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Fanhackers • MIT Live Webcast RIGHT NOW: Fan fiction and fair...
MIT Live Webcast RIGHT NOW: Fan fiction and fair use MIT Live Webcast RIGHT NOW: Fan fiction and fair use:

There are millions of fan fiction works both online and off. Though many content creators support or even encourage fan-made books, comics, plays, or films inspired by their work, others see them as infringing their copyrights or eating into their profits. Some have responded with lawsuits. In this talk, Harvard Copyright Advisor Kyle Courtney explores court cases related to fan fiction and fair use, the doctrine in copyright law that allows users to build on others’ work without permission. 

Cases discussed include the recently settled Star Trek case, Paramount Pictures v. Axanar, and the JK Rowling/Harry Potter lawsuit, Warner Brothers v. RDR Books. 

Presenter: Kyle Courtney, Copyright Advisor, Harvard Library Office for Scholarly Communication
fanhackers 
15 hours ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • So archontic literature and women’s writing, at...
"So archontic literature and women’s writing, at least in the English language, have been linked for..." “So archontic literature and women’s writing, at least in the English language, have been linked for at least four hundred years, and from the first, the act of women entering the archives of male-authored texts and adding their own entries to those archives has generated conflict. Wroth, who was Sidney’s niece, received sharp criticism for writing the Urania from fellow noble Sir Edward Denny, who lambasted her for producing a romance, a type of work unseemly for a woman - the only appropriate genres for women writers being, according to Denny, translations of scripture and other devotional material. Wroth responded to Denny by parodying a poem that Denny had written to censure her. She adopted his rhyme scheme, including the exact rhyming words, and defended herself archly, demonstrating that a female writer could freely enter and add to any male-authored archive she wished, and that such archontic activity could be a successful technique for critiquing the style or message of the male writer’s writing.”
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Derecho, A. (2006). Archontic literature: A definition, a history, and several theories of fan fiction. Fan fiction and fan communities in the age of the internet, 61-78.

In this paper, Derecho is interested in fanfiction as an art form rather than simply a social phenomenon, which was the predominant approach in fan studies at the time. Theorising how fanfiction works, she coins the term “archontic literature”. This is partly an attempt to move away from value-laden words such as “derivative” or “appropriative”. “Archontic” refers to the idea of an archive, which is ever-expanding, and where the addition of any new work alters the entire archive. Derecho also uses “originary” (rather than “original” or “source”) for a work which may serve as inspiration for fanfiction. Conceptualising fanfiction in this way allows for a less hierarchical view of the relationship between fanfiction and the works it is based on. Derecho argues that fanfiction is part of a wider genre of archontic literature - works based and building on other existing works. She traces a history of archontic writing, showing how it has often been used as a tool of social and cultural critique by minority and marginalised groups. She gives a number of examples including women’s writing from the 17th century, and more recently postcolonial and ethnic American literature such as Alice Randall’s The Wind Done Gone.
fanhackers 
17 hours ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • The late Marion Zimmer Bradley once said of her...
"The late Marion Zimmer Bradley once said of her own most famous fictional world, “I..." “The late Marion Zimmer Bradley once said of her own most famous fictional world, “I didn’t invent Darkover, I discovered it.” Unlike most authors, who at best enjoy their admirers’ activities, and at worst try to end them, Bradley and her sizable community of fans collaborated in the publication of a large body of work fairly harmoniously for over two decades. However, this collaboration came to an abrupt end in 1992 with an event that can be referred to as the Contraband Incident. (…)  The case of Bradley and of Contraband has perhaps attained the status of a fable whose moral is “Be careful [authors who read fan fiction], because this could happen to you.””
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Coker, Catherine. 2011. “The Contraband Incident: The Strange Case of Marion Zimmer Bradley.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 6. 

An article about one of the most (in)famous conflicts between a pro creator and a fan, “frequently cited by authors who object to fanfiction to one degree or another, or as evidence that professional authors should avoid reading fanfic based on their published works, to a degree that approaches “urban legend” status.” (from Fanlore's long article on the incident, which has more background information and alternative takes)
fanhackers 
2 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • The biopic viewer, like the fan fiction reader,...
"The biopic viewer, like the fan fiction reader, can choose to compartmentalize the variations on the..." “The biopic viewer, like the fan fiction reader, can choose to compartmentalize the variations on the celebrity’s star image. However, the legitimized Hollywood film is branded with a greater connection to truth than RPF fan fiction, with the latter often marked up front by disclaimers deliberately announcing its status as fiction. This is in contrast to the variations on a “based on a true story” title card often seen at the beginning of a biopic. As a for-profit venture, the Hollywood biopic is assumed to have enough adherences to truth in dealing with the likeness of a real person to avoid accusations of defamation. It is understood that the biopic is not a documentary, and thus some degree of fictionalization or invention, such as composite characters or the compression of time, is to be expected (Bingham 2010, 5). Even so, the biopic carries the weight of an intended connection to actuality that RPF fan fiction does not similarly claim. Thus there is less of an expectation that the viewer will strictly compartmentalize versions of the real person, and the recontextualization of the public image in light of the presented private self is less of an invitation to play and more of an argument for a possible actuality.”
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Piper, M. (2015). Real body, fake person: Recontextualizing celebrity bodies in fandom and film. Transformative Works and Cultures, 20.

Melanie Piper’s paper on Real Person(a) Fiction investigates how RPF is similar and different to more commercial forms of fiction based on real people or events, such as the Hollywood biopic. Can we meaningfully say that Aaron Sorkin has fallen face-first into Silicon Valley RPF fandom? Piper argues that RPF and biopics “work” in similar ways: they take a celebrity’s public image and recontextualize it to show a fictionalized, private self. A major difference between the two is the level of truth claim they make. A biopic is often the only one of its kind and the first and only time the majority of its audience will engage with the subject. Because of this, it makes a much stronger implicit truth claim than a piece of RPF, which is one of often hundreds or thousands about that particular celebrity. The circulation of many different, clearly fictional, accounts of the same “canon” events in RPF communities creates a stronger awareness that the limited information available can be interpreted in a variety of ways. In this way, it encourages at least some compartmentalization between the celebrity persona, private person, and fictionalized character.
fanhackers 
7 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • In recent years, patterns of sociability among...
"In recent years, patterns of sociability among weblogs (blogs) have been analyzed using link..." “In recent years, patterns of sociability among weblogs (blogs) have been analyzed using link analysis, including within large blog hosting communities such as LiveJournal. Social networks have been identified based on blog topic (e.g., politics), common interests (e.g., fandom), and online and offline friendship connections; bloggers converse within these networks by linking to and commenting on one another’s content. More basic than these forms of social glue, however, is language. Indeed, a shared language would seem to be the sine qua non for meaningful interconnection and conversation.”
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Herring, Susan C. 2007. “Language Networks on LiveJournal.” In Proceedings of the Fortieth Hawai’i International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-40). Los Alamitos: IEEE Press. 

