otw_news + fanhackers   273

Fanhackers • Contemporary fan fiction is overwhelmingly digital...
"Contemporary fan fiction is overwhelmingly digital in both publication and dissemination; it has..." “Contemporary fan fiction is overwhelmingly digital in both publication and dissemination; it has never been easier to access this subculture of writers and writing. However, fan fiction in print has likewise never been so accessible, as a slew of recent popular novels proudly proclaim their fannish origins and make claims such as “More Than 2 Million Reads Online—FIRST TIME IN PRINT!” Further, traditional fannish mores insist that fan work should never be done for profit, and yet numerous print works adapted from fan fiction have become best sellers. I would like to problematize how we consider form and content in both creation and reception, how the popular value of work waxes and wanes in relation to its fan fiction status. In other words, how can we read fan fiction as part of a continuum of historical publication practices by women, and problematize our hierarchies of value between print and digital?”
- Coker, Catherine. 2017. “The Margins of Print? Fan Fiction as Book History.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 25.
fanhackers 
12 hours ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Beginning with a general overview of the...
"Beginning with a general overview of the historical roots of slash fan fiction and its theoretical..." “

Beginning with a general overview of the historical roots of slash fan fiction and its theoretical interest to feminist and gender studies scholars, we posit three waves in the relationship between slash and queer culture:

1. Initial woman-centric slash that consciously used male protagonists and male bodies to envision ideal relationships and fantasise about sexual experimentation, often within deeply committed romantic relationships.

2. A politically self-aware movement towards realism that confronted these fantasy men not only with the realities of male bodies and sexualities, but also with the cultural realities of gay lives.

3. Slash fiction that is deeply embedded within a self-defined queer space, neither fantastically creating nor idealising yet othering gay men, but rather writing multiple genders and sexualities as both reflections and fantasies of the complexly diverse community of readers and writers.


-

Busse, K. and Lothian, A. (2018). “A history of slash sexualities: Debating queer sex, gay politics and media fan cultures”. In Smith, C., Attwood, F. and McNair, B. (Eds.) The Routledge Companion to Media, Sex and Sexuality. Oxon: Routledge.

This is a really neat essay that returns to and updates for the 21st century what I jokingly refer to as the Foundational Question of Fan Studies: why do straight women write about men banging? The breakdown into the three waves is a useful structure both for those who’ve been kicking around slash fandom forever and for those of us who joined somewhere along the way. Busse and Lothian back up their analysis with a range of examples of fan fiction from all three waves, and “which of these have I read” is a fun game to play with this essay.
fanhackers 
4 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • New fan studies research - September 19th, 2017
New fan studies research - September 19th, 2017

A weekly list of new/recent fan studies research that’s just been added to the Fan Studies Bibliography. Works are divided into things that are open access (=immediately readable for anyone) and not open access (=behind a paywall or not yet public).

Also make sure to check out the new issue of Transformative Works and Cultures that just came out-individual articles will be included in next week’s update.

If we missed anything or made a mistake, submit a correction and we’ll fix it in next week’s edition. Happy reading!

Open access:

Andò, Romana. 2017. “Girls and the Media: Girlhood Studies Agenda and Prospects in Italy.” Issue: Gender/Sexuality/Italy, 4 (2017). http://ift.tt/2hipQxI

Marjuni, Nasrum, and Andi Bungawati. 2017. “The Perception of Makassar’s Teenagers toward Korean Drama and Music (Case Study on Makassar Korean Lovers Community).” English and Literature Journal 2 (01): 66–80. http://ift.tt/2hgHuFO

Morimoto, Lori. 2017. “‘First Principles’: Hannibal, Affective Economy, and Oppositionality in Fan Studies.” http://ift.tt/2hipR4K

Sieders, Kimberley Johanna Arendina. 2017. “Make Campaigning Great Again: Fan’s Appropriation of the Mythology of Drumpf’s 2016 Presidential Campaign.” MA thesis. http://ift.tt/2hf48hQ

Vojtíšková, Tereza. 2017. “The South Korean Body Factory: Celebrity Culture, Mass Media and Cosmetic Surgery.” BA thesis, Empire State College. http://ift.tt/2hipSpk

Not open access:

Biggin, Rose. 2017. “Fan Interactivity: Communicating Immersive Experience.” In Immersive Theatre and Audience Experience, 97–112. Springer. http://ift.tt/2heCWzV

Chen, Lu. 2017. Chinese Fans of Japanese and Korean Pop Culture: Nationalistic Narratives and International Fandom. Routledge. http://ift.tt/2hipTto

Hutchinson, Jonathon. 2017. “Alternative Forms of Participation in Media Organizations.” In Cultural Intermediaries, 175–200. Springer. http://ift.tt/2hfTQ1d

Jang, Won ho, and Jung Eun Song. 2017. “The Influences of K-Pop Fandom on Increasing Cultural Contact: With the Case of Philippine Kpop Convention, Inc.” 지역사회학 18: 29–56. http://ift.tt/2hipU0q
fanhackers 
4 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • TWC No. 25 is published
TWC No. 25 is published

transformativeworksandcultures:

Table of Content

Editorial
Editor, Copyright and Open AccessTheory
Catherine Coker, The margins of print? Fan fiction as book history
E. J. Nielsen, Christine de Pizan’s The Book of the City of Ladies as reclamatory fan work
Lesley Autumn Willard, From co-optation to commission: A diachronic perspective on the development of fannish literacy through Teen Wolf’s Tumblr promotional campaigns
Shannon Howard, Surrendering authorial agency and practicing transindividualism in Tumblr’s role-play communities
Milena Popova, “When the RP gets in the way of the F”: Star Image and intertextuality in real person(a) fiction
Dan Vena, Rereading Superman as a trans f/manPraxis
Lauren B. Collister, Transformative (h)activism: Breast cancer awareness and the World of Warcraft Running of the Gnomes
Ludi Price and Lyn Robinson, Fan fiction in the library
Rachel Elizabeth Linn, Bodies in horrifying hurt/comfort fan fiction: Paying the toll
Victoria Godwin, Theme park as interface to the wizarding (story) world of Harry Potter
Sophie Gwendolyn Einwächter amd Felix M. Simon, How digital remix and fan culture helped the Lego comeback
Seth M. Walker, Subversive drinking: Remixing copyright with free beerSymposium
Kevin D. Ball, Fan labor, speculative fiction, and video game lore in the Bloodborne community
Babak Zarin, “Can I take your picture?“—Privacy in cosplay
Kelli Marshall, Milk and mythology in Singin’ in the Rain
Liza Potts, A case of Sherlockian identity: Irregulars, feminists, and millennialsReview
Bethan Jones, Post-object fandom: Television, identity and self-narrative, by Rebecca Williams
Amanda D. Odom, Role playing materials, by Rafael Bienia
Kathryn Hemmann, Anime fan communities: Transcultural flows and frictions, by Sandra Annett
Sandra Annett, Boys love manga and beyond: History, culture, and community in Japan, edited by Mark McLelland et al.Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC), ISSN 1941-2258, is an online-only Gold Open Access publication of the nonprofit Organization for Transformative Works. TWC is a member of DOAJ. Contact the Editor with questions.
fanhackers 
7 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • But in the middle of the decade, one manga and its...
"But in the middle of the decade, one manga and its anime not only saved dōjinshi fandom from near..." “

But in the middle of the decade, one manga and its anime not only saved dōjinshi fandom from near extinction but was responsible for its biggest boom yet. Takahashi Yōichi’s Captain Tsubasa (1981–88, Kyaputen tsubasa), about boys competing in the then-exotic sport of soccer, felt like a mixture of shōnen and shōjo manga in its depiction of both competition and friendship between boys (in contrast to thegekiga-esque martial arts manga that had formerly dominated the sports genre). From 1986, bishōnen soccer stars’ homo erotic and homosexual dōjinshi exploits stoked female fans and creators’ fantasies and shifted yaoi to the center of female otaku-ism, which today is known as fujoshi culture. Within a year, attendance at Comike nearly doubled (to approximately sixty thousand in winter 1987), and a majority of attendees were again women. Popular titles like Seint Seiya (1986–90) and the anime Ronin Warriors (1988–89, Yoroiden samurai trooper) held women’s interest after Captain Tsubasa ended serialization.

In contrast to the earlier aniparo phenomenon, the yaoi boom was dominated by young women just out of high school who—unlike their counterparts in earlier decades—now had everything they needed to create dōjinshi: manga drawing techniques and tools. Photocopiers had become common, and an entire rapid-printing industry had arisen, offering all-inclusive services from manuscript touchup to professional offset printing, to delivery direct to Comike for reasonable prices. New dōjinshi conventions appeared, and manga shops began selling dōjinshi on commission. Comparatively lush, custom-made, oversized dōjinshi with more than one hundred pages became common, and popular circles could now live on their fanworks’ profits.


- Fan-Yi Lam, Comic Market: How the World’s Biggest Amateur Comic Fair Shaped Japanese Dōjinshi Culture
fanhackers 
14 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • New fan studies research - September 5th, 2017
New fan studies research - September 5th, 2017

A weekly list of new/recent fan studies research that’s just been added to the Fan Studies Bibliography. Works are divided into things that are open access (=immediately readable for anyone) and not open access (=behind a paywall or not yet public).

If we missed anything or made a mistake, submit a correction and we’ll fix it in next week’s edition. Happy reading!

Open access

Möller, Jessica. 2017. “A Look at Improvement Possibilities of Online Dating Considering Personal Interests and Fandoms.” Accessed September 5. http://ift.tt/2vIRazk

Nugraha, Raindra Yudha. 2017. “Subtitling Strategies of Taboo Words Used in Fans Sub and Pro Sub in ‘The Wolf of Wall Street’ Movie.” Dian Nuswantoro University. http://ift.tt/2wEDX7R

Pillai, Meena T. 2017. “The Many Misogynies of Malayalam Cinema.” Economic & Political Weekly 52 (33): 53. http://ift.tt/2vIwasB

Russell, N’Donna Rashi. 2017. “Make-up!: The Mythic Narrative and Transformation as a Mechanism for Personal and Spiritual Growth in Magical Girl (Mahō Shōjo) Anime.” Thesis. http://ift.tt/2wEktAz

Shepherd, Dustin L. 2017. “The Functionality of Reboots.” MA thesis. http://ift.tt/2vIr4N0

Yildiz, Buket Nur, and others. 2017. “K-Wave Experience in Turkey-Handling Subjugation in a Patriarchal Society.” http://ift.tt/2wEIA1O  

Not open access

Brown, Kenon A., Andrew C. Billings, Breann Murphy, and Luis Puesan. 2017. “Intersections of Fandom in the Age of Interactive Media: ESports Fandom as a Predictor of Traditional Sport Fandom.” Communication & Sport, August, 2167479517727286. doi:10.1177/2167479517727286

Brown-Devlin, Natalie, Michael B. Devlin, and Phillip W. Vaughan. 2017. “Why Fans Act That Way: Using Individual Personality to Predict BIRGing and CORFing Behaviors.” Communication & Sport, August, 2167479517725011. doi:10.1177/2167479517725011

Castellano, Mayka, and Heitor Leal Machado. 2017. “‘Please Come to Brazil!’ The Practices of RuPaul’s Drag Race’s Brazilian Fandom.” In RuPaul’s Drag Race and the Shifting Visibility of Drag Culture, 167–77. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-50618-0_12

