can’t stand Nate Silver: The limits of journalistic knowledge | Mark Coddington
Joe Scarborough gets us even closer to the clash between processes of knowing when he tells Byers, “Nate Silver says this is a 73.6 percent chance that the president is going to win? Nobody in that campaign thinks they have a 73 percent chance — they think they have a 50.1 percent chance of winning. And you talk to the Romney people, it’s the same thing.” How does Scarborough know that Silver’s estimate is incorrect? He talked to sources in both campaigns. In Scarborough’s journalistic epistemology, this is the trump card: Silver’s methods cannot possibly produce more reliable information than the official sources themselves. These are the savviest, highest inside sources. They are the strongest form of epistemological proof — a “case closed” in an argument against calculations and numbers.
objectivity  natesilver  polls  statistics 
november 2012 by paulbradshaw
Taylor & Francis Online :: SUBJECTIVITY AND STORY-TELLING IN JOURNALISM - Journalism Studies -
This paper studies the role of subjectivity in the language of award-winning journalism. The paper draws on a content analysis of Pulitzer Prize-winning articles in a range of news categories between 1995 and 2011. The analysis indicates that despite the continued prominence of the ideal of objectivity in scholarly and journalistic debates, award-winning journalistic stories are in fact pervaded by subjective language in the form of what linguists refer to as “appraisals,” as well as the narrative construction of emotive appeals. The subjective language use of award-winning stories, however, does not straightforwardly or consistently undermine claims to objectivity. On that basis, the paper concludes that any binary oppositions between objectivity and subjectivity and, relatedly, emotionality and rationality, may be overly simplistic and obscure the complexities of journalistic story-telling.
research  objectivity 
august 2012 by paulbradshaw
Taylor & Francis Online :: TRUTH AND OBJECTIVITY IN JOURNALISM - Journalism Studies -
Since the nineteenth century, the theory of objectivity has been considered a cornerstone principle of journalism. However, during the last decades of the twentieth century, both communication scholars and practitioners increasingly began to contest the main notions embedded in it. As many authors have shown, no other concept has stimulated as much controversy as the concept of objectivity. But, unfortunately, most debates about it have proved to be, not only endless, but inconclusive. Interestingly enough, despite frequent statements by academics and journalists that the paradigm of objectivity is exhausted, when it comes to setting up professional criteria in public debates, this concept inevitably reappears—sometimes in an implicit way—once and again. This proves that it still remains firmly entrenched. This article delves deep into the philosophical underpinnings of the theory of objectivity, namely its positivist presumptions stemming from the empiricist tradition.
research  objectivity 
february 2012 by paulbradshaw
Taylor & Francis Online :: NORMALIZING TWITTER - Journalism Studies - Volume 13, Issue 1
study reveals that the journalists more freely express opinions, a common microblogging practice but one which contests the journalistic norm of objectivity (impartiality and nonpartisanship). To a lesser extent, the journalists also adopted two other norm-related microblogging features: providing accountability and transparency regarding how they conduct their work, and sharing user-generated content with their followers. The journalists working for national newspapers, national television news divisions, and cable news networks were less inclined in their tweets than their counterparts working for less “elite” news outlets, to relinquish their gatekeeping role by sharing their stage with other news gatherers and commentators, or to provide accountability and transparency by providing information about their jobs, engaging in discussions with other tweeters, writing about their personal lives, or linking to external websites.
objectivity  linking  transparency  accountability  twitter  research 
january 2012 by paulbradshaw
Taylor & Francis Online :: BETWEEN IMPARTIALITY AND IDEOLOGY - Journalism Studies - Volume 12, Issue 2
We examine the tensions arising in this regard with reference to the reporting of Islam-related topics on the BBC's Ten O'Clock News over two years (November 2006 to October 2008). Our analysis combines a quantitative overview of frequency, salience and patterns of topic selection across the dataset as a whole with a case study of reports on one of the legal trials arising from a protest demonstration by Muslims in London. The concluding discussion reflects on the trade-offs involved in applying the different aspects of the BBC's remit to newsmaking practice.