This is a really interesting analysis of the role language plays/played in community-building on LiveJournal. Would love to see similar research on, say, Tumblr.
fanhackers 
8 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Looking for fan studies work from a network...
Looking for fan studies work from a network science POV

val-mora asked:

Do you (collectively) know anyone who is taking a network science approach, rather than a humanities/social science approach, to fan studies, that I can learn from? I’m an undergraduate in engineering and am looking for ways to make “hey the ao3 tag sets provide a really rich dataset! and fandom is worth studying! and there are legitimate things to learn!” into something I can say to an engineering professor dude that will convince him to let me use such data for some kind of final project for the degree. Any suggestions or names to read papers of would be appreciated!

That’s a great question, anyone have suggestions?

(btw your submission form with ‘ask us anything’ cuts off the instructions for the captcha, at least on my screen and in two different browsers, so it’s actually impossible for me to send you asks, um)

Thanks for pointing that out, we’ll look into it!
fanhackers 
12 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Even the most cursory look at different literary...
"Even the most cursory look at different literary schools through the ages easily shows the..." “Even the most cursory look at different literary schools through the ages easily shows the difference a shared canon (or the absence thereof) makes in the way the process of textual creation and elaboration is played out. In the Middle Ages, for example, cultured people were expected to have a knowledge of a shared allegorical code, which then allowed a compressed, multilayered reading, such as the four levels of textual fruition (literal, moral, allegoric, and anagogic) famously detailed by Dante in the second book of his Convivio.”
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Stasi, M. (2006). The toy soldiers from leeds: The slash palimpsest. Fan fiction and fan communities in the age of the internet, 115-133.

In this paper, Stasi is interested in the relationships between different fanfiction works, as well as the relationship of those works to the canon they’re based on. She uses the metaphor of a palimpsest (a piece of writing material with multiple layers of writing on it, where parts of the earlier layers may still be visible) to describe slash works and fanfiction more broadly. The palimpsest for Stasi is “a nonhierarchical, rich layering of genres, more or less partially erased and resurfacing, and a rich and complex continuum of themes, techniques, voices, moods, and registers”. Being able to rely on the reader’s knowledge of the canon enables fanfiction authors to compress meaning through dense intertextual references. Stasi argues that such extreme compression of meaning is highly unusual in modern prose: “it points back to techniques more commonly used in poetry, or in genres such as folktales or mythological cycles”.

Amusingly, Stasi recounts William Blake’s attempt to create his own system of intertextual symbols and references. The result was so incomprehensible that Blake effectively became “a fandom of one”.
fanhackers 
13 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Web 2.0 phenomena have been called the...
"Web 2.0 phenomena have been called the “read/write” Web (Berners-Lee, 2005), where users’..." “Web 2.0 phenomena have been called the “read/write” Web (Berners-Lee, 2005), where users’ contributing of comments and content can provide equivalent, and sometimes greater, value to a website than content merely posted in static pages by the site’s owner.”
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Warren, Jonathan. ‘Constructing Artistic Discourse: Amateur Reviews of Amateur Movies in a Large New Media Community.’ Working Paper, School of Libraryand Information Science, Indiana University, 1 May 2008.

This quote, and the many others like it, underscores how fannish content is almost always made up of not just a “work” but a “work” plus the conversation around it. A fic on AO3 is never just text posted by a writer; the text is literally surrounded by extra bits of content added by other fans, and that content helps shape meaning, telling other fans how to interpret it. Before we even start reading, we see how many hits or kudos or comments a fic has, and that influences how we approach that work. And we can add to the fic with our own kudos and comments.

Just like a fic on AO3 or ff.net or Wattpad isn’t just the author’s text, a piece of fanart on deviantART or pixiv isn’t just the image. That image comes embedded in a wealth of little bits of conversation built by many other fans interacting with it: likes, comments, indications of what user galleries or groups an image has been added to, user-added tags (for pixiv), and so on.

All that conversation surrounding a fic or a piece of fanart doesn’t just add “value"–it’s an integral part of the work. You can’t miss it, and if you want to see just the text or the image, you have to work to strip away the extra layers of content added to it by others.
fanhackers 
16 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Is Fandom the New Cinephilia?
Is Fandom the New Cinephilia? Is Fandom the New Cinephilia?:

There are two specific reasons I think the current state of fandom could be seen as a successor — or at least a second cousin twice removed — of classical cinephilia, and the first one is this: just as cinephilia came into (or perhaps more accurately closest to) the mainstream was when the first generation of cinephiles grew up and started working behind the camera, creating entire film movements like the French New Wave, some devoted fans have started getting their hands on the reins of long-running franchises.
fanhackers 
18 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • The  basic  ideas  behind  fandom’s  treatment  of...
"The  basic  ideas  behind  fandom’s  treatment  of  copyright  may track  to  fair  use  and  basic..." “The  basic  ideas  behind  fandom’s  treatment  of  copyright  may
track  to  fair  use  and  basic  copyright  law,  but  it  tracks  even  more closely  to  something  else. Consider  three  key  pieces together:  the freedom  to  create  derivative  works,  the  requirement  that  the  new work  be  not-for-profit,  and  the  requirement  that  the  work  be attributed to the appropriate sources.  This could be a description of the  most  frequently  adopted  type  of  Creative  Commons  license: Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike. (…) The  terms  of  a  CC  license  might  seem  intuitively  familiar  to fan  fiction  writers,  as  the  restrictions  are  the  same  ones  that  they apply to their own work.”
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Fiesler, Casey. 2007. “Everything I Need to Know I Learned from Fandom: How Existing Social Norms Can Help Shape the next Generation of User-Generated Content.” Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment and Technology Law 10: 729–62.

I love the connection made between fanwork-related norms and CC licenses here.

By the way, it’s really interesting how you can tell when an article is “older” (in this case, a mere 10 years old) just by the way it describes the norms of English-language media fandom. Just like Scott’s work from 2009, this article was written at a time when involving money in fanworks exchange was much more controversial than it is today. Things evolve fast.
fanhackers 
23 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • The regifting economy that is emerging, I argue,...
"The regifting economy that is emerging, I argue, is the result of the industry’s careful..." “The regifting economy that is emerging, I argue, is the result of the industry’s careful cultivation of a parallel fan space alongside grassroots formations of fandom. By precariously attempting to balance the communal ideals of fandom’s gift economy with their commercial interests, the regifting economy of ancillary content models in particular can be viewed as attempting to regift a narrowly defined and contained version of fandom to a general audience. This regifted version of fandom that ancillary content models represent exchanges grassroots fandom’s organically generated output and fluid exchange of fan works for the regulation and resale of fan works through contests and the elusive promise of credibility. Although unofficial fan works and official ancillary content both contribute to the narrative world of a series and do similar textual work, the impetus behind their creation and exchange is fundamentally different. As Hyde (1983:70) stresses, “there are many gifts that must be refused” as a result of the motives behind their presentation; thus, the term regifting economy is meant to synthesize the negative social connotations tied to the practice of regifting with a brief analysis of why acafans and existing fan communities should be aware and critical of these planned communities and their purpose as a site of initiation for the next generation of fans.”
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 Scott, Suzanne. 2009. “Repackaging Fan Culture: The Regifting Economy of Ancillary Content Models.” Transformative Works and Cultures 3.