Jowett, Lorna, Stacey Abbott, and Bronwen Calvert. 2017. “Buffy at 20 - a Round Table Discussion with Some Senior Scoobies.” University of Huddersfield. http://ift.tt/2vIr67A.  
fanhackers 
19 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Shipping idols together is a common pastime in...
"Shipping idols together is a common pastime in Asian idol fandom. The first episode of SNL Korea..." “Shipping idols together is a common pastime in Asian idol fandom. The first episode of SNL Korea featured a skit recreating the events of a famous boy band fan fiction story. There’s international academic scholarship on idol femslash (Yang and Bao 2012). Idol shipping is fairly popular even outside of Asia. On the highest ranked international K-pop fan site, Allkpop (http://www.allkpop.com/), articles have titles such as “10 of the Most Popular K-Pop Fan-Fictions Out There,” “11 Ships You Wish Were Real,” and “7 Times Hani Proved to Be Totally Shippable.” On the J-pop fan forum site JPHIP (http://forum.jphip.com/), there are two forums dedicated to idol pairings and about half a dozen forums and archives dedicated to idol fan fiction. The lesbiansubtextinkpop Tumblr posted over 2,300 posts from 2011 to 2013. On the Archive of Our Own (AO3; http://ift.tt/1ffprbE), there are over 6,000 fan stories tagged J-pop, over 60,000 tagged K-pop, and several dozen tagged C-pop.”
- Lin, Elaine Han. 2017. “Unseen International Music Idol Femslash.” In “Queer Female Fandom,” edited by Julie Levin Russo and Eve Ng, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 24.
fanhackers 
28 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • In football, “no single game ever represents the...
"In football, “no single game ever represents the game for players or spectators”..." “In football, “no single game ever represents the game for players or spectators” (Hughson and Free 2006, 76), as each game is part of the narrative of the season or the tournament, and each season or tournament is part of the seasons or tournaments that came before it and that will come after. These games rotate around the comings, goings, and doings of the players (and managers) that perform in them. In combination, these two elements are what keep football engaging and entertaining to the majority of its fans. They are heavily discussed and promoted in all facets of the football media, contributing to an ongoing, long-term interest in the narratives by the fans who continually discuss and debate them. As a result, to truly understand football, one must look at not only the 90 minutes of the match but also the surrounding media, which function as necessary paratexts.”
-

Waysdorf, Abby. 2015. “The Creation of Football Slash Fan Fiction.” In “European Fans and European Fan Objects: Localization and Translation,” edited by Anne Kustritz, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 19.

In this paper, Abby Waydorf goes beyond the traditional conception of the authentic sports fan as someone who is not affected my the media spectacle surrounding the sport. She uses the case study of Football (soccer!) RPF to show how a range of authentic fannish engagements are possible, and how mediation of sports - like the marketing of individual star players, and wider narratives spanning multiple seasons - makes European football (and other sports) really attractive to fan fiction writers. In sports, we find characters and story arcs similar to those we love in our favourite TV shows. Players rise from obscurity to stardom, are traded and build relationships within their teams, retire in glory or back in obscurity. Teams have intense rivalries, they win and lose games, championships and trophies. Those are all classic elements that fan fiction writers can pick up on and take as the jumping-off point for fic, just like we use characters and plots from other media. These expressions of fandom are no less authentic (though they are frequently denigrated and marginalised) than attending games, wearing your team’s scarf, and cheering them on through their ups and downs.
fanhackers 
4 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • […] fans are well positioned for politicization...
"[…] fans are well positioned for politicization because they already have communities built..." “[…] fans are well positioned for politicization because they already have communities built around the kinds of intense affective investments that often drive political action, which has greatly facilitated the organization of HPA and the Nerdfighters. HPA is the most prominent of these civic-minded fan groups, with chapters in 300 community institutions nationwide and abroad; its members engage in a wide variety of cultural, educational, philanthropic, and more traditional political activities that often overlap and converge.”
- McCracken, Allison. 2017. By Any Media Necessary: The New Youth Activism, by Henry Jenkins et al. [book review]. In “Queer Female Fandom,” edited by Julie Levin Russo and Eve Ng, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 24.
fanhackers 
4 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Media fandom is an ephemeral culture, and online...
"Media fandom is an ephemeral culture, and online fandom even more so. A printed zine from the 1970s..." “Media fandom is an ephemeral culture, and online fandom even more so. A printed zine from the 1970s may last longer than a story published online in the last six months. In fact, continual changes in publication preference and fannish infrastructure have impacted the accessibility and permanence of fan fiction: zines may have a much lower initial circulation, but hard copies have a permanence that newsgroup posts, mailing-list e-mails, or blog posts may lack. Even as fandom as a whole has become more widely accepted and openly public, distribution patterns have moved away from public archives toward individual fan archiving, which allows writers to maintain greater control.”
-

Versaphile. 2011. “Silence in the Library: Archives and the Preservation of Fannish History.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 6.

This piece by fan writer and archivist Vesaphile is a great overview of the technical challenges fannish communities have historically faced in the preservation of our fan works, culture, and history. Published in 2011, it covers everything from zines and bulletin boards to mailing lists and LiveJournal. It predates fandom’s big migration to Tumblr and only touches on the Archive of Our Own, but it also makes some quite prescient comments about the ways in which fannish online presence and archiving efforts might develop. Versaphile speaks from her own lived experience as a long-time fan archivist, and it’s great to see that knowledge recognised and preserved in an academic journal.
fanhackers 
5 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • New fan studies research - August 15th, 2017
New fan studies research - August 15th, 2017

A weekly list of new/recent fan studies research that’s just been added to the Fan Studies Bibliography. Works are divided into things that are open access (=immediately readable for anyone) and not open access (=behind a paywall or not yet public).

If we missed anything or made a mistake, submit a correction and we’ll fix it in next week’s edition. Happy reading!

Open access

Cavcic, Antonija. 2017. “Boys’ Love for the Love of It: Progressive Prosumers and the Proliferation of Queer Culture through Manga.” PhD dissertation, Murdoch University. http://ift.tt/2x1VvtE

Kolehmainen, Pekka. 2017. “Social Media Narratives as Political Fan Fiction in the 2016 US Presidential Election.” European Journal of American Studies 12 (12–2). http://ift.tt/2w7Pn6Q

Valero Porras, María José; Cassany, Daniel. 2017. “Translation by Fans for Fans : Organization and Practices in a Spanish-Language Community of Scanlation.” BiD: Textos Universitaris de Biblioteconomia i Documentació, no. 38

Yang, Benny Chen-heng. 2017. “Why Godzilla? The Factors for Global Fame of Tokusatsu Giant Monsters.” International Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Science 5 (5). http://ift.tt/2x1D34o

Not open access

Buozis, Michael. 2017. “Doxing or Deliberative Democracy? Evidence and Digital Affordances in the Serial SubReddit.” Convergence, August, 1354856517721809. doi:10.1177/1354856517721809

Carviou, James. 2017. “Modern Family and Family Guy: Representation and Relevancy among Twitter Fans.” PhD dissertation, University of Iowa. http://ift.tt/2w7Sb3V

Creekmur, Corey, Melanie Kohnen, Jonathan McIntosh, Lori Morimoto, Katherine Morrissey, Suzanne Scott, and Louisa Stein. 2017. “Roundtable: Remix and Videographic Criticism.” Cinema Journal 56 (4): 159–84. doi:10.1353/cj.2017.0044

Kyriakidou, Maria, Michael Skey, Julie Uldam, and Patrick McCurdy. 2017. “Media Events and Cosmopolitan Fandom: ‘Playful Nationalism’in the Eurovision Song Contest.” International Journal of Cultural Studies, 1367877917720238. http://ift.tt/2x1QRMq

Wu, Jingsi Christina. 2017. “Voting for the Next Super Girl and Political Talk.” In Entertainment and Politics in Contemporary China, 89–130. East Asian Popular Culture. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-48264-4_3
fanhackers 
5 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • During the 2006–7 television season, the...
"During the 2006–7 television season, the production team and cast for Grey’s Anatomy (2005–)..." “

During the 2006–7 television season, the production team and cast for Grey’s Anatomy (2005–) dealt with a series of unfortunate industry events that significantly affected the writers’ room, cast, and ongoing story lines of the show. An actor uttered a homophobic slur, which received wide media coverage, and which ultimately led Grey’s Anatomy to create a compelling, true-to-life lesbian story line.

This essay examines the discourse surrounding these events, including news reports and audience reaction to the story lines developed in response to the scandal. The LGBT fan community I examine here is Erica_Callie, a LiveJournal (LJ) community, which was highly active during the 2008–9 TV season, with over 1,800 individual posts and tens of thousands of comments.

The production response to real-life events relies on underlying production-culture knowledge of media concepts, such as authenticity, audience identification, and emotional realism, as a remedy for the damage inflicted by the scandal on both the show and the affected LGBT audience. The development of the lesbian story line in Grey’s Anatomy was an act of industry public relations; the story line was constructed to develop and resonate with LGBT audiences.


- Zuk, Tanya D. 2017. “Coming Out on Grey’s Anatomy: Industry Scandal, Constructing a Lesbian Story Line, and Fan Action.” In “Queer Female Fandom,” edited by Julie Levin Russo and Eve Ng, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 24.
fanhackers 
6 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Corporate sales, creator identity, and audience...
"Corporate sales, creator identity, and audience heterogeneity lead yuri to an awkward place in terms..." “Corporate sales, creator identity, and audience heterogeneity lead yuri to an awkward place in terms of genre identity. Is yuri the schoolgirl romance created by men for a male audience who consider love between girls pure, or is it the girl’s romance that has roots in S literature for a female audience who fondly remember their days admiring upperclassmen at all-girls schools? Or is it for lesbians, whose stories are nominally acknowledged in narratives of self-awareness of love for a member of the same sex or feelings of being different, without any use of the word lesbian? The heterogeneity of creator and audience causes difficulty in both definition and scholarship. Who gets to define yuri?”
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Friedman, Erica. 2017. “On Defining Yuri.” In “Queer Female Fandom,” edited by Julie Levin Russo and Eve Ng, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 24.

This piece looks at the history of and the different influences on yuri - the Japanese genre depicting love and relationships between women. Friedman’s main point is that the creators, publishers, and audiences for yuri are hugely diverse and frequently have diverging interests, resulting in a genre (or possibly collection of genres) that is difficult to pin down. Some works are aimed women (queer and/or straight), some are aimed at straight men, some depict love between women without touching on lesbian and queer identities, some are by lesbian creators, though many are not. The paper is relatively short and covers a lot of ground - I’d love to see a longer piece elaborating on some of the aspects this only hints at.
fanhackers 
6 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Queerbaiting is the outcome of increased...
"Queerbaiting is the outcome of increased paratextual discourse about LGBT content at a specific..." “Queerbaiting is the outcome of increased paratextual discourse about LGBT content at a specific moment of queer contextuality. We might be tempted to reserve the term, in the sense that I use it, for media texts that fail to have canonically queer characters despite textual and paratextual content that suggests the possibility. However, doing so would not explain why The 100, with a canonical F/F couple, has also been widely cited as an example of queerbaiting. The crucial element is not a lack of canonicity, but how satisfactorily queerness plays out in the canonical text relative to viewer expectations that emerge from the reading of multiple texts and paratexts and that take account of queer contextuality.”
- Ng, Eve. 2017. “Queerbaiting and the Contemporary Media Landscape in Rizzoli & Isles and The 100.” In “Queer Female Fandom,” edited by Julie Levin Russo and Eve Ng, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 24.
fanhackers 
7 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Slash - even more so than gay romance - is the...
"Slash - even more so than gay romance - is the ultimate fictional expression of erotic faith. The..." “Slash - even more so than gay romance - is the ultimate fictional expression of erotic faith. The romance heroes in these stories fall so in love with their male friend or partner, so embrace the religion of erotic faith, that they can’t help committing themselves as lovers. These male heroes may not understand themselves as “really” gay and may be portrayed as heterosexual men whose beloved simply happens to be another man. But the love these men discover for each other is strong enough to defeat patriarchy’s chief rule that a man must be straight. In a society that preaches the religion of erotic faith - where love provides meaning and fulfillment as the path to the promised land - the ultimate test of erotic faith is for a heterosexual alpha male to willingly and openly love in a romantic way another such male. To do so is much riskier than the expected path of loving a woman, for it is to breach the great taboo against same-sex male love that defines patriarchal masculinity.”
-

Roach, C. M. (2016). Happily Ever After: The Romance Story in Popular Culture. Indiana University Press.