objectivity  research  bbc  impartiality 
july 2011 by paulbradshaw
Samira Ahmed: Targeted by the ruthless Twittermob - Commentators, Opinion - The Independent
There are lessons for my profession here. Reputation is the key. We all enjoy self-styled sheriffs like Goldacre roaming the web setting their posses on quack doctors. But journalists like me, who work for major news broadcasters, operate under a code of conduct broadly similar to our television content. There are disclaimers like mine on many reporters' Twitter profiles, about opinions being my own, not ITN's. (I now think twice before tweeting about Jon Snow's new coat.) And yet my colleagues and I are of course accountable for not compromising Channel 4 News' impartiality.
twitter  objectivity  samiraahmed  c4 
april 2011 by paulbradshaw
A definition of journalistic objectivity as a performance
Historically, journalism as a profession emerged alongside the notion of objectivity. However, in the past decades, objectivity has been dismissed not only as an unattainable standard but also as an undesirable norm. Yet an analysis of the criticisms reveals that most scholars actually fail to define journalistic objectivity. This article tries to remedy this flaw and to suggest that journalistic objectivity is an evolving notion which can no longer be considered a synonym for neutrality or detachment. Objectivity is a standard that promotes truth, defined as a ‘correspondence, grounded in correctness, between thought and reality’ (Heidegger, 1943:1). Unlike alternative standards which are centered on personal moral values, objectivity conceives of journalism as a performance, with this term referring to three interrelated dimensions: the essential notion of practice, the existence of concrete and universal criteria of evaluation, and the openness to criticisms.
objectivity  research 
april 2011 by paulbradshaw
Techdirt: Newspaper Tells Reporters Not To Engage With Community
As well, journalists should refrain from debating issues within the Star’s online comments forum to avoid any suggestion that they may be biased in their reporting.
distribution  canada  objectivity  engagement 
april 2011 by paulbradshaw
zetkin « notebook
Another journalist accused of fabricating quotes: this time the New Statesman #objectivity
february 2011 by paulbradshaw
'I knew if I didn’t get back to work I would be defined by Hutton' - Press Gazette
“ It isn’t always possible to say where the truth lies, but it often is. It’s a cop-out to say ‘He says this, she says that, the Lib Dems say they’re both wrong, one thing is certain: only time will tell. Andrew Gilligan, BBC News, Westminster’. That’s wrong because it gives the reader no idea of what’s actually happening. Your job is to tell the truth; you’re supposed to work for the readers. “Sometimes it’s not possible to tell the truth because it is genuinely disputed and there are conflicting views. We don’t really know what the truth is on crime, for instance. “The problem of just reporting the sides is that inevitably the one with the loudest voice gets the most play and that’s often government or corporate bullies.”
balance  objectivity 
december 2010 by paulbradshaw
The media's authoritarianism and WikiLeaks - Glenn Greenwald -
The most they're willing to do now is convert it into a "they-said/he-said" dispute.  But what they won't do -- under any circumstances -- is state clearly that the Government's accusations are false, even where, as here, they unquestionably are.
hesaidshesaid  balance  objectivity  time  wikileaks 
december 2010 by paulbradshaw
Reflections of a Newsosaur: ‘Objective’ journalism is over. Let’s move on.
A superb example of how detailed disclosure could work can be found at AllThingsD.Com, where co-editors Kara Swisher and Walt Mossberg unsparingly bare their personal interests. Swisher’s ethics statement covers everything from how she buys computers to how she manages her finances to her marriage to Megan Smith, a top Google executive. Mossberg readily admits that his disclosure “is more than most of you want to know” but adds, incisively:
objectivity  ethics 
december 2010 by paulbradshaw
Poynter Online - Romenesko
However, no matter where you work at NPR you should be very mindful that you represent the organization and its news coverage in the eyes of your friends, neighbors and others. So please think twice about the message you may be sending about our objectivity before you attend a rally or post a bumper sticker or yard sign. We are all NPR.
objectivity  npr 
october 2010 by paulbradshaw
Aggregation and Recent Sourcing Practices
Over time, officials became increasingly adept at spinning and even managing the news. Relying on the profession's own code of objective detachment, they began to think like gatherers of news, and developed a sophisticated sense of professional news judgment. They and their staffs even began doing some of the legwork, not only unearthing news stories, but assembling and framing them. In other words, sources gradually began to function as reporters.
sources  objectivity 
september 2010 by paulbradshaw
Kristine Lowe: Do you remember back when revealing an opinion could get you fired?