Scott’s article on industry attempts to co-opt the concept of a fannish “gift economy” was published in 2009. Around this time, the idea of involving money in fannish interactions in any way was still somewhat outlandish for many people in English-speaking Western media fandom, and to scholars in English-language media studies who focused on that fandom. 

Things have gotten more complex since then; art commissions, for example, are now considered perfectly normal pretty much everywhere, and fic commissions are fairly common too. Industry reactions to that complicating of the fannish “gift economy” are very diverse and have evolved as well. However, Scott’s framing of industry involvement and its (potential) effects on the social fabric of fandoms remains extremely relevant and important.
fanhackers 
24 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • While all of the women were conscious of the fact...
"While all of the women were conscious of the fact that being a woman sports fan had negatively..." “While all of the women were conscious of the fact that being a woman sports fan had negatively impacted how they were perceived, very few challenged the root of that exclusion: the ways in which sports fandom was gendered masculine. Most did not articulate narratives of exclusion as sports fans because of their gender. When this exclusion (perhaps by another name) was acknowledged, their approach to negotiating that exclusion was largely through the lens of individualism; it is their own individual responsibility to either not let sexism in sports fan communities bother them, or to better conform to those communities, rather than advocate for the elimination of masculinist discourse from sports fan communities.”
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Esmonde, K., Cooky, C., & Andrews, D. L. (2015). “It’s supposed to be about the love of the game, not the love of Aaron Rodgers’ eyes”: Challenging the exclusions of women’s sports fans. Sociology of Sport Journal, 32(1), 22-48.

Research on sports fandom ends up in all sorts of non-Fan Studies publications, so it can be a little tricky to hunt down. This paper looks at the experiences of women sports fans in what are ultimately very masculine spaces, and examines how they negotiate sexism, their own femininity, and their identity as sports fans.
fanhackers 
28 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • [Star Wars: The Old Republic fans on BioWare’s fan...
"[Star Wars: The Old Republic fans on BioWare’s fan forums] argued over whether an online game..." “[Star Wars: The Old Republic fans on BioWare’s fan forums] argued over whether an online game is an appropriate venue to discuss the sexual politics and the problem of heteronormativity in virtual worlds. What was often framed by the participants as a benevolent desire to prevent political and ideological conflict from leaking into gaming and ruining its unique attractions manifested as the maintenance of a heterocentric power structure. True gamers and fans are assumed to be straight (or, if they are queer, it is assumed that they will remain in the closet while participating in the gaming forum), and out queer gamers and their allies are flagged as disruptive and harmful interlopers. This stance implies that BioWare would be doing its real fans (the ones they rely on to sustain their profit margins) a disservice were it to cater to the desires of queer players by making the forum community queer friendly. A similar debate arose 2 years later when BioWare made the decision to include gay male romance options in their popular single player role-playing game franchise, Dragon Age.”
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 Condis, Megan. 2015. “No Homosexuals in Star Wars? BioWare, ‘gamer’ Identity, and the Politics of Privilege in a Convergence Culture.” Convergence 21 (2): 198–212.

This paper is a great in-depth exploration of how different groups of fans react to explicitly queer characters in games, and especially about how they construct their discourse. Interested as I am in online infrastructure, I also love Condis’ focus on the role that fan forums play here.
fanhackers 
4 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Perhaps most notably, by offering works that...
"Perhaps most notably, by offering works that arguably “push the envelope” more than the works of the..." “Perhaps most notably, by offering works that arguably “push the envelope” more than the works of the formal manga industry, dōjinshi may produce examples of innovation that create new opportunities for the entire industry. Indeed, mainstream manga publishing companies have in the past brought the styles and ideas of “hot” subcultures into their own product lines. New genres fostered by the dōjinshi markets– genres that are often quite risqué – have been at times been adopted by mainstream commercial manga publishers.”
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Mehra, Salil. 2002.  “Copyright and Comics in Japan: Does Law Explain Why All the Cartoons My Kid Watches Are Japanese Imports?” SSRN eLibrary.

Mehra’s paper is fifteen years old, but it’s still a great explanation of the legal position of fanworks in Japan, and why these fanworks show that letting fans create (and even sell) work freely makes economic sense for media companies. One of those reasons is that fanworks are a hotbed of content innovation that companies can take advantage of. The most famous example of a dōjinshi genre that was adopted by the mainstream manga industry is probably yaoi, the Japanese equivalent of slash, which inspired the massively popular commercial manga genre called BL/boys’ love.

I highly recommend this paper for anyone looking to learn more about Japanese law and fanworks.
fanhackers 
4 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Hi. I'm a "media" student from a third world...
Hi. I'm a "media" student from a third world country but due to the low quality of education many things, as I realized now that I am researching for my undergraduate thesis, weren't thought to us (all we were though was how to write articles and stuff). With that said I just wanna ask what is a media text? What is the difference when you say media and media text and when should I be using one or the other? I just wanna learn more you see and there so much I still need to know. Thank you.

Does anyone know of a good basic Media Studies resource for this anon? Preferable one that’s freely available online?
fanhackers 
4 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • A residual effect of this closeness was that the...
"A residual effect of this closeness was that the “real” personalities and lives of bandom subjects..." “A residual effect of this closeness was that the “real” personalities and lives of bandom subjects threatened to overwhelm the creative aspect of RPF. Studies of RPF often focus on the inherent flexibility of celebrity identity, because it allows authors and readers the opportunity to invent personalities for celebrities and fill the celebrity vessel with traits that align with the authors’ desires. The proximity of the celebrity subjects created a number of issues for bandom authors and readers, but became particularly intense in a controversy over some musicians’ performances of “stage gay,” in which the performers groped, kissed, or flirted with one another onstage. This practice stirred controversy because the band members’ perceived support for and sensitivity towards feminist and queer communities was of paramount importance to many bandom participants. Some bandom participants felt validated by these onstage displays of affection, connecting it with the bands’ stated support for gay rights. Others thought that “stage gay” was little more than sexual identity tourism, given that a majority of the musicians were in heteronormative relationships and did not have to face the social consequences of queerness. Questions over what the musicians intended by these actions, coupled with several hurtful comments made by some musicians on Twitter, created a situation in which the accepted “fanon” characteristics of these musicians were threatened by new canonic evidence. The feeling of closeness engendered by social media likely only intensified the sense of disappointment and even betrayal that some in bandom reported.”
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Hagen, R. (2015). “Bandom Ate My Face”: The Collapse of the Fourth Wall in Online Fan Fiction. Popular Music and Society, 38(1), 44-58.