Remember Catherine Roach and her breakdown of the key elements of the romance story? Towards the end of her book, Roach turns to gay romance and slash fan fiction. There has of course been a fair amount of fannish meta written about the exact relationship between slash and queer sexualities, and some academic research too. Roach’s perspective is as someone who is primarily a romance scholar (and writer), not a fan studies scholar, so she perhaps emphasises different aspects of slash to those fans and fan studies scholard to. What do you think?
fanhackers 
7 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • SwanQueen creates a space where female concerns,...
"SwanQueen creates a space where female concerns, even queer distress, are not merely brushed aside..." “SwanQueen creates a space where female concerns, even queer distress, are not merely brushed aside but discussed and dealt with—discussions that I and other fans find pleasurable in many ways.”
- Strauch, Sandra. 2017. “Once Upon a Time in Queer Fandom.” In “Queer Female Fandom,” edited by Julie Levin Russo and Eve Ng, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 24.
fanhackers 
9 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • CFP Tumblr & Fandom
CFP Tumblr & Fandom

itisbeeing:

It’s not too late to submit a short symposium piece to the #TWC special issue on Tumblr & Fandom! So if you’re sitting on some Tumblr/Fandom thoughts, do consider submitting! See the call for more info, contact info etc here:

http://ift.tt/2tx2Tjs
fanhackers 
9 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • CFP: Fan Studies Network Australasia 2017
CFP: Fan Studies Network Australasia 2017 CFP: Fan Studies Network Australasia 2017:

If you’re in Australasia and were following the FSN2017 coverage and wishing you could be here, FSN is coming to you!! And while it doesn’t say so on this post, the deadline for the CfP has been pushed back to August 25th, so there’s still time to pitch!
fanhackers 
9 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • FSN 2017 Louisa Stein ‘Fandom/Resistance’ Keynote:...
FSN 2017 Louisa Stein ‘Fandom/Resistance’ Keynote: audio recording FSN 2017 Louisa Stein ‘Fandom/Resistance’ Keynote: audio recording:

If you were following us on Twitter over the weekend of June 24th-25th this year, you may have noticed that we went to the Fan Studies Network Conference and did a spot of live-tweeting. We may also have mentioned that Louisa Stein’s excellent keynote titled “Fandom/Resistance” made us cry - in fact it made an entire room of totally respectable, grown-up academics tear up on several occasions. The Fan Studies Network has published an audio recording of Louisa’s keynote, along with timestamps and links to the videos Louisa shared. It’s definitely 30 minutes well spent.
fanhackers 
9 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • (… ) racial and ethnic identity must be considered...
"(… ) racial and ethnic identity must be considered as important to our conceptualizations..." “(… ) racial and ethnic identity must be considered as important to our conceptualizations about fandom spaces as we have always considered gender and sexuality. To do otherwise will be to repeat the mistakes of fields such as feminist and queer studies that have at times unwittingly reinscribed the idea that race is somehow an additional aspect of cultural experience, something that can be disregarded at will (…). Fan studies continues to have a strong thread of reading fan culture (especially female-dominated aspects of it) as enabling spaces that allow for greater freedom in (re)crafting the cultural narratives that seek to order our world. While these spaces definitely work to disrupt hegemonic constructions of what kinds of stories are allowable in fan communities, their recurrent biases and erasures are equally present.”
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Pande, Rukmini and Swati Moitra. 2017. “Racial dynamics of online femslash fandoms.” In “Queer Female Fandom,” edited by Julie Levin Russo and Eve Ng, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 24.

One of several strong recent works on fandom and race, this article looks at Once Upon a Time femslash to analyze and question the “subversiveness” of fannish and academic practices that neglect to consider race. Make sure to check out co-author Rukmini Pande’s Decolonising Fan Studies reading list for more on this topic.
fanhackers 
10 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Visible, too, in the defense of Sansa Stark are...
"Visible, too, in the defense of Sansa Stark are the attempts of young feminists to both validate and..." “Visible, too, in the defense of Sansa Stark are the attempts of young feminists to both validate and unpack the self: the experiences and traumas of female adolescence, the passionate consumptions and productions of media fandom, the revelations of feminist ideas in new and old forms. Feminist fans invite each other to treat the creative and critical discourse through which they interact, the “doing of fandom,” as praxis. Through these intensities of engagement with a beloved character and the insights these generate, they ultimately propose to transform the fan communities they inhabit. Consciousness-raising for the twenty-first century, indeed.”
- Naylor, Alex. (2016). “My Skin Has Turned to Porcelain, to Ivory, to Steel”: Feminist Fan Discourses, Game of Thrones, and the Problem of Sansa. In E. R. Helford, S. Carroll, S. Gray, & M. R. Howard (Eds.), The Woman Fantastic in Contemporary American Media Culture (pp. 39-60). Jackson, MI: University Press of Mississippi.
fanhackers 
10 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Calling the practice of modding more empowering or...
"Calling the practice of modding more empowering or resistive than other fannish practices is..." “Calling the practice of modding more empowering or resistive than other fannish practices is problematic because, use of technology aside, modding is not significantly different than the writing of fan fiction or the creation of vids. Modding is, essentially, the practice of taking the tools provided by an existing media text and twisting them to a different purpose. Just like other fannish productions, mods are created (both legitimately and within hacker culture) by game fans for other game fans. They are distributed and evaluated within the community and tend to perform the values associated with the
gender that makes up a majority of the population. In the case of gaming, the values being performed most often are those associated with traditional notions of masculinity: competition, broadcasting, aggression and the expectation that males repress emotions and do not engage in intimacy among other males. Just like fan fiction and vidding, modding and machinima perform individual negotiations of ideologies of gender and sexuality that vary in terms of their resistance to the ideological status quo.”
-

Hampton, Darlene Rose. 2010. “Beyond Resistance: Gender, Performance, and Fannish Practice in Digital Culture.” 

A very interesting look at the gendered aspects of how different kinds of fanworks are talked about and evaluated as more or less “resistive.”
fanhackers 
11 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • The narrative structure of the ideal romance is...
"The narrative structure of the ideal romance is summarized below: 1. The heroine’s social identity..." “The narrative structure of the ideal romance is summarized below:
1. The heroine’s social identity is destroyed.
2. The heroine reacts antagonistically to an aristocratic male.
3. The aristocratic male responds ambiguously to the heroine.
4. The heroine interprets the hero’s behavior as evidence of a purely sexual interest in her.
5. The heroine responds to the hero’s behavior with anger or coldness.
6. The hero retaliates by punishing the heroine.
7. The heroine and hero are physically and/or emotionally separated.
8. The hero treats the heroine tenderly.
9. The heroine responds warmly to the hero’s act of tenderness.
10. The heroine reinterprets the hero’s ambiguous behavior as the product of previous hurt.
11. The hero proposes/openly declares his love for/demonstrates his unwavering commitment to the heroine with a supreme act of tenderness.
12. The heroine responds sexually and emotionally.
13. The heroine’s identity is restored.”
-

Radway, J. A. (1984). Reading the romance: Women, patriarchy, and popular literature. Univ of North Carolina Press.

I mentioned in a recent post that trying to break up the romance novel narrative into a set of distinct strctural elements is a common activity in Popular Romance Studies. In some ways, Radway’s structure (which was the first such attempt) is slightly less abstract than Roach’s. It’s more of a chronological step by step guide through a romance novel’s plot than an attempt to abstract the key messages of the romance narrative.

From a fannish and fan studies point of view, of course, one of the interesting things is to what extent fan fiction makes use of the same structures. So go on, take this as an excuse to reread your favourite romance fanfic, all 100k words of it, and see which bits match and where there are differences. (And feel free to tell us all about it, in reblogs, replies, submissions, etc. - I’d love to see what you find!)
fanhackers 
12 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • New fan studies research - June 27th, 2017
New fan studies research - June 27th, 2017

A weekly list of new/recent fan studies research that’s just been added to the Fan Studies Bibliography. Works are divided into things that are open access (=immediately readable for anyone) and not open access (=behind a paywall or not yet public). Mostly new theses this week.

If we missed anything or made a mistake, submit a correction and we’ll fix it in next week’s edition. Happy reading!

Open access:

Black, Eleanor Frances. “The Fantasy Begins: The Affective Potential of Games Through Final Fantasies I and VI.” B.S. thesis, Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University, 2017. Available: http://ift.tt/2t1UlxL

Cronan, Allison. “I’ve Got a Theory, It Could Be Whedon: Understanding the Televisual Auteur.” B.S. thesis, Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University, 2017. Available: http://ift.tt/2shQRtT

DeLallo, Jessica B. “Fandoms in the Lives of Gifted Individuals with Imaginational Overexcitabilities.” Ph.D., Denver: University of Denver, 2017. Available: http://ift.tt/2t1UdOo

Jacobs, Melissa. “‘ They’ve Come to Draw Blood’-How Women Fans of World Wrestling Entertainment Perceive Women Wrestlers.” M.A., Clemson: Clemson University, 2017. Available: http://ift.tt/2shSNCw

Richardson, Ashley. “Fandom, Racism, and the Myth of Diversity in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.” B.S. thesis, Williamsburg: College of William and Mary, 2017. Available: http://ift.tt/2s3hd24

Smith, Edmund. “Superheroes and Shared Universes: How Fans and Auteurs Are Transforming the Hollywood Blockbuster.” Media, Film, and Communication Working Paper Series 3 (2017). Available: http://ift.tt/2sioDPz

Williams, Bailey. “Ode To You: A Generative Criticism of the Rhetorical Characteristics Employed By The Twenty One Pilots Fandom To Create and Maintain A Community On Twitter.” B.S. thesis, Wooster: The College of Wooster, 2017. Available: http://ift.tt/2t1FFi7

Not open access:

Veale, Kevin. “‘Friendship isn’t an emotion fucknuts’: Manipulating affective materiality to shape the experience of Homestuck’s story.” Convergence (2017): 1354856517714954.
fanhackers 
12 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Going on right now: Fan Studies Network Conference...
Going on right now: Fan Studies Network Conference 2017

Your Fanhackers mods elmyra and Nele are in Huddersfield this weekend for the Fan Studies Network Conference 2017. Keep an eye on the #FSN2017 Twitter hashtag and the @fanhackers Twitter account for live updates from the conference.
fanhackers 
june 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • transformativeworksandcultures:Vol 24 (2017):...
transformativeworksandcultures: Vol 24 (2017): Special Issue...
transformativeworksandcultures:

Vol 24 (2017): Special Issue Queer Female Fandom

Edited by Julie Levin Russo and Eve Ng

Table of Content

Editorial
Eve Ng and Julie Levin Russo Envisioning queer female fandomTheory
Eve Ng, Between text, paratext, and context: Queerbaiting and the contemporary media landscape
Rukmini Pande and Swati Moitra, “Yes, the Evil Queen is Latina!”: Racial dynamics of online femslash fandomsPraxis
Jing (Jamie) Zhao, Queerly imagining Super Girl in an alternate world: The fannish worlding in FSCN femslash romance
Ria Narai, Female-centered fan fiction as homoaffection in fan communities
Faithe Day and Aymar Jean Christian, Locating black queer TV: Fans, producers, and networked publics on YouTube
Kelsey Cameron, Constructing queer female cyberspace: The L Word fandom and Autostraddle.comMultimedia
Julie Levin Russo, Femslash goggles: Fan vids with commentary by creatorsSymposium
Mel Stanfill, Where the femslashers are: Media on the lesbian continuum
Lucy Irene Baker, The surface of women
Erica Friedman, On defining yuri
Elaine Han Lin, Unseen international music idol femslash
Tanya D. Zuk, Coming out on Grey’s Anatomy: Industry scandal, constructing a lesbian story line, and fan action
Victoria Serafini, Bisexual erasure in queer sci-fi “utopias”
Sandra Strauch, Once Upon a Time in queer fandomReview
Allison McCracken, By any media necessary: The new youth activism, by Henry Jenkins et al.
Alice Marwick, Girls’ feminist blogging in a postfeminist age, by Jessalyn Keller
Nicolle Lamerichs, International perspectives on shojo and shojo manga, edited by Masami TokuTransformative Works and Cultures (TWC), ISSN 1941-2258, is an online-only Gold Open Access publication of the nonprofit Organization for Transformative Works. TWC is a member of DOAJ. Contact the Editor with questions.
Image credit: Kelsey Showalter, http://ift.tt/2rCwrGD.