"What signal are we sending young people? Trim your sails, be politically correct, don’t say anything that will get you flamed by one constituency or another. And if you ever want a job in government, national journalism or as president of Harvard, play it safe and don’t take any intellectual chances that might offend someone. In the age of Google, when everything you say is forever searchable, the future belongs to those who leave no footprints."
objectivity  impartiality  kristinelowe 
august 2010 by paulbradshaw
Eight key terms for determining legitimacy in journalism - Jay Rosen: Public Notebook
I'd start with the will to veracity, also known as truthtelling. Truthtelling even when it hurts or causes problems for your friends. Real journalists tell us what happened because it actually happened that way, and not some other way. All forms of legitimacy derive from this one.

Then I'd move on to a manifest concern for accuracy, as in getting it right and correcting it when wrong.

Third pillar: transparency, also called disclosure, so we know where you're coming from and what your stake is in the matter under review, if any.
jayrosen  veracity  transparency  journalism  ethics  objectivity  accuracy 
august 2010 by paulbradshaw
Politico editors baffled by strange new world of Andrew Breitbart's shamelessness - War Room -
RT @sunny_hundal: US mainstream journalists confused and baffled by the strange new partisan media world: #objectivity
july 2010 by paulbradshaw
Michael Tomasky: The CNN firing of Nasr and some global perspective | Comment is free |
It would be nice to think that in an open and free society, a journalist with a commendable track record like Nasr's might have been given the benefit of the doubt and permitted to explain herself. But it's well beyond the imagination of most Americans to think that a "Muslim cleric" could in any remote way be a figure of any measure of nuance. This is not mere lack of knowledge but willed ignorance, and if we can't even have a debate in this country before a 20-year veteran senior editor is fired - a debate in which God forbid people might learn something they didn't know - we've reached a sad pass, but one I guess we already know we're in.
cnn  twitter  sacked  octavianasr  objectivity 
july 2010 by paulbradshaw
Clowns to the Left of Me, Jokers to the Right: On the Actual Ideology of the American Press
Each of these factors cuts different ways in different circumstances. There are ideological implications to all of them. For example: one of the consequences of the contempt for true believers is that street protests and marches aren’t taken very seriously in political journalism. Also, religious leaders getting involved in politics have a huge hurdle to overcome. Third effect: Ironists do better with the press than idealists. None of these things is “neutral.”
jayrosen  objectivity  ideology 
june 2010 by paulbradshaw
The particularity of objectivity: A post-structuralist and psychoanalytical reading of the gap between objectivity-as-a-value and objectivity-as-a-practice in the 2003 Iraqi War coverage -- Carpentier and Trioen 11 (3): 311 -- Journalism
This article reconceptualizes journalistic objectivity by relating it to Ernesto Laclau’s discussion on univeralism and particularism, as well as to the Lacanian concepts of desire and fantasy. These reflections lead to a theoretical framework in which the particularity of objectivity is constructed at two levels: objectivity-as-a-value and objectivity-as-a-practice. First, objectivity-as-a-value is considered a particular value, which is simultaneously universalized and hegemonized as a nodal point of ‘good journalism’. Second, objectivity unavoidably needs to be materialized at the level of practice, which also renders it particular and always-imperfect. The particularity of objectivity creates a gap between journalistic ideology and practice, problematic and constitutive for both. Here, the Lacanian concepts of desire and fantasy offer an explanatory model for the desire for objective reporting and its fantasmatic realization.
objectivity  research 
may 2010 by paulbradshaw
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