There is relatively little scholarship on RPF, particularly in light of how popular and controversial the practice is within fandom circles. This paper looks at what happens when RPF meets social media. Focusing on Bandom - one of the first RPF fandoms to really benefit (or suffer?) from the constant flood of new canon via social media - Hagen asks how much canon a fandom can absorb before there are no gaps left in which fannish creativity can flourish.
fanhackers 
4 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Vidding is a form of grassroots filmmaking in...
"Vidding is a form of grassroots filmmaking in which clips from television shows and movies are set..." “Vidding is a form of grassroots filmmaking in which clips from television shows and movies are set to music. The result is called a vid or a songvid. Unlike professional MTV-style music videos, in which footage is created to promote and popularize a piece of music, fannish vidders use music in order to comment on or analyze a set of preexisting visuals, to stage a reading, or occasionally to use the footage to tell new stories. In vidding, the fans are fans of the visual source, and music is used as an interpretive lens to help the viewer to see the source text differently. A vid is a visual essay that stages an argument, and thus it is more akin to arts criticism than to traditional music video. As Margie, a vidder, explained: “The thing I’ve never been able to explain to anyone not in [media] fandom (or to fans with absolutely no exposure to vids) is that where pro music videos are visuals that illustrate the music, songvids are music that tells the story of the visuals. They don’t get that it’s actually a completely different emphasis” (personal communication, October 24, 2006).”
- Women, Star Trek, and the early development of fannish vidding | Francesca Coppa
fanhackers 
5 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • I’ve been trying to think through this kind of...
"I’ve been trying to think through this kind of canon versus fanon kind of thing, and for the longest..." “

I’ve been trying to think through this kind of canon versus fanon kind of thing, and for the longest time I was a “who needs canon” kind of person. We have our archetypes, we have our narratives, and we’ll run with it. And those are the stories I want, and I don’t care whether they are the same stories I’ve read a hundred times, those are the stories I want. But as those stories themselves, as those characters have changed, I’ve realized that it’s not that simple. That I can go and find versions of queerness, but those versions of queerness in fandom will mostly be white queerness. They’re not going to be brown queerness, they’re not going to be black queerness. And that’s something that I’m going to have to rely on canon to center those characters to the point that they cannot be ignored. And that is very very rare.

We’ve now kind of come to the tipping point where how much primacy can a character of color get and still be marginalized in fandom? And you know, it seems like we’ve come to the end of that rope! I don’t think you could have—this is a question I think that a lot of people have kind of been thinking about at the back of their minds. Surely some text will come along where there’s no other option. And we’ve seen that fandom will make the option and it still won’t be black or brown queerness.


- Rukmini Pande, Episode 29 of @fansplaining, “Shipping and Activism.” There are so many things I want to quote from this episode, but this segment in particular was extraordinary in helping me frame my thinking about conflict between fanon, canon, queerness, and race.
(via elizabethminkel)
fanhackers 
6 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Whereas women artists are more likely to extract...
"Whereas women artists are more likely to extract beloved characters out of their favourite manga,..." “Whereas women artists are more likely to extract beloved characters out of their favourite manga, and develop love stories around them, often as beautiful gay boy couplings wholly unrelated to the originals. This approach, called yaoi -yamanashi “no climax,” ochinachi “no punchline,” iminashi “no meaning”- has since given rise to a new commercial genre known as “boys’ love comics.” (Largely simultaneous to yaoi, a similar vein of fan fiction called “slash” has emerged among American science fiction fandom, indicating that this taste is not an isolated phenomenon peculiar to Japanese women, but has a more universal appeal.)”
- Yoshihiro Yonezawa, 2004. Dojinshi as Otaku Expression: The State of Japanese fanzinedoms.
fanhackers 
6 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • However, because permitting — let alone...
"However, because permitting — let alone encouraging — dojinshi runs afoul of copyright law, the..." “

However, because permitting — let alone encouraging — dojinshi runs afoul of copyright law, the agreement remains implicit: The [Japanese] publishers avert their eyes, and the dojinshi creators resist going too far. This anmoku no ryokai [“unspoken, implicit agreement”] business model helps rescue the manga industrial complex in at least three ways.

First, and most obviously, it’s a customer care program. The dojinshi devotees are manga’s fiercest fans. “We’re not denying the viability or importance of intellectual property,” says Kazuhiko Torishima, an executive at the publishing behemoth Shueisha. “But when the numbers speak, you have to listen.”

Second, as Takeda put it at Super Comic City, “this is the soil for new talent.” While most dojinshi creators have no aspirations to become manga superstars, several artists have used the comic markets to springboard into mainstream success. The best example is Clamp, which began as a circle of a dozen college women selling self-published work at comics markets in the Kansai region. Today, Clamp’s members are manga rock stars; they have sold close to 100 million books worldwide.

Third, the anmoku no ryokai arrangement provides publishers with extremely cheap market research. To learn what’s hot and what’s not, a media company could spend lots of money commissioning polls and conducting focus groups. Or for a few bucks it could buy a Super Comic City catalog and spend two days watching 96,000 of its best customers browse, gossip, and buy in real time. These settings often provide early warnings of the shifting fan zeitgeist. For instance, a few years ago several circles that had been creating dojinshi for the series Prince of Tennis switched to Bleach, an indication that one title was falling out of favor and another was on the rise. “The publishers are seeing the market in action,” Ichikawa says. “They’re seeing the successes and the failures. They’re seeing the trends.”

Taking care of customers. Finding new talent. Getting free market research. That’s a pretty potent trio of advantages for any business. Trouble is, to derive these advantages the manga industry must ignore the law. And this is where it gets weird. Unlike, say, an industrial company that might increase profits if it skirts environmental regulations imposed to safeguard the public interest, the manga industrial complex is ignoring a law designed to protect its own commercial interests.


- Japan, Ink: Inside the Manga Industrial Complex | Daniel Pink
fanhackers 
7 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Fan fiction archives can teach information science...
"Fan fiction archives can teach information science about what it means to try to preserve culture in..." “

Fan fiction archives can teach information science about what it means to try to preserve culture in the moment of its unfolding, cultural forms at their peak production levels. Information science understands a lot about preserving cultural objects that are old, that have taken on great significance in the time since their release, but preserving digital culture means archiving texts, images, video, and motion graphics a s they are circulating, when they’re the most relevant, not when they are already relegated to “the past.”

Fan fiction archives led the way in the effort to try to effectively store, and make available, digital cultural works as they were being generated. What archivists of both physical and digital objects share is a need to keep and maintain those objects because they are important, and they are in constant threat of being lost. And digital objects are even more prone to sudden disappearance than physical ones ­­ a hosting company can decide not to host your fan fiction works anymore, or an archivist can “flounce” from their archive and simply shut it down, or a social media platform can opt to delete fanfic stories without notifying anyone, or servers can simply crash.