New issue of TWC! As per usual, we’ll be posting choice quotes from the new articles in the next weeks.
fanhackers 
june 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • In the romance, the imperative “Love!” can be...
"In the romance, the imperative “Love!” can be fleshed out into nine key elements that are always..." “In the romance, the imperative “Love!” can be fleshed out into nine key elements that are always present, even if only implied. These essential elements of the romantic love story are (1) IT IS HARD TO BE ALONE, especially (2) as a WOMAN IN A MAN’S WORLD, but (3) romance helps as a RELIGION OF LOVE, even though it involves (4) HARD WORK and (5) RISK, because it leads to (6) HEALING, (7) GREAT SEX, and (8) HAPPINESS, and it (9) LEVELS THE PLAYING FIELD for women.”
-

Roach, C. M. (2016). Happily Ever After: The Romance Story in Popular Culture. Indiana University Press.

Permit me a further digression into popular romance studies this week. This quote is from a recent book by academic and romance novel author Catherine M. Roach/Catherine LaRoche.

There’s an amusing feature of popular romance studies where everyone tries to break down the romance novel into a number of key structural elements: Radway has them (and I promise I’ll show you hers too), Regis has them, and Catherine Roach has them. And of course, everyone’s breakdown is different, emphasising different aspects of the romance story.

Roach’s main argument, built around the nine core elements she identifies above, is that romance novels have a contradictory message for women: “You can’t fight the patriarchy/You must fight the patriarchy”. This message, grounded in the themes of love, hard work, risk, and healing, creates a space within which women can process the challenges and contradictions patriarchy poses to them in their day-to-day lives.

Roach’s book is interesting for a number of reasons. Like many popular romance researchers, she looks at both the romance texts and their readers, but unlike most, she also looks at the production side of things: who writes and publishes romance novels? How and why? Becoming a romance novel author was part of her research method, and it makes for entertaining reading, as chapters in the book alternate between the (very accessible) academic and a much more informal “overly confessional” approach narrating Roach’s experience as a reader and writer of romance novels.
fanhackers 
june 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • While many people think fanfiction is about...
"While many people think fanfiction is about inserting sex into texts (like Tolkien’s) where it..." “While many people think fanfiction is about inserting sex into texts (like Tolkien’s) where it doesn’t belong, Brancher sees it differently: “I was desperate to read about sex that included great friendship; I was repurposing Tolkien’s text in order to do that. It wasn’t that friendship needed to be sexualized, it was that erotica needed to be … friendship-ized.” Many fanfiction writers write about sex in conjunction with beloved texts and characters not because they think those texts are incomplete, but because they’re looking for stories where sex is profound and meaningful. This is part of what makes fan fiction different from pornography: unlike pornography, fanfic features characters we already care deeply about, and who tend to already have long-standing and complex relationships with each other. It’s a genre of sexual subjectification: the very opposite of objectification. It’s benefits with friendship.”
- Francesca Coppa, “Introduction to The Dwarf’s Tale,” The Fanfiction Reader (via rembrandtswife)
fanhackers 
june 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Russ, J. (1983). How to suppress women’s writing....
Russ, J. (1983). How to suppress women’s writing....
Russ, J. (1983). How to suppress women’s writing. University of Texas Press.
The cover of Russ’s book does an excellent job of summarising its main argument: that women’s writing is deliberately devalued in a range of ways. It’s on the wrong subject matter, it’s the wrong genre, it’s morally objetionable, it’s not proper art. In 1983 Russ wasn’t writing specifically about fan fiction (yet), but fan fiction readers and writers will recognise these tactics employed against them. “She wrote about men banging! And it most definitely isn’t art - it’s derivative and unoriginal!”

One of my favourite moments in the book comes towards the end, when after some self-reflection Russ realises that she and other white women within academia and the feminist movement have been employing exactly the same tactics to devalue Black women’s writing. With recent debates on race in both fandom and Fan Studies, this powerful moment of realisation is worth keeping in mind.

Image description:

The cover of How to suppress women’s writing by Joanna Russ, which consists of the following text:

She didn’t write it. But if it’s clear she did the deed… She wrote it but she shouldn’t have. (It’s political, sexual, masculine, feminist.) She wrote it, but look what she wrote about. (The bedroom, the kitchen, her family. Other women!) She wrote it, but she wrote only one of it. (“Jane Eyre. Poor dear, that’s all she ever… “) She wrote it, but she isn’t really an artist, and it isn’t really art. (It’s a thriller, a romance, a children’s book. It’s sci fi!) She wrote it, but she had help. (Robert Browning. Branwell Brontë. Her own “masculine side.”) She wrote it, but she’s an anomaly. (Woolf. With Leonard’s help…) She wrote it BUT
fanhackers 
june 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The Internet has fueled a massive amount of...
The Internet has fueled a massive amount of creativity, from the...

The Internet has fueled a massive amount of creativity, from the silly to the profound. Information scientist and copyright advocate Casey Fiesler talks about her experiences as a remixer, including how her feminist remix of a Barbie book went viral and taught the world a lesson about women in tech. She argues for the importance of protecting rather than suppressing creative forms of critique, and lays out how copyright law when used as intended can help keep the Internet awesome. 

A very accessible talk about copyright and online creativity, including fanworks, by academic Casey Fiesler. She discusses how copyright law wasn’t written to deal with the internet, how this causes intense confusion about how copyright law applies to remix works, and how that confusion can stifle online speech by fans.

If you hear something you like, read about the details in Fiesler’s work on fandom, copyright, feminism, the AO3 and so on in the Fan Studies Bibliography. Most of the papers are open access (=no paywall).
fanhackers 
june 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Call for Papers: Edited Collection on Race in...
Call for Papers: Edited Collection on Race in Fandom Call for Papers: Edited Collection on Race in Fandom:

Call for papers with deadline (technically) today. Collection editor Rukmini Pande says on Twitter:

#RaceInFandom abstracts have been super exciting but still looking to fill some gaps! Latinx and Asian fans/fandoms are under-repped atm

and

Please do get in touch if you have an idea! I can extend the deadline for a bit!
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • maptowhereialreadyam said: The link to Kellye...
maptowhereialreadyam said: The link to Kellye Guinan’s paper is broken, FYI.Should be fixed now,...

maptowhereialreadyam said: The link to Kellye Guinan’s paper is broken, FYI.

Should be fixed now, thanks for pointing that out! It was Tumblr doing unfortunate things with the periods at the end of the URLs.
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • I'm not entirely sure if this is the right place...
I'm not entirely sure if this is the right place to ask, but is there any work on copyright disclaimers being used/not used by fan artists instead of fanficcers? Please and thank you!

Does anyone know of this kind of research? We’re aware of quite a few articles that discuss disclaimers on fics at least briefly, but nothing specifically about disclaimers on fan art.
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Justice Scalia’s uncredited borrowing from a...
"Justice Scalia’s uncredited borrowing from a party’s legal brief escapes condemnation because the..." “Justice Scalia’s uncredited borrowing from a party’s legal brief escapes condemnation because the social context of his copying makes him a jurist, not a plagiarist. Similarly, fan creations, even without disclaimers, usually announce their unauthorized status so clearly through context that no deception is likely.”
-

Tushnet, R. (2007). Copyright law, fan practices, and the rights of the author. In Gray, J. A., Sandvoss, C., & Harrington, C. L. (Eds.). Fandom: Identities and communities in a mediated world. NYU Press.

Glorious snark about Supreme Court justices aside, this piece provides a useful timestamp in the evolution of fannish, scholarly, and legal thinking on issues of intellectual property, copyright, and transformative work. Tushnet traces the history and decline of the use of disclaimers on fan works, and the emergence of the idea of fan works as transformative rather than infringing. She makes a strong argument for the “fair use” view of fan works that we are now so familiar with. Whether you remember the bad old days from personal experience or wonder why some people still put disclaimers on their fic, this essay is a good introduction to the issues and a reflection of the state of thinking at a pivotal point in fannish history.
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • "Vidding" documentaries (2008)
"Vidding" documentaries (2008) "Vidding" documentaries (2008):

Vidding (2008) is a series of six short documentaries produced by the Organization for Transformative Works for inclusion in the Learning Library of MIT’s New Media Literacies project. These films are part of a larger group of documentaries on remix culture, and the whole series is aimed at middle and high schoolers for inclusion in classrooms and after school programs. We hope they will also serve to introduce the art of vidding to a larger public.

The six parts of Vidding include: What is Vidding? (2:48), Technology and Tools (3:09), Good Vids, Bad Vids (3:18), I like to watch (3:19), Collaboration and Community (3:03), Why We Vid (3:50). They were directed by Francesca Coppa and edited by Laura Shapiro. Sound editing was done by AbsoluteDestiny. You can watch them here or in the MIT/NML Learning Library, where you can also see videos about cosplay, mashups, DJing, and other forms of remix culture. (From the page)
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • In this way, machinima, at its core, is not...
"In this way, machinima, at its core, is not markedly different than vids. What truly differentiates..." “In this way, machinima, at its core, is not markedly different than vids. What truly differentiates machinima from vids are how each genre is perceived, evaluated and categorized within mainstream culture and its analysis within the academic community. This difference in evaluation is rooted, again, with cultural constructions of masculinity
and femininity that align technology, material production and work in the public sphere with masculinity and function to marginalize the labor, interests and concerns of women by associating them with the private, symbolic and bodily.”
-

Hampton, Darlene Rose. 2010. “Beyond Resistance: Gender, Performance, and Fannish Practice in Digital Culture.”

Really interesting look at how two forms of fan-made video (vids and machinima) are perceived differently based on the (assumed) gender of their creators.
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Women’s childcare responsibilities not only...
"Women’s childcare responsibilities not only restrict their attendance at sport, but when children..." “Women’s childcare responsibilities not only restrict their attendance at sport, but when children are taken along in family units to sport events, women continue to be marginalized by the expectation that they will perform the role of primary carer in these public settings.”
-

Gosling, V. K. (2007). Girls allowed?: the marginalization of female sport fans. In Gray, J. A., Sandvoss, C., & Harrington, C. L. (Eds.). Fandom: Identities and communities in a mediated world. NYU Press.

This chapter provides a really handy overview of academic research and literature up to 2007 on women sports fans and the marginalisation they experience. It’s a great first step for anyone looking to understand the issues, with lots of useful references to other research.
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Many (New York Times) articles frame fanfiction as...
"Many (New York Times) articles frame fanfiction as yet another aspect of these media brands. As..." “Many (New York Times) articles frame fanfiction as yet another aspect of these media brands. As Stuart Elliot (2005) notes: “[I]f you like the TV show, why not buy the fra- grance? Wear the jewelry? Read the book? Join other fans online to help write an episode?” (7). Due to corporations “co-opting” and “encouraging” fanfiction, participants in fanfiction communities have become “brand ambassadors” (Elliott 2005, 7), similar to the walking billboards of brand name clothing and logo-as-fashion (Stelter 2008).”
- Drew Emanuel Berkowitz, Framing the Future of Fanfiction: How The New York Times’ Portrayal of a Youth Media Subculture Influences Beliefs about Media Literacy Education, p205
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • And let’s not pride ourselves on the monogamy,...
"And let’s not pride ourselves on the monogamy, either; this is another patriarchal imposition which..." “And let’s not pride ourselves on the monogamy, either; this is another patriarchal imposition which women have sexualized - in fact I believe it can be seen in the K/S [Kirk/Spock] material (as in the romances) as a metaphor for intensity. The telepathic union can also be read as a way of expressing intensity and completeness, not duration, but here too sexual expression waits on ‘love’ while desire, by itself is not enough. Again I think we’re dealing with a sexualization of the feminine condition.”
-

Russ, J. (1985). Pornography By Women For Women, With Love. In Magic Mommas, Trembling Sisters, Puritans & Perverts: Feminist Essays (pp. 79–99). Trumansberg, NY: The Crossing Press.

Like Lamb & Veith’s essay, this is a very early piece of fan studies writing and engagement with slash as a topic of study. As the title of the piece says, Russ views slash as “pornography by women, for women, with love”, thereby kickstarting a whole sub-branch of research on slash that seeks to map out its relationship to both porn and romance novels. Russ agrees with Lamb & Veith that slash, through depicting same-gender relationships, levels the playing field. But she also casts a critical eye over the genre, pointing out tropes where it romanticises and sexualises the constraints patriarchy puts on women.
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • stitchmediamix: This is a narrated PowerPoint of...
stitchmediamix: This is a narrated PowerPoint of the...
stitchmediamix:

This is a narrated PowerPoint of the presentation I gave at the last Fan Studies panel at PCAACA 2017 April 15, 2017 since many people missed out on a chance to attend!

(I’ll update this with links to relatively required reading material!)
fanhackers 
april 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • In seeking to separate Benoit’s celebrity and...
"In seeking to separate Benoit’s celebrity and personal personas, some fans find the process easy...." “In seeking to separate Benoit’s celebrity and personal personas, some fans find the process easy. Respondent 710 notes: ‘I still remember him as one of the best workers of all time who had mental problems that led to his demise. I can easily separate the man and the wrestler.’ For others, the process is slightly more arduous. Respondent 14, for instance, notes that in working through his grief ‘I try to separate the man and the worker’, with Respondent 25 adding that ‘I’m starting to separate the character of Chris Benoit from the man, but it is still difficult to watch him … you know what he did and that is a hard pill to swallow’. Yet regardless of whether the separation of Benoit’s personas is easy or difficult for the individual, significantly it is a conscious and selective process.”
-

Phillips, T. (2015). Wrestling with grief: fan negotiation of professional/private personas in responses to the Chris Benoit double murder–suicide. Celebrity Studies, 6(1), 69-84.

In this paper, Tom Phillips investigates fans’ short- and long-term responses to celebrated wrestler Chris Benoit’s murder of his wife and child and subsequent suicide. He looks at issues of fannish grief and how it is shaped by official media narratives, as well as whether and how fans make distinctions between the public persona of a celebrity and their private self.
fanhackers 
april 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • List of openly accessible fan culture and popular...
List of openly accessible fan culture and popular culture studies journals List of openly accessible fan culture and popular culture studies journals:

The list is in French, but the journals listed are all in English, and they’re all free to access for anyone. Excellent resource.
fanhackers 
april 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • excerpt from videlicet
excerpt from videlicet
limblogs:

http://ift.tt/2pUgWwQ

OK so lemme expand a sec on matching.

So right now Fool For Love is playing in the other room; let’s break that
down briefly. The scene is Spike telling Buffy about killing his last
slayer and it’s a good example because it’s two fights cut together,
into one, explicitly, so it’s easier to really see the matches.
They are showing you the matches. The scenes are stitched together
through these motion matches until they occupy the same space. By the eyeline match, they can have 70s Spike addressing 2000s Buffy and it’s perfectly coherent.

Consider that these two scenes are really four scenes - that all
fight scenes are really shot as (at least two) separate scenes cut
together because the actors and the stunt doubles both act out the
scenes and then their motions are matched and cut together to form one
percept.

Now realise ALL continuity editing does this - even in the same scene with the same actors. You can connect any clip to any other clip, from anything, so long as there’s some continuity of form: in shape, colour, motion, eyeline…

Which reminds me, in Pteryx’s interview she talks about the Buffy titles, which have to be acknowledged as massively influential on vidding*.

Just spend some time watching these credits and look for motion matches,
graphic matches. This is like that, this is like that. Once you start
seeing them you’ll notice this all over.

Dawn’s eyebrow takes up the motion line. The motion builds a tangible space by bouncing itself against “walls”. 

Watch it again with another eyebrow follow-through. Dawn is the key. :P 

See how the motion moves one way and then resolves back: the conceptual “room” must have some limits, some rigid bodies and colliders
Swing the pendulum. Trace the arc

*As well as the Friends titles; I mean, the Friends titles basically
slowly teach you how to edit (very simply) to music- they start off with
the characters literally dancing to the music and then gradually over the years
replace each dance move with a clip from the show that dances in a
similar way. There’s a reason making Friends Style Credits is a gateway
drug.

http://ift.tt/2p6TMAK
fanhackers 
april 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Crip Fanfiction Research
Crip Fanfiction Research Crip Fanfiction Research:

Spotlighting some research in progress today. Cath Duchastel’s ongoing PhD research into disabled fans in online fanfiction communities looks at five key questions:

1. Are disabled fans contributing to the critical examination of disabled characters in fandoms and fanfiction?
2. Are disabled fans contributing to fostering discussion among fans about ablesim, web and other forms of accessibility, and the means by which disability oppression manifest?
3. Why have certain online fanfiction spaces welcomed disabled people whereas so many others have not?
4. What roles are the technological affordances and practices of digital media and technologies playing in the development of fanfiction communities as spaces where disability is present?
5. What insight can fanfiction as a creative practice offer about how and why cultural representation impacts agency and facilitates political participation and lasting social change?

One of Cath’s mini-projects is tracking of disability-related tags on AO3 over six months, and she is planning to put the results of this up on her website.
fanhackers 
april 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Literary references abound in judicial opinions....
"Literary references abound in judicial opinions. There are thousands of them, including a..." “Literary references abound in judicial opinions. There are thousands of them, including a substantial set of references to Sherlock Holmes. Within that Sherlockian set, there is an intriguing little subset: cases in which judges permit, endorse, or command engagement by other participants in the legal system in something that sounds a bit like Sherlockian role-playing. Are these judges—as they instruct or encourage—teaching participants in the legal system to be Sherlockians? Whatever the judges’ intentions, their messages ought, at the very least, to resonate with scholars and teachers who advocate for fandom in education.”
- Davies, Ross E. 2017. “The Fan-Judges: Clues to a Jurisculture of Sherlockian Fandom.” In “Sherlock Holmes Fandom, Sherlockiana, and the Great Game,” edited by Betsy Rosenblatt and Roberta Pearson, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 23.
fanhackers 
april 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • People called it “knotting au” or something to...
"People called it “knotting au” or something to that effect, and/or listed/tagged it with..." “People called it “knotting au” or something to that effect, and/or listed/tagged it with a series of tropes that made explicit (heh, explicit) what they meant. There wasn’t a fixed set of tropes. Because it spread via anon fic memes, the tropes featured in each fic depended on what the prompter suggested and on what the writer made of those requests. So some prompter could ask for “knotting au, heat, bonding, impregnation,” and different writers could take all of those tropes into account, or pick and choose which ones they wanted to tackle and/or add different ones. Other prompters would call for a different, more or less overlapping, set of tropes and so on. And the same prompt (the setting/premise) could be spun into very diverse directions. There was a fluidity to it that became a hallmark of the genre, so that each iteration could bring forth a new variation.”
-

Netweight (2013). The Nonnies Made Them Do It!

Have you ever looked at the Alpha/Beta/Omega Dynamics tag on AO3 and wondered how on earth we got here? Netweight has the answer, and the answer is Supernatural anon kinkmemes! In this meticulously researched piece of fannish meta, netweight traces the history of what eventually came to be known as A/B/O from its murky origins in some of Supernatural fandom’s anonymous online spaces, to being named, to hopping the fandom boundary and becoming the cross-fandom shared universe phenomenon it is today. She provides plenty of context for those of us who aren’t in SPN fandom, lots of links to primary sources, a bunch of useful timelines, as well as some good caveats on the limitations of the research. “The nonnies made them do it!” is a great effort to document and preserve a piece of fannish history which has puzzled many fans and fan studies scholars alike.
fanhackers 
april 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Many people, encountering fanfiction for the first...
"Many people, encountering fanfiction for the first time, wonder why so much of it is erotic. Anne..." “Many people, encountering fanfiction for the first time, wonder why so much of it is erotic. Anne Jamison, in Fic, gives a pretty good answer: a lot of fanfiction questions mainstream assumptions about gender, sexuality, and desire. But writing erotic fanfiction is also a wonderful game. The fanfiction community might be the first place where a woman is encouraged to enjoy her sexual fantasies and praised for the dirtiness of her imagination. Writing and reading fanfiction is a social, communal activity, and considering how much shame is still attached to the expression of female sexual desire (what’s so funny about it?) the creation of shared erotic fantasies is still radical.”
- Introduction to The Communications Officer’s Tale, The Fanfiction Reader: Folk Tales for the Digital Age (via francescacoppa)
fanhackers 
april 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Eventually many of us then have the Moment. It...
"Eventually many of us then have the Moment. It happens when we realize that we are not alone and..." “Eventually many of us then have the Moment. It happens when we realize that we are not alone and that others ask the same questions about the Sherlockian canon, puzzle over the same inconsistencies…and actually write about them…The learned articles, fascinating discourse, and impeccable research are immediately addicting. If others can do this, so can we.”
- Solberg, Andrew L., and Robert S. Katz. 2017. “Fandom, Publishing, and Playing the Grand Game.” In “Sherlock Holmes Fandom, Sherlockiana, and the Great Game,” edited by Betsy Rosenblatt and Roberta Pearson, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 23.
fanhackers 
april 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • By integrally linking the publication and...
"By integrally linking the publication and advertising strategies of his two major periodicals,..." “By integrally linking the publication and advertising strategies of his two major periodicals, proprietor and editor George Newnes manufactured one of the most vibrant literary fandoms in history.”
- McClellan, Ann K. 2017. “Tit-Bits, New Journalism, and Early Sherlock Holmes Fandom.” In “Sherlock Holmes Fandom, Sherlockiana, and the Great Game,” edited by Betsy Rosenblatt and Roberta Pearson, special issue, “Transformative Works and Cultures,” no. 23. http://ift.tt/2nEyWGx
fanhackers 
april 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Being a fan means doing life in a certain way. It...
"Being a fan means doing life in a certain way. It means being passionate. It means being playful. It..." “Being a fan means doing life in a certain way. It means being passionate. It means being playful. It means being creative and engaged. It means obsession and flailing. All of these perceived affordances of fandom are tied to norms, ideals, and practices, and these are again tied to self-reflections about age and their associated appropriateness. I argue that fandom, as a mediatized cultural practice, is transformative and thus has the potential to shape understandings of subjective age for its participants.”
- Petersen, Line Nybro. 2017. “‘The Florals’: Female Fans over 50 in Sherlock Fandom.” In “Sherlock Holmes Fandom, Sherlockiana, and the Great Game,” edited by Betsy Rosenblatt and Roberta Pearson, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 23.
fanhackers 
april 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The Fanfiction Reader: Folk Tales for the Digital...
The Fanfiction Reader: Folk Tales for the Digital Age The Fanfiction Reader: Folk Tales for the Digital Age:

francescacoppa:

Ta-da!  Straight from its debut this weekend in Chicago at SCMS 2017! 

The Fanfiction Reader: Folk Tales for the Digital Age is a collection of fanfiction stories from a variety of big western media fandoms - Star Trek, Star Wars, X-Files, Buffy, Doctor Who, HP, MCU, popslash, etc. vaguely modeled on The Canterbury Tales - each with a contextualizing essay by me and featuring introductions and other scholarly apparatus also by me. 