Fan fiction archivists got into the digital preservation game so early that they definitely encountered all of these dangers and more, and have collectively created many defenses against digital loss and disappearance that all archivists can and should learn from.


- Abigail de Kosnik, in Why Study Fan Archives: An Interview with Abigail De Kosnik (Part One)
fanhackers 
9 weeks ago by otw_news
Five Things Nele Noppe Said
In FiveThings, Nele Noppe discusses the purpose of Fanhackers, how she got into fan studies & making a difference https://goo.gl/qOnCYK
Five-Things  fanhackers  Academia  Volunteering 
9 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • When asked for the reasons why they fansub, the...
"When asked for the reasons why they fansub, the interviewees all claimed that it provides them a..." “

When asked for the reasons why they fansub, the interviewees all claimed that it provides them a sense of relief or escapism from the daily routine of their lives. Despite the time, energy, and effort that fansubbing requires, fansubbing gave them a sort of “me-time” where they can indulge in their objects of interest and, at the same time, learn more about themselves.

For example, Shiri mentions that one of the rewards of fansubbing for her was that she is able to train herself to be more disciplined and work toward her set goals. She uses the toils and labors of fansubbing to test her limits and measure her strengths, which she notes she can apply to similar activities that require effort and discipline (studies, work, etc.).

Other interviewees also expressed the same idea, claiming that releasing a finished product to the rest of the community is a reward in itself. The act of completing something that took time and effort gives them a sense of achievement.


- Hybrid Identities: Filipino Fansubbers of Japanese Media and Self-Construction | Mizhelle D. Agcaoili
fanhackers 
10 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Fan writing, especially the more highly publicized...
"Fan writing, especially the more highly publicized homoerotic form known as “slash,” has gained a..." “

Fan writing, especially the more highly publicized homoerotic form known as “slash,” has gained a certain rebel mystique. As media conglomerates become ever larger and copyright law expands to curb the free exchange of internet file-sharing, any instance of consumer agency may be interpreted as subversive to corporate control, while stories written by amateur authors and circulated beyond the professional publishing apparatus may appear stridently rebellious.

(…) Implicit assumptions that the content of fan writing meaning fully diverges from the limited set of options provided in mainstream mass media cannot account for fans’ creative work that happily reproduces forms, themes, and content borrowed directly from the mainstream, at times even normalizing conventions, like “benign rape,” which could arguably be termed reactive and regressive. 

Some fan fiction does indeed produce radically transformative and transgressive racial, sexual, and class scenarios, but after living in the same culture as professional writers, fans’ writing cannot be assumed to present a meaningful ideological divergence merely by virtue of its amateur status or provocative appropriation of published characters.


- Domesticating Hermione: The Emergence of Genre and Community from WIKTT (When I Kissed The Teacher)’s Feminist Romance Debates | Anne Kustritz
fanhackers 
10 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Afrofuturism does not stop at merely depicting...
"Afrofuturism does not stop at merely depicting more colorful futures; another important tenet of the..." “Afrofuturism does not stop at merely depicting more colorful futures; another important tenet of the movement is using these depictions of the future as a strong critique of the present, working to make the world we live in better now. By encouraging the reader to challenge these visions of the future—and, in turn, to challenge the society of now that might allow (or prevent) such a future from existing—Afrofuturism does more than just present a diverse future; it works to redress some of the deeply rooted prejudices and biases that exist in society’s present.”
- Racebending fandoms and digital futurism | Elizabeth Gilliland | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
11 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Machinimators have created and distributed tens of...
"Machinimators have created and distributed tens of thousands of fan vids, parodies, satires,..." “

Machinimators have created and distributed tens of thousands of fan vids, parodies, satires, reenactments and original content through online fora in an increasingly complex ecology of technologies and new media. Its influence has been widespread, impacting digital arts, film, new media platforms and even politics through the user-generated co-created and produced content, some of which has been used as ‘pre-production’ for big budget films that have subsequently been realised in mainstream environments such as Hollywood (eg., The Lord of the Rings and Resident Evil).

[Machinima’s] growth in popularity has impacted games developers significantly because it challenges the ways in which they view their intellectual property and the role of their customers (games players) in the creation of commercial value, effectively testing the boundaries between authorship and ownership. In turn, this has resulted in a shift in thinking about the format and framing of end-user license agreements (by eg., Microsoft, EA Games).


- Machinima: A Meme of Our Time | Tracy Harwood
fanhackers 
12 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Star Wars and the legitimisation of fans in...
Star Wars and the legitimisation of fans in fandom-sceptical South East Asia Star Wars and the legitimisation of fans in fandom-sceptical South East Asia:

As films like Star Wars become more prominent, and with the growing importance of Chinese audiences, these kinds of marketing strategies that capitalises on the official and special edition merchandise will become more common. Fans as consumers will be normalised, as rather than participating in practices that often challenge the readings of the text or (Asian) societal norms, consumption advances the capitalist sensibilities of Hollywood studios that produce franchises like Star Wars.
fanhackers 
12 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Rarely are computing systems developed entirely by...
"Rarely are computing systems developed entirely by members of the communities they serve,..." “Rarely are computing systems developed entirely by members of the communities they serve, particularly when that community is underrepresented in computing. Archive of Our Own (AO3), a fan fiction archive with nearly 750,000 users and over 2 million individual works, was designed and coded primarily by women to meet the needs of the online fandom community. Their design decisions were informed by existing values and norms around issues such as accessibility, inclusivity, and identity.”
- An Archive of Their Own: A Case Study of Feminist HCI and Values in Design | Casey Fiesler, Shannon Morrison, and Amy S. Bruckman
fanhackers 
november 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • As noted above, material culture is generally...
"As noted above, material culture is generally limited by money and space (Woo 2014, ¶4.1). This is..." “As noted above, material culture is generally limited by money and space (Woo 2014, ¶4.1). This is not the case for textual productions, because anyone with a computing device, an Internet connection, and network permission to visit a relevant Web site (e.g., Equestria Daily) can find and access them. Thus they belong to no one in particular but rather to the fandom as a whole (Busse and Hellekson 2006, 7). In contrast to Derek Johnson’s argument that assigning authorship to bronies “attributes the creativity of participatory culture to exclusively masculine, adult, and heterosexual identities” (Johnson 2013, 145), I have found that the combination of accessibility and the ambiguity of digital creativity creates a situation in which no one possesses exclusive rights to fan fiction, just as no one owns the show Friendship Is Magic. As a means of participation and expression, fan fiction and digital media allow individuals and groups to explore and renegotiate the MLP source text in a way that has a tangible impact on how the community in general thinks about and draws from pony and its own history.”
- Cuteness, friendship, and identity in the brony community | Theo A. Peck-Suzuki | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
november 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Monster High’s recent ad campaign claims, “We are...
"Monster High’s recent ad campaign claims, “We are monsters. We are proud.” Race,..." “Monster High’s recent ad campaign claims, “We are monsters. We are proud.” Race, ethnicity, and disability are coded into the dolls as selling points. The allure of Monster High is, in part, that political identity and the celebration of difference become consumable. The female body, the racialized body, and the disabled body have long been coded as monstrous. Monster High reclaims this label, queering it.”
- Valuing queer identity in Monster High doll fandom | Sara Mariel Austin | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
november 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • (S)he not only recasts popular fandoms with...
"(S)he not only recasts popular fandoms with diverse characters, but also constructs a new historical..." “(S)he not only recasts popular fandoms with diverse characters, but also constructs a new historical and social narrative within her fan art. Her fan castings not only include a token person of color, but also often say something important about that character’s newly ethnicized background, and how it changes the familiar story now that this background has been included.”
- Racebending fandoms and digital futurism | Elizabeth Gilliland | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
november 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Fans rarely possess equal power with commercial...
"Fans rarely possess equal power with commercial producers. Despite this, SotMK fans co-opt the..." “Fans rarely possess equal power with commercial producers. Despite this, SotMK fans co-opt the space, reconstructing the expected practices of theme park visitors. In fact, while the text of SotMK cannot be changed by fans, the text of the Magic Kingdom is being actively altered. In this way, fans are participating in a process, similar to what Juli Parrish (2013) describes (in reference to fan fiction) as “world building,” or a “process that remakes the place itself” rather than just borrowing pieces of it.”
- Creative choices and fan practices in the transformation of theme park space | Carissa Ann Baker | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
november 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • This problem is especially pernicious in–though as...
"This problem is especially pernicious in–though as the J.K. Rowling/Harry Potter lexicon case..." “This problem is especially pernicious in–though as the J.K. Rowling/Harry Potter lexicon case demonstrates, not limited to–visual media, where the legal cases involving images and questions of fair use have placed far more limited restrictions on what can be done with images as opposed to, say, text. A scholar of a modern or contemporary poet would likely not even think of requesting permission to reprint an entire poem in a scholarly work (because, of, you know, fair use), whereas in, say, comics studies, it has become standard practice for publishers of comics scholarship to demand that authors get express written permission for each and every image to be reproduced, even though a work of scholarship is an obvious example of fair use.”
- Ba Zi, 9c. Fair Use and the Translation Stranglehold
fanhackers 
november 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Syllabi for fan studies classes
Syllabi for fan studies classes Syllabi for fan studies classes:

Great list of syllabi on a wide range of fandom-related topics. Check them out, and add your own if you’re a teacher.
fanhackers 
november 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The kind of literature that fan fiction is did not...
"The kind of literature that fan fiction is did not spring fully formed into being in the 1960s and..." “

The kind of literature that fan fiction is did not spring fully formed into being in the 1960s and 70s, though some journalists still seem to think so. Throughout this book I have been stressing the link, in literary terms, between fan fiction and any other fiction based on a shared canon […]. It is clear from the comments of fan fiction writers like Ika and Belatrix Carter that one major attraction of this genre for writers is the sense of a complicit audience who already share much information with the writer and can be relied on to pick up ironies or allusions without having them spelled out. Writing based on the canons of myth and folklore can do this too, though as Belatrix Carter pointed out in chapter 7, these canons have been so extensively used for so long it is becoming harder to do anything with them that feels original.

But there is another point, implied in Ika’s remark in chapter 2 - ‘What I like about fan fiction is that you can still get that very highly trained audience that can understand very, very complex and allusive things.’ The use of ‘still’ alludes to the undoubted fact that for the traditional canons of myth, Bible, history, and folklore, this “very highly trained” audience is not as reliable as it once was, because the canon information is not as widely shared as it used to be. […] a writer can no longer allude to Lazarus, Circe or Alexander and be reasonably sure that most of his readers have in their heads the thoughts, stories or images for which he was aiming. The human need for heroes and archetypes does not go away, but their faces change with time, and one avatar takes the place of another. Ika’s point is a shrewd one: in an age of fragmented rather than shared cultures the fan fiction audience is unusual in having as thorough a knowledge of its particularly shared canon as a Bible-reading or classically educated audience once did.


- Sheenagh Pugh, The Democratic Genre: Fan Fiction in a Literary Context, p. 219 (via nihilistelektra)
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • A goodwill approach to fan scholarship should take...
"A goodwill approach to fan scholarship should take the time to consider and negotiate fans’..." “A goodwill approach to fan scholarship should take the time to consider and negotiate fans’ privacy concerns and make research findings fully available to fans. Furthermore, goodwill requires what bell hooks would call a “loving critique”: taking the time to analyze, engage with, and question fan texts just as fans do with popular culture texts.”
- Toward a goodwill ethics of online research methods | Brittany Kelley | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The mainstreaming of fandom into millennial...
"The mainstreaming of fandom into millennial culture is a chosen stance of fans to represent their..." “The mainstreaming of fandom into millennial culture is a chosen stance of fans to represent their modes of engagement as more than only niche and subcultural. Fans choose to post about their fan engagement in the public spaces of Tumblr rather than the locked communities and friends-only journals of the late 1990s and early 2000s. They may perceive these fan spaces as intimate publics, as I’ve written about elsewhere, yet they choose to allow for the possibility of visibility, for a default public culture, albeit one with intimate semi-private pockets. Indeed, the social activism of, for example, what some refer to as Tumblr feminism is part of—or at least deeply connected to—this fan performance of fandom as an expansive mode of engagement with something important to share and spread.”
-

Who Are Millennial Fans?: An Interview with Louisa Stein (Part One)

See also @millennialfandom
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • don’t forget- the fssa open house is tomorrow!
don’t forget- the fssa open house is tomorrow!

meeedeee:

fanstudiesosu:

The Fan Studies Student Association fall open house is tomorrow, Monday October 24th, 6-8pm in Denney 311. If you are interested in learning more about what we do & want to meet others who are interested in fans, fanworks, and fan cultures, please join us! This is an informal meet & greet event, so you are welcome to drop in for a few minutes or hang out for the full two hours. Pizza, soda, and fantasy baked goods will be provided. We hope to see you there!