This book was designed for classroom use - for teachers who want to teach a class or a unit on fanfiction (see a list of some current classes here at Fanlore) without sending their students to the wilds of the internet (and/or without bothering fanfiction-writing fans.)  The stories were selected to represent a range of tropes and themes and also for their teachability. 

The book was also created as a case study in transformative fair use; it was put together for an educational purpose and published with a non-profit scholarly press; all of the stories in this book remain available for free on the internet in their original archives; all royalties from the book are being donated to the Organization For Transformative Works & the Archive of Our Own. 

A note to teachers: ordered together with The Fan Fiction Studies Reader (U. Iowa,  2014) or Fic: Why Fanfiction Is Taking Over The World  (Smartpop, 2013), you have a course in a bottle: everything for your fanfic-teaching needs!

A note to fandom: This book is aimed at the classroom, not at fandom, though I have tried to write as fannish an academic book as possible & one with at least some of the spirit. (Also: I totally didn’t write that book copy up there about 50 Shades of Gray, I’m just saying. :D They don’t ask me about the book copy!)

The Fanfiction Reader is also available at Amazon.com or directly from the University of Michigan website, which was distributing a 30% off code at SCMS that is good until April 26, 2016: UMSCMS17. (Shout out to U. Michigan Press for their support of fandom, open access, and fair use.) Or there’s a big chunk available on Googlebooks if you just want to see what the hell the thing is.  
fanhackers 
march 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • SCMS Fan and Audience Studies Scholarly Interest...
SCMS Fan and Audience Studies Scholarly Interest Group
tea-and-liminality:

faassig:

This is the tumblr for the Fan and Audience Studies Scholarly Interest Group (SIG) of the Society for Cinema and Media Studies, intended as a scholar-fandom interface for anyone interested in fan and audience studies. Please feel free to follow!

So, this is me (and others as they participate), and I just wanted to invite anyone interested in fan studies to follow. I’m hoping to make this - as I wrote above - a kind of fan-scholar interface; that is, to disseminate stuff scholars are working on and just generally help give a better idea of what fan studies actually is and what we do. Welcome!
fanhackers 
march 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • [F]or as long as there has been a Sherlock Holmes...
"[F]or as long as there has been a Sherlock Holmes there have been judges who would be comfortable..." “[F]or as long as there has been a Sherlock Holmes there have been judges who would be comfortable seeing more rather than less of him in their own courtrooms.”
-

Davies, Ross E. 2017. “The Fan-Judges: Clues to a Jurisculture of Sherlockian Fandom.” In “Sherlock Holmes Fandom, Sherlockiana, and the Great Game,” edited by Betsy Rosenblatt and Roberta Pearson, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 23.

In this piece from the Transformative Works and Cultures special issue on Sherlock Holmes fandom, Ross Davies asks to what extent judges who cite Sherlock Holmes in their opinions, or encourage others in their courtroom to adopt a Sherlockian approach, are encouraging people to engage in fannish behaviour. Davies gives three examples of judges permitting, endorsing, or even commanding Sherlockian behaviour from people in their courtroom - for instance requiring an expert witness to reveal their methodology much like Sherlock explains his to Watson. He argues that the judges who do this must expect that the people they are addressing will be at least familiar - or willing to engage - with Sherlock Holmes. This in turn fosters a kind of Sherlcok Holmes fandom among participants in the legal process.
fanhackers 
march 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • There are many different Japanese fan cultures, of...
"There are many different Japanese fan cultures, of course, and some are themselves more culturally..." “There are many different Japanese fan cultures, of course, and some are themselves more culturally legitimated than others. Yet even in the case of otaku and fujoshi fan cultures—the former roughly equivalent to American geek culture, and the latter to English-language slash communities—we see slippage between fan and producer subjectivities.”
-

Morimoto, Lori. 2017. “Sherlock (Holmes) in Japanese (Fan) Works.” In “Sherlock Holmes Fandom, Sherlockiana, and the Great Game,” edited by Betsy Rosenblatt and Roberta Pearson, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 23. 

I like this quote partly because it reminds me of how infernally difficult it is to put a name on any kind of fandom/fan community. Take “English-language slash communities.” This is certainly a much better term than things like the dreaded “Western fandom” or “Japanese fandom,” ridiculous concepts that mean absolutely nothing. The use of a plural–cultures, communities–is also a good way to hint at more diversity. 

Still, especially to people in such communities, it’s clear that the concept of “slash communities” has its own issues. To name just one, it pins people down according to the kind of content they favor, but many people in these communities will write/read non-slash works as well. They’re “crossover individuals” between different content-based communities. But what about groups of fans who hang out together no matter what content any of them are currently focusing on (to give just one example)? That’s a very common and meaningful way for fans to interact. How do you name that kind of community? More broadly, how can you put a proper focus on human interactions between fans, when so many naming conventions for groups of fans focus on the kind of content people produce?

And now we’ve arrived at the “What makes a community” discussion, so time for me to run away screaming.
fanhackers 
march 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Going on right now: fan studies tweets from...
Going on right now: fan studies tweets from the SCMS conference

fanhackers:

The 2017 conference of the Society of Cinema and Media Studies (SCMS) is underway in Chicago until March 26th. SCMS is massive, and like every year, it features many great panels on the latest fan studies research. 

Definitely check out #FaAS, the Twitter hashtag of the SCMS Fan and Audience Studies Scholarly Interest Group, which brings the latest from all eight fan studies panels:

Chinese Queer Fan Cultures

Unsanctioned Television Access

“Stop Bringing Race Into This”

Poaching Politics

Connected Viewing

Public Life of Cinema in East Asia 3: Unexpected Audiences

Fandom and Merchandising

Teaching with Fan Video workshop

The group also has a tumblr.

Teaching with Fan Video workshop being tweeted now!
fanhackers 
march 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Going on right now: fan studies tweets from...
Going on right now: fan studies tweets from the SCMS conference

fanhackers:

The 2017 conference of the Society of Cinema and Media Studies (SCMS) is underway in Chicago until March 26th. SCMS is massive, and like every year, it features many great panels on the latest fan studies research. 

Definitely check out #FaAS, the Twitter hashtag of the SCMS Fan and Audience Studies Scholarly Interest Group, which brings the latest from all eight fan studies panels:

Chinese Queer Fan Cultures

Unsanctioned Television Access

“Stop Bringing Race Into This”

Poaching Politics

Connected Viewing

Public Life of Cinema in East Asia 3: Unexpected Audiences

Fandom and Merchandising

Teaching with Fan Video workshop

The group also has a tumblr.
fanhackers 
march 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • It’s impossible to read the Sherlock Holmes...
"It’s impossible to read the Sherlock Holmes stories without thinking about the inconsistencies..." “It’s impossible to read the Sherlock Holmes stories without thinking about the inconsistencies that make these tales unique in literature. Realizing that others wrote about these issues with the same passion that we felt was all the incentive it took to start us on a lifetime of research and publishing. There are many stories of crime and detection by other authors, with interesting plots and colorful characters. But none of them constitutes a chronicle spanning 40 years of one man’s life, and none has spawned as vast a literature as that surrounding the Holmes canon. When it comes to Sherlock Holmes, being a fan and being a writer are almost inseparable.”
- Solberg, Andrew L., and Robert S. Katz. 2017. “Fandom, Publishing, and Playing the Grand Game.” In “Sherlock Holmes Fandom, Sherlockiana, and the Great Game,” edited by Betsy Rosenblatt and Roberta Pearson, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 23.
fanhackers 
march 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The newer fans’ language is perhaps less measured...
"The newer fans’ language is perhaps less measured (and certainly more concise) than that of..." “The newer fans’ language is perhaps less measured (and certainly more concise) than that of early Sherlockians, but it carries the same fundamental sentiment: that, regardless of the legal merits (or lack thereof) of their claims, those asserting legal objections to fandom are morally wrong.”
- Rosenblatt, Betsy. 2017. “The Great Game and the Copyright Villain.” In “Sherlock Holmes Fandom, Sherlockiana, and the Great Game,” edited by Betsy Rosenblatt and Roberta Pearson, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 23.
fanhackers 
march 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Lamb, P. F., & Veith, D. L. (1986). Romantic myth,...
Lamb, P. F., & Veith, D. L. (1986). Romantic myth,...
Lamb, P. F., & Veith, D. L. (1986). Romantic myth, transcendence, and Star Trek zines. Erotic universe: Sexuality and fantastic literature, 235-55.

One of the earliest pieces of research published about fan fiction, Lamb and Veith’s essay is a first crack at answering the foundational question of fan studies: why do straight women read and write about men banging? Lamb and Veith focus their analysis on Kirk/Spock slash. They argue that in fan fiction, rather than being presented as masculine, both characters become androgynous by acquiring both typically masculine and typically feminine characteristics, which often complement each other. By removing gender differences from the equation, fan fiction writers are free to explore relationships which are genuinely equal and unencumbered by power dynamics.

Image description

A table reproduced from Lamb and Veith’s essay outlining the different feminine and masculine characteristics given to Kirk and Spock in K/S fan fiction.

Kirk feminine qualities: Femininely “beautiful”; shorter, physically weaker; emotional; intuitive; sensuous, engages in much physical touching; verbal; evokes powerful emotional responses from others

Spock masculine qualities: Masculinely rugged; taller, more powerful; logical; rational; controlled, physically distant; reticent; keeps others at a distance

Kirk masculine qualities: Sexually ready at all times; is undisputed leader, initiator of action; is the “real” or “norm”, always at home; is fulfilled prior to Spock, only with acceptance of the bond is he firmly united with Spock; Spock complements his “at-homeness”; is sexually promiscuous (Spock assures his fidelity); is usually the seducer

Spock feminine qualities: Sexually controlled (except during his Vulcan mating cycle); needs to be led, follows Kirk into action; is the “alien” or “other”, always the “outsider”; is fulfilled only with Kirk; felt one-sided fidelity to Kirk even before the bond; needs Kirk for full identity; a virgin until marriage, he exhibits absolute monogamy after marriage; is usually seduced, but once unleashed his sexuality is very powerful
fanhackers 
march 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • When it comes to many online fandoms, whether they...
"When it comes to many online fandoms, whether they are for a TV show, book, or movie, at their heart..." “When it comes to many online fandoms, whether they are for a TV show, book, or movie, at their heart lies one thing: storytelling. Fans who have formed online communities around their fandoms may like the fandom’s object of focus for different reasons, but ultimately, regardless of its medium, it is something that was designed to tell a story. Even non-media-based fandoms, which might not readily seem like “storytelling” fandoms have significant storytelling elements; consider the Boston Red Sox fandom and the narrative of the “Curse of the Bambino.” This legendary bit of fan lore, which essentially states that the Boston Red Sox did not win a World Series for 86 years because they traded Babe Ruth in 1919, is a compelling narrative. So compelling, in fact, that Red Sox fans have used it as an emotional coping mechanism when their team comes up short (Prakash 2004). Stories help us make sense of what happens in life, whether it is as simple as a baseball team losing a game or something more profound such as the death of a loved one.”
-

 Heiden, Kat. 2017. “Storytelling through Online Fandom.”

I love it when research on media fandom touches upon sports fandom as well. Those kinds of fandoms are still often researched separately, but not always for good or obvious reasons. There’s a lot more crossover these days, for example research on soccer, hockey, etc fanworks. Check out more research on sports fandom here.
fanhackers 
march 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Nice basic overview of some big...
Nice basic overview of some big fanfic-and-copyright discussions...
Nice basic overview of some big fanfic-and-copyright discussions that have taken place over the years, from 50 Shades to Marion Zimmer Bradley to Kindle Worlds.

For more in-depth analysis of legal issues surrounding fanworks, check out some of the many, many articles in the “law” tag of the fan studies bibliography.
fanhackers 
march 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Given the dominance of pairings in fan fiction,...
"Given the dominance of pairings in fan fiction, (…) the opposition between romance and sex..." “Given the dominance of pairings in fan fiction, (…) the opposition between romance and sex can look like a sliding scale of visibility between G-rated stories, in which romance itself is only implied, and NC-17 stories, in which sex is explicitly represented. This emphasis on the visibility of sexual content through the use of the ratings system reveals the extent to which this assessment is drawn from the generic conventions of pornography. However, very explicit stories may also be very romantic, and the most popular romance stories may focus explicitly on sex. The genres are not poles at either end of the scale but axes between which every story can be plotted as more or less romance and more or less porn. Porn may be a slight or dominant element of a fluffy romance, and romantic completion can be used to ground PWPs as a rationale for the sex. Even this imaginary graph is a gross simplification, because porn and romance are not so separable in fan fiction and because they are not the only terms by which fan fiction is classified. Nevertheless, I would argue that while much fan fiction is explicitly romance and/or porn, all fan fiction is implicitly both.”
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Driscoll, C. (2006). One True Pairing: The Romance of Pornography and the Pornography of Romance. Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet

Driscoll uses the example of fanfiction to re-evaluate the relationship between the genres of pornography and romance. For her, fanfiction is at least implicitly both porn and romance. She finds two types of sex in fanfiction. “Plot sex” is used to develop characters, further the plot and provide closure to a romance narrative. “Porn sex”, on the other hand, is written for its own sake, with the focus physical sex acts, like pornography. Importantly, porn sex in fanfiction - even in PWP stories - must retain an element of plot or characterisation in order to remain fanfiction. Even if such characterisation is only accessible to those who know the source material well, it has to be there for the work to still be fanfiction.
fanhackers 
march 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The sexualised content of some Japanese media,...
"The sexualised content of some Japanese media, particularly in regard to representations of..." “The sexualised content of some Japanese media, particularly in regard to representations of characters who may ‘appear to be’ minors, has become the site of increased concern in some countries, notably Canada and Australia where fictional depictions of child characters have been included in the definition of ‘child-abuse publications’. The ever expanding scope of this legislation has led to the recent arrest and prosecution of manga and anime fans in both these countries and in the US.”
-

McLelland, Mark. 2013. “Ethical and Legal Issues in Teaching about Japanese Popular Culture to Undergraduate Students in Australia.” Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies.

After the uproar about last week’s BBC3 documentary that attempted to link sexually explicit manga to real-life sexual abuse, it seems appropriate to bring back one of many articles that discuss how (attempted) censorship of sexual content has impacted fans around the globe.

Many fans will be familiar with the story of how censorship incidents on LiveJournal inspired calls for the fan-owned, fan-operated fanworks archive that would become the Archive of Our Own (AO3). These days, fans of Japanese media–inside and outside Japan–are perhaps the ones who are the most likely to encounter censorship in some way or another, and it’s a hot topic in Japanese fan communities. For some more background on media censorship in Japan, see this blog post on censorship and anime/manga fandom that I wrote for the OTW’s main blog in 2014.

For more academic works on censorship and fandom, see the “censorship” tag in the Fan Studies Bibliography.
fanhackers 
march 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Livestream TODAY at 7pm, Thursday, March 2: Black...
Livestream TODAY at 7pm, Thursday, March 2: Black Women Defense Squads in Online Fandom Livestream TODAY at 7pm, Thursday, March 2: Black Women Defense Squads in Online Fandom:
fanhackers 
march 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • HANNIBAL: A Fanvid | [in]Transition
HANNIBAL: A Fanvid | [in]Transition HANNIBAL: A Fanvid | [in]Transition:

tea-and-liminality:

Some of you saw this vid(eo essay) when I circulated it in an earlier version last spring, but now I’m happy to say it’s found its final form in the latest issue of the online videographic essay journal [in]Transition. I’ve watched this approximately 10,000 times since it was accepted for publication, trying to figure out if it does what I wanted it to do - I think it does, and together with the short accompanying essay, I’m actually kind of proud of it. I’m especially grateful to Louisa Stein and Francesca Coppa, two scholars of fanvidding practices and aesthetics, for their generous reviews of the piece (which are also printed here, as is standard for the journal). They both saw things I hadn’t, making it an especially interesting experience of authorship and what happens when a thing leaves the nest.

There’s one quick long (distant) shot of the “valentine” Hannibal leaves Will in this vid; otherwise, it’s gore-free. If you have thoughts, I’d love to hear them!

**expand the vid to watch it - it looks much, much better when it’s larger

This is a really interesting project in which a scholar uses a fannish format (the vid) to make a video essay that, according to one reviewer, “brings out the analytical and critical nature of many affective fan works.” With accompanying essay.
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • I realised that I was spending all this time...
"I realised that I was spending all this time trying to think about how to engage women with..." “I realised that I was spending all this time trying to think about how to engage women with technology, and I was ignoring the fact they already were. They were essentially already video editors, graphic designers, community managers.  They were teaching each other CSS to make their tumblr themes look more gorgeous, and they were using Chrome extensions in anger to make tumblr do what they wanted. These were basically front end developers, social media managers, they were absolutely immersed in technology, every day, and we weren’t paying attention, because they were doing it in service of something we don’t care about.”
-

Sacha Judd, How The Tech Sector Could Move In One Direction. Presented at Beyond Tellerrand, Berlin, November 2016.

A really interesting look at fannish engagement with technology. Covers many topics, from the AO3 to fanworks and activism by Larry fans to Pinboard. We know many fans are good at technology, but it’s fascinating to read about it from the perspective of someone whose goals are a) to convince tech companies that (female) fans make great employees, and b) offer those companies concrete pointers on how to attract fans to their job postings.
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • MIT Live Webcast RIGHT NOW: Fan fiction and fair...
MIT Live Webcast RIGHT NOW: Fan fiction and fair use MIT Live Webcast RIGHT NOW: Fan fiction and fair use:

There are millions of fan fiction works both online and off. Though many content creators support or even encourage fan-made books, comics, plays, or films inspired by their work, others see them as infringing their copyrights or eating into their profits. Some have responded with lawsuits. In this talk, Harvard Copyright Advisor Kyle Courtney explores court cases related to fan fiction and fair use, the doctrine in copyright law that allows users to build on others’ work without permission. 

Cases discussed include the recently settled Star Trek case, Paramount Pictures v. Axanar, and the JK Rowling/Harry Potter lawsuit, Warner Brothers v. RDR Books. 

Presenter: Kyle Courtney, Copyright Advisor, Harvard Library Office for Scholarly Communication
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • So archontic literature and women’s writing, at...
"So archontic literature and women’s writing, at least in the English language, have been linked for..." “So archontic literature and women’s writing, at least in the English language, have been linked for at least four hundred years, and from the first, the act of women entering the archives of male-authored texts and adding their own entries to those archives has generated conflict. Wroth, who was Sidney’s niece, received sharp criticism for writing the Urania from fellow noble Sir Edward Denny, who lambasted her for producing a romance, a type of work unseemly for a woman - the only appropriate genres for women writers being, according to Denny, translations of scripture and other devotional material. Wroth responded to Denny by parodying a poem that Denny had written to censure her. She adopted his rhyme scheme, including the exact rhyming words, and defended herself archly, demonstrating that a female writer could freely enter and add to any male-authored archive she wished, and that such archontic activity could be a successful technique for critiquing the style or message of the male writer’s writing.”
-

Derecho, A. (2006). Archontic literature: A definition, a history, and several theories of fan fiction. Fan fiction and fan communities in the age of the internet, 61-78.

In this paper, Derecho is interested in fanfiction as an art form rather than simply a social phenomenon, which was the predominant approach in fan studies at the time. Theorising how fanfiction works, she coins the term “archontic literature”. This is partly an attempt to move away from value-laden words such as “derivative” or “appropriative”. “Archontic” refers to the idea of an archive, which is ever-expanding, and where the addition of any new work alters the entire archive. Derecho also uses “originary” (rather than “original” or “source”) for a work which may serve as inspiration for fanfiction. Conceptualising fanfiction in this way allows for a less hierarchical view of the relationship between fanfiction and the works it is based on. Derecho argues that fanfiction is part of a wider genre of archontic literature - works based and building on other existing works. She traces a history of archontic writing, showing how it has often been used as a tool of social and cultural critique by minority and marginalised groups. She gives a number of examples including women’s writing from the 17th century, and more recently postcolonial and ethnic American literature such as Alice Randall’s The Wind Done Gone.
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The late Marion Zimmer Bradley once said of her...
"The late Marion Zimmer Bradley once said of her own most famous fictional world, “I..." “The late Marion Zimmer Bradley once said of her own most famous fictional world, “I didn’t invent Darkover, I discovered it.” Unlike most authors, who at best enjoy their admirers’ activities, and at worst try to end them, Bradley and her sizable community of fans collaborated in the publication of a large body of work fairly harmoniously for over two decades. However, this collaboration came to an abrupt end in 1992 with an event that can be referred to as the Contraband Incident. (…)  The case of Bradley and of Contraband has perhaps attained the status of a fable whose moral is “Be careful [authors who read fan fiction], because this could happen to you.””
-

Coker, Catherine. 2011. “The Contraband Incident: The Strange Case of Marion Zimmer Bradley.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 6. 

An article about one of the most (in)famous conflicts between a pro creator and a fan, “frequently cited by authors who object to fanfiction to one degree or another, or as evidence that professional authors should avoid reading fanfic based on their published works, to a degree that approaches “urban legend” status.” (from Fanlore's long article on the incident, which has more background information and alternative takes)
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The biopic viewer, like the fan fiction reader,...
"The biopic viewer, like the fan fiction reader, can choose to compartmentalize the variations on the..." “The biopic viewer, like the fan fiction reader, can choose to compartmentalize the variations on the celebrity’s star image. However, the legitimized Hollywood film is branded with a greater connection to truth than RPF fan fiction, with the latter often marked up front by disclaimers deliberately announcing its status as fiction. This is in contrast to the variations on a “based on a true story” title card often seen at the beginning of a biopic. As a for-profit venture, the Hollywood biopic is assumed to have enough adherences to truth in dealing with the likeness of a real person to avoid accusations of defamation. It is understood that the biopic is not a documentary, and thus some degree of fictionalization or invention, such as composite characters or the compression of time, is to be expected (Bingham 2010, 5). Even so, the biopic carries the weight of an intended connection to actuality that RPF fan fiction does not similarly claim. Thus there is less of an expectation that the viewer will strictly compartmentalize versions of the real person, and the recontextualization of the public image in light of the presented private self is less of an invitation to play and more of an argument for a possible actuality.”
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Piper, M. (2015). Real body, fake person: Recontextualizing celebrity bodies in fandom and film. Transformative Works and Cultures, 20.

Melanie Piper’s paper on Real Person(a) Fiction investigates how RPF is similar and different to more commercial forms of fiction based on real people or events, such as the Hollywood biopic. Can we meaningfully say that Aaron Sorkin has fallen face-first into Silicon Valley RPF fandom? Piper argues that RPF and biopics “work” in similar ways: they take a celebrity’s public image and recontextualize it to show a fictionalized, private self. A major difference between the two is the level of truth claim they make. A biopic is often the only one of its kind and the first and only time the majority of its audience will engage with the subject. Because of this, it makes a much stronger implicit truth claim than a piece of RPF, which is one of often hundreds or thousands about that particular celebrity. The circulation of many different, clearly fictional, accounts of the same “canon” events in RPF communities creates a stronger awareness that the limited information available can be interpreted in a variety of ways. In this way, it encourages at least some compartmentalization between the celebrity persona, private person, and fictionalized character.
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • In recent years, patterns of sociability among...
"In recent years, patterns of sociability among weblogs (blogs) have been analyzed using link..." “In recent years, patterns of sociability among weblogs (blogs) have been analyzed using link analysis, including within large blog hosting communities such as LiveJournal. Social networks have been identified based on blog topic (e.g., politics), common interests (e.g., fandom), and online and offline friendship connections; bloggers converse within these networks by linking to and commenting on one another’s content. More basic than these forms of social glue, however, is language. Indeed, a shared language would seem to be the sine qua non for meaningful interconnection and conversation.”
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Herring, Susan C. 2007. “Language Networks on LiveJournal.” In Proceedings of the Fortieth Hawai’i International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-40). Los Alamitos: IEEE Press. 