Ohio!
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Understanding that comic book fandom has...
"Understanding that comic book fandom has historically been organized around the physical, tangible..." “Understanding that comic book fandom has historically been organized around the physical, tangible objects of comic books in paper pamphlet form is critical to examining the way technological innovations affect the industry’s future prospects and the relationship between reader and text and any potential shifts in the role comic book stores play in those relationships. Are comic book readers not fans if they collect digital files instead of physical texts, or has this historic boundary shifted as a result of textual digitization? Can one “own” a digital comic book text and, if so, how does this ownership alter the historic boundaries between comic book readers and comic book fans? And how does the locus of fan community shift if texts are no longer primarily distributed through comic book stores?”
- (Re)examining the attitudes of comic book store patrons | Stevens | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Less a form of antisocial (or subsocial) behavior,...
"Less a form of antisocial (or subsocial) behavior, fandom is shown as a way for individuals to..." “Less a form of antisocial (or subsocial) behavior, fandom is shown as a way for individuals to creatively manage, at both the personal and the interpersonal levels, the “rules of play” imposed upon them by a variety of social institutions (economics, education, family, etc.). At least, this is what the episode itself suggests has happened for the protagonists Dean and Sam, who are depicted leaving the fan convention with a new appreciation not only for Supernatural fans, but also (…) for each other.”
- Review of Playing fans: Negotiating fandom and media in the digital age, by Paul Booth | Gregory Steirer | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Corporations no longer need to sue fanfiction...
"Corporations no longer need to sue fanfiction communities; rather than being litigated into..." “Corporations no longer need to sue fanfiction communities; rather than being litigated into submission, authors now give up their rights willingly.”
- Drew Emanuel Berkowitz, Framing the Future of Fanfiction: How The New York Times’ Portrayal of a Youth Media Subculture Influences Beliefs about Media Literacy Education, p205
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Fan fiction archives’ mission is to preserve all...
"Fan fiction archives’ mission is to preserve all fan works for all fans, not to judge which are..." “Fan fiction archives’ mission is to preserve all fan works for all fans, not to judge which are “worth” saving and which are not worthy. Fan critics can debate which fan works, in any given universe, are the “best,” but fan archivists strive to preserve all of the works, as much as they can ­- because they value their fandoms as important and significant living cultural communities, and they feel that every corner of their cultures is worth safeguarding.”
- Abigail de Kosnik, in Why Study Fan Archives: An Interview with Abigail De Kosnik (Part One)
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Social science research has pointed to a gradual...
"Social science research has pointed to a gradual lessening of both homophobia and heteronormativity..." “Social science research has pointed to a gradual lessening of both homophobia and heteronormativity in the United States since the 1970s. That this lessening is mirrored in K/S fan fiction points to the utility of fan fiction as a lens through which to study society. While writers of slash fan fiction might be, on the whole, more accepting of nonheterosexuality than their nonslash-writing peers, these individuals are still clearly influenced by normative cultural expectations. Therefore, a study of slash fan fiction across the decades could also point to changes in how sexual identity is understood, how roles within relationships should be articulated, or even in our understanding of what is sexually pleasurable. Thus, studying changing US norms of gender and sexuality through slash fan fiction is a fruitful—dare I say logical—endeavor.”
- Homophobia, heteronormativity, and slash fan fiction | April S. Callis | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The importance of having an online space to...
"The importance of having an online space to explore identity is perhaps not as clearly defined as..." “The importance of having an online space to explore identity is perhaps not as clearly defined as seeing, say, a blockbuster superhero film helmed by a black actor, or a post-apocalyptic society populated by more than one or two token people of color; however, these spaces still allow unparalleled explorations of self, as well as how that self is defined, in ways that we perhaps do not yet fully understand.”
- Racebending fandoms and digital futurism | Elizabeth Gilliland | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Fan fiction often demonstrates a high level of...
"Fan fiction often demonstrates a high level of knowledge of and insight into its source texts (or..." “Fan fiction often demonstrates a high level of knowledge of and insight into its source texts (or canons, in fan fiction vocabulary) and, as an allusive literary form, rewards equally high levels of knowledge in its readers. This knowledge has an erotic inflection (as, famously, in early English translations of the Bible, where to know is to intimately penetrate); fans have not only understanding but intimacy with their canon, and fan fiction increases this intimacy. Theorists of fan fiction often speak of fan fiction as filling the gaps in a source text, a phrase with its own sexual undertones that also describes fan fiction’s self-assumed role as interlinear glossing of a source text. Silences and absences in the source text act as barriers to intimacy, and fan fiction writers fill these silences with their imaginative activity, enabling their own deeper understanding of the world and characters of the source text. In its current context in popular media fandom, fan fiction is, among other things, a heuristic tool: a mental technology that facilitates understanding of a text by means of an affective hermeneutics—a set of ways of gaining knowledge through feeling.”
- Wilson, Anna. 2016. “The Role of Affect in Fan Fiction.” In “The Classical Canon and/as Transformative Work,” edited by Ika Willis, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 21.http://ift.tt/2c6cCRl.
(via wildehacked)
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The behavior is a blur between punk fashion and...
"The behavior is a blur between punk fashion and commune. Like punks, mass hoarders implicitly..." “The behavior is a blur between punk fashion and commune. Like punks, mass hoarders implicitly critique capitalist values by inventing a playstyle that elevates self-expression, personal goals, and nontraditional desires. But this practice is communally rather than rebelliously focused: they create a mutually supportive subculture in which the profit motive is derailed in favor of a rigorous sense of fairness. Through this combination, the fans turn an app designed to stress profit and acquisition and to minimize personality into a space where both clear identities and fair play can rule. They create pockets of humanity and humane behavior in a digital world where those sentiments were (perhaps intentionally) omitted.”
- Hoarding and community in Star Wars Card Trader | Jeremy Groskopf | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • unjapanologist: meeedeee: angstbotfic:“In...
unjapanologist: meeedeee: angstbotfic: “In 1988, it was estimated that there were 300...

unjapanologist:

meeedeee:

angstbotfic:

“In 1988, it was estimated that there were 300 publications that enabled fans to explore aspects of television series, 120 of them centered on Star Trek, a number that no doubt underestimates the production of fan literature because it doesn’t include literature circulated only in photocopy circuits or the more covertly circulated publications"

- Rosemary Coombe,  The Cultural Life of Intellectual Properties: Authorship, Appropriation, and the Law, 1998, p. 107

Hahaha. There were more than 300 fanzines by 1988. On Fanlore, we have over 8,000 fanzine pages spanning 1968-today. By 2006, fanzine production slowed to a trickle. It would be wonderful to see someone pull together stats based on what we have on Fanlore, arranged by year and by fandom.