This is a really interesting analysis of the role language plays/played in community-building on LiveJournal. Would love to see similar research on, say, Tumblr.
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Looking for fan studies work from a network...
Looking for fan studies work from a network science POV

val-mora asked:

Do you (collectively) know anyone who is taking a network science approach, rather than a humanities/social science approach, to fan studies, that I can learn from? I’m an undergraduate in engineering and am looking for ways to make “hey the ao3 tag sets provide a really rich dataset! and fandom is worth studying! and there are legitimate things to learn!” into something I can say to an engineering professor dude that will convince him to let me use such data for some kind of final project for the degree. Any suggestions or names to read papers of would be appreciated!

That’s a great question, anyone have suggestions?

(btw your submission form with ‘ask us anything’ cuts off the instructions for the captcha, at least on my screen and in two different browsers, so it’s actually impossible for me to send you asks, um)

Thanks for pointing that out, we’ll look into it!
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Even the most cursory look at different literary...
"Even the most cursory look at different literary schools through the ages easily shows the..." “Even the most cursory look at different literary schools through the ages easily shows the difference a shared canon (or the absence thereof) makes in the way the process of textual creation and elaboration is played out. In the Middle Ages, for example, cultured people were expected to have a knowledge of a shared allegorical code, which then allowed a compressed, multilayered reading, such as the four levels of textual fruition (literal, moral, allegoric, and anagogic) famously detailed by Dante in the second book of his Convivio.”
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Stasi, M. (2006). The toy soldiers from leeds: The slash palimpsest. Fan fiction and fan communities in the age of the internet, 115-133.

In this paper, Stasi is interested in the relationships between different fanfiction works, as well as the relationship of those works to the canon they’re based on. She uses the metaphor of a palimpsest (a piece of writing material with multiple layers of writing on it, where parts of the earlier layers may still be visible) to describe slash works and fanfiction more broadly. The palimpsest for Stasi is “a nonhierarchical, rich layering of genres, more or less partially erased and resurfacing, and a rich and complex continuum of themes, techniques, voices, moods, and registers”. Being able to rely on the reader’s knowledge of the canon enables fanfiction authors to compress meaning through dense intertextual references. Stasi argues that such extreme compression of meaning is highly unusual in modern prose: “it points back to techniques more commonly used in poetry, or in genres such as folktales or mythological cycles”.

Amusingly, Stasi recounts William Blake’s attempt to create his own system of intertextual symbols and references. The result was so incomprehensible that Blake effectively became “a fandom of one”.
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Web 2.0 phenomena have been called the...
"Web 2.0 phenomena have been called the “read/write” Web (Berners-Lee, 2005), where users’..." “Web 2.0 phenomena have been called the “read/write” Web (Berners-Lee, 2005), where users’ contributing of comments and content can provide equivalent, and sometimes greater, value to a website than content merely posted in static pages by the site’s owner.”
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Warren, Jonathan. ‘Constructing Artistic Discourse: Amateur Reviews of Amateur Movies in a Large New Media Community.’ Working Paper, School of Libraryand Information Science, Indiana University, 1 May 2008.

This quote, and the many others like it, underscores how fannish content is almost always made up of not just a “work” but a “work” plus the conversation around it. A fic on AO3 is never just text posted by a writer; the text is literally surrounded by extra bits of content added by other fans, and that content helps shape meaning, telling other fans how to interpret it. Before we even start reading, we see how many hits or kudos or comments a fic has, and that influences how we approach that work. And we can add to the fic with our own kudos and comments.

Just like a fic on AO3 or ff.net or Wattpad isn’t just the author’s text, a piece of fanart on deviantART or pixiv isn’t just the image. That image comes embedded in a wealth of little bits of conversation built by many other fans interacting with it: likes, comments, indications of what user galleries or groups an image has been added to, user-added tags (for pixiv), and so on.

All that conversation surrounding a fic or a piece of fanart doesn’t just add “value"–it’s an integral part of the work. You can’t miss it, and if you want to see just the text or the image, you have to work to strip away the extra layers of content added to it by others.
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Is Fandom the New Cinephilia?
Is Fandom the New Cinephilia? Is Fandom the New Cinephilia?:

There are two specific reasons I think the current state of fandom could be seen as a successor — or at least a second cousin twice removed — of classical cinephilia, and the first one is this: just as cinephilia came into (or perhaps more accurately closest to) the mainstream was when the first generation of cinephiles grew up and started working behind the camera, creating entire film movements like the French New Wave, some devoted fans have started getting their hands on the reins of long-running franchises.
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The  basic  ideas  behind  fandom’s  treatment  of...
"The  basic  ideas  behind  fandom’s  treatment  of  copyright  may track  to  fair  use  and  basic..." “The  basic  ideas  behind  fandom’s  treatment  of  copyright  may
track  to  fair  use  and  basic  copyright  law,  but  it  tracks  even  more closely  to  something  else. Consider  three  key  pieces together:  the freedom  to  create  derivative  works,  the  requirement  that  the  new work  be  not-for-profit,  and  the  requirement  that  the  work  be attributed to the appropriate sources.  This could be a description of the  most  frequently  adopted  type  of  Creative  Commons  license: Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike. (…) The  terms  of  a  CC  license  might  seem  intuitively  familiar  to fan  fiction  writers,  as  the  restrictions  are  the  same  ones  that  they apply to their own work.”
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Fiesler, Casey. 2007. “Everything I Need to Know I Learned from Fandom: How Existing Social Norms Can Help Shape the next Generation of User-Generated Content.” Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment and Technology Law 10: 729–62.

I love the connection made between fanwork-related norms and CC licenses here.

By the way, it’s really interesting how you can tell when an article is “older” (in this case, a mere 10 years old) just by the way it describes the norms of English-language media fandom. Just like Scott’s work from 2009, this article was written at a time when involving money in fanworks exchange was much more controversial than it is today. Things evolve fast.
fanhackers 
january 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The regifting economy that is emerging, I argue,...
"The regifting economy that is emerging, I argue, is the result of the industry’s careful..." “The regifting economy that is emerging, I argue, is the result of the industry’s careful cultivation of a parallel fan space alongside grassroots formations of fandom. By precariously attempting to balance the communal ideals of fandom’s gift economy with their commercial interests, the regifting economy of ancillary content models in particular can be viewed as attempting to regift a narrowly defined and contained version of fandom to a general audience. This regifted version of fandom that ancillary content models represent exchanges grassroots fandom’s organically generated output and fluid exchange of fan works for the regulation and resale of fan works through contests and the elusive promise of credibility. Although unofficial fan works and official ancillary content both contribute to the narrative world of a series and do similar textual work, the impetus behind their creation and exchange is fundamentally different. As Hyde (1983:70) stresses, “there are many gifts that must be refused” as a result of the motives behind their presentation; thus, the term regifting economy is meant to synthesize the negative social connotations tied to the practice of regifting with a brief analysis of why acafans and existing fan communities should be aware and critical of these planned communities and their purpose as a site of initiation for the next generation of fans.”
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 Scott, Suzanne. 2009. “Repackaging Fan Culture: The Regifting Economy of Ancillary Content Models.” Transformative Works and Cultures 3.

Scott’s article on industry attempts to co-opt the concept of a fannish “gift economy” was published in 2009. Around this time, the idea of involving money in fannish interactions in any way was still somewhat outlandish for many people in English-speaking Western media fandom, and to scholars in English-language media studies who focused on that fandom. 

Things have gotten more complex since then; art commissions, for example, are now considered perfectly normal pretty much everywhere, and fic commissions are fairly common too. Industry reactions to that complicating of the fannish “gift economy” are very diverse and have evolved as well. However, Scott’s framing of industry involvement and its (potential) effects on the social fabric of fandoms remains extremely relevant and important.
fanhackers 
january 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • While all of the women were conscious of the fact...
"While all of the women were conscious of the fact that being a woman sports fan had negatively..." “While all of the women were conscious of the fact that being a woman sports fan had negatively impacted how they were perceived, very few challenged the root of that exclusion: the ways in which sports fandom was gendered masculine. Most did not articulate narratives of exclusion as sports fans because of their gender. When this exclusion (perhaps by another name) was acknowledged, their approach to negotiating that exclusion was largely through the lens of individualism; it is their own individual responsibility to either not let sexism in sports fan communities bother them, or to better conform to those communities, rather than advocate for the elimination of masculinist discourse from sports fan communities.”
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Esmonde, K., Cooky, C., & Andrews, D. L. (2015). “It’s supposed to be about the love of the game, not the love of Aaron Rodgers’ eyes”: Challenging the exclusions of women’s sports fans. Sociology of Sport Journal, 32(1), 22-48.

Research on sports fandom ends up in all sorts of non-Fan Studies publications, so it can be a little tricky to hunt down. This paper looks at the experiences of women sports fans in what are ultimately very masculine spaces, and examines how they negotiate sexism, their own femininity, and their identity as sports fans.
fanhackers 
january 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • [Star Wars: The Old Republic fans on BioWare’s fan...
"[Star Wars: The Old Republic fans on BioWare’s fan forums] argued over whether an online game..." “[Star Wars: The Old Republic fans on BioWare’s fan forums] argued over whether an online game is an appropriate venue to discuss the sexual politics and the problem of heteronormativity in virtual worlds. What was often framed by the participants as a benevolent desire to prevent political and ideological conflict from leaking into gaming and ruining its unique attractions manifested as the maintenance of a heterocentric power structure. True gamers and fans are assumed to be straight (or, if they are queer, it is assumed that they will remain in the closet while participating in the gaming forum), and out queer gamers and their allies are flagged as disruptive and harmful interlopers. This stance implies that BioWare would be doing its real fans (the ones they rely on to sustain their profit margins) a disservice were it to cater to the desires of queer players by making the forum community queer friendly. A similar debate arose 2 years later when BioWare made the decision to include gay male romance options in their popular single player role-playing game franchise, Dragon Age.”
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 Condis, Megan. 2015. “No Homosexuals in Star Wars? BioWare, ‘gamer’ Identity, and the Politics of Privilege in a Convergence Culture.” Convergence 21 (2): 198–212.

This paper is a great in-depth exploration of how different groups of fans react to explicitly queer characters in games, and especially about how they construct their discourse. Interested as I am in online infrastructure, I also love Condis’ focus on the role that fan forums play here.
fanhackers 
january 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Perhaps most notably, by offering works that...
"Perhaps most notably, by offering works that arguably “push the envelope” more than the works of the..." “Perhaps most notably, by offering works that arguably “push the envelope” more than the works of the formal manga industry, dōjinshi may produce examples of innovation that create new opportunities for the entire industry. Indeed, mainstream manga publishing companies have in the past brought the styles and ideas of “hot” subcultures into their own product lines. New genres fostered by the dōjinshi markets– genres that are often quite risqué – have been at times been adopted by mainstream commercial manga publishers.”
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Mehra, Salil. 2002.  “Copyright and Comics in Japan: Does Law Explain Why All the Cartoons My Kid Watches Are Japanese Imports?” SSRN eLibrary.

Mehra’s paper is fifteen years old, but it’s still a great explanation of the legal position of fanworks in Japan, and why these fanworks show that letting fans create (and even sell) work freely makes economic sense for media companies. One of those reasons is that fanworks are a hotbed of content innovation that companies can take advantage of. The most famous example of a dōjinshi genre that was adopted by the mainstream manga industry is probably yaoi, the Japanese equivalent of slash, which inspired the massively popular commercial manga genre called BL/boys’ love.

I highly recommend this paper for anyone looking to learn more about Japanese law and fanworks.
fanhackers 
january 2017 by otw_news
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