Dunno if the above is meant to be just about the US, but in 1988, one edition of Comiket in Japan hosted 9200 creators of (mostly) zines. And that was just one of the conventions happening in Japan that year, although by far the biggest.
fanhackers 
september 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Whether you like or loathe the term “millennial”...
"Whether you like or loathe the term “millennial” and the idea of generational..." “Whether you like or loathe the term “millennial” and the idea of generational categories, they are unlikely to disappear any time soon, and a sustained focus on millennial fans (who are prime targets of the media industry) is not only welcome, but long overdue.”
- Review of Millennial fandom: Television audiences in the transmedia age, by Louisa Ellen Stein | Helena Louse Dare-Edwards | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
september 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Just as hooking up is central to many sexual...
"Just as hooking up is central to many sexual subcultures, rewatching, reworking, reviewing, and..." “Just as hooking up is central to many sexual subcultures, rewatching, reworking, reviewing, and redoing are central aspects of many fannish practices. (…) This queer, fannish emphasis on the re, rather than the mix, is the place where creation and authorship in fan communities most clearly opposes normative practices of future-oriented production.”
- Fannish masculinities in transition in anime music video fandom | Samantha Close | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
september 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Free online course of interest to fans: An...
Free online course of interest to fans: An Introduction to Japanese Subcultures - Keio University Free online course of interest to fans: An Introduction to Japanese Subcultures - Keio University:

From the website:

In this course, together with three other specialists, Professor Niijima, Professor Takahashi and Professor Ohwada, we will explore girls comics, boys comics, the Hatsune Miku vocaloid, cosplay, and J-pop idols, focusing on the themes such as Love, Battle, Technology and Fan culture, in which you’ll learn about the different cultural creations that underpin Japanese subcultures. With materials for cultural analysis, you’ll develop a basic knowledge of key Japanese subcultures, learning the recognisable traits of each.
fanhackers 
september 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Wikipedia is perhaps the only platform available...
"Wikipedia is perhaps the only platform available on which fans can effectively and efficiently..." “Wikipedia is perhaps the only platform available on which fans can effectively and efficiently broadcast facts about their media objects of interest and receive built-in approval, encouraging them to continue.”
- Wikipedia and participatory culture: Why fans edit | Paul Thomas | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
september 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • transformativeworks: We’re recruiting staff for...
transformativeworks: We’re recruiting staff for our Support,...
transformativeworks:

We’re recruiting staff for our Support, Communications, and Abuse Committees. Read on if you’re interested, or help us by signal-boosting! https://goo.gl/vlrCgY

Want to help promote research on fans, academic and otherwise? Fanhackers is recruiting!

From the official OTW post:

Communications Committee – Fanhackers Staff: Communications staffers are responsible for the distribution of information internally to OTW personnel and externally to the general public, the media, fans, and other fannish organizations. Communications is also typically the first point of contact for someone interested in or wanting help from OTW.

Fanhackers is a blog for the discussion of fannish meta topics and fannish perspectives on fan and media studies. The position of Fanhackers staffer would be a good fit for someone with an interest in reading and sharing academic works about fans and fannish meta, and who is familiar with the work done byTransformative Works and Cultures.

Applications are due 21 September 2016
fanhackers 
september 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Founded in 2003, Jinjiang Wenxue Cheng (the...
"Founded in 2003, Jinjiang Wenxue Cheng (the Jinjiang City of Literature, hereafter Jinjiang)..." “Founded in 2003, Jinjiang Wenxue Cheng (the Jinjiang City of Literature, hereafter Jinjiang) (http://www.jjwxc.net/) proclaims itself to be the largest female cyberlit platform in the world, with 93 percent of its over 7 million registered members being women (JJWXC n.d.; Feng 2009; Xu and Yang 2013). BL fan fics, or danmei tongren (from the Japanese words tanbi, “addicted to beauty,” and dōjinshi), are listed side by side with yanqing (heterosexual romance) as two major genres on the Web site, where male-male love is treated as another form of romantic relationship. Jinjiang is one of the major platforms for online distribution of Chinese BL fiction where people pay the authors in order to read their favorite titles, often with the first few chapters free, while the Web site charges a commission for each subscription. (…) Jinjiang also helps build connections between novelists and publishers to facilitate commercial publication of popular yanqing titles. BL fiction with homosexual content, however, often cannot pass the censors to be legally published in China, even as niche publications.”
- Iron Man in Chinese boys’ love fandom: A story untold | John Wei | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
september 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Transformative Works and Cultures Volume #22 is...
Transformative Works and Cultures Volume #22 is out

Expect quotes from this one for the next couple of weeks!

Editorial

Fan engagement - TWC Editor

Theory

Toward a goodwill ethics of online research methods - Brittany KelleyRacebending fandoms and digital futurism - Elizabeth GillilandToward a broader recognition of the queer in the BBC’S Sherlock - Amandelin A. ValentineHomophobia, heteronormativity, and slash fan fiction - April S. CallisFannish masculinities in transition in anime music video fandom - Samantha CloseHistoricizing video game series through fan art - Jan Švelch, Tereza Krobová

Praxis

Mashing up, remixing, and contesting the popular memory of Hillary Clinton - Amber DavissonLocal newspaper movie contests and the creation of the first movie fans - Jessica - Leonora WhiteheadHoarding and community in Star Wars Card Trader - Jeremy GroskopfCuteness, friendship, and identity in the brony community - Theo A. Peck-SuzukiValuing queer identity in Monster High doll fandom - Sara Mariel AustinPerforming as video game players in Let’s Plays - Josef NguyenCreative choices and fan practices in the transformation of theme park space - Carissa Ann BakerSwan Queen, shipping, and boundary regulation in fandom - Victoria M. Gonzalez

Symposium

Wikipedia and participatory culture: Why fans edit - Paul ThomasThe creative empowerment of body positivity in the cosplay community - Jordan Kass LomeThe selling of a story: Sherlock’s Victorian excursion - Claudia Rebaza

Review

Millennial fandom: Television audiences in the transmedia age, by Louisa Ellen Stein - Helena Louise Dare-EdwardsPlaying fans: Negotiating fandom in the digital age, by Paul Booth - Gregory SteirerThe cultural politics of colorblind TV casting, by Kristen Warner - Bambi HagginsPlaying Harry Potter: Essays and interviews on fandom and performance, edited by Lisa S. Brenner - Abigail De Kosnik
fanhackers 
september 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • In Sweden, older siblings are generally the ones...
"In Sweden, older siblings are generally the ones who introduce younger siblings to various fandoms,..." “

In Sweden, older siblings are generally the ones who introduce younger siblings to various fandoms, such as digital games and fan fiction sites, thus further conflating online and real-life relationships (Swedish Media Council 2013a, 2013b; Olin-Scheller 2011).

(…)

Technological advancement, English proficiency, and fandom activities are all closely interrelated. However, being connected to the Internet and being heavily involved in digital fan activities do not necessarily imply that one’s main focus is international. Instead, digital activities are associated with closeness, both in terms of relationships (friends sitting on the same couch when going online) and geographical locations (attending local cosplay or gaming conventions). This way of being and acting as a fan is likely not limited to Sweden or Swedish fan communities; it is probably also the case in other areas with ubiquitous Internet access and English-language proficiency.


- A connected country: Sweden—Fertile ground for digital fandoms | Christina Olin-Scheller and Pia Sundqvist | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
september 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • What is crucial in both ‘Morangate’ and ‘Theory of...
"What is crucial in both ‘Morangate’ and ‘Theory of fic gate’ is that none of the fans were asked..." “

What is crucial in both ‘Morangate’ and ‘Theory of fic gate’ is that none of the fans were asked permission for their involvement, and none of the instigators considered the effects on the fans. In other words, the fans were acted upon rather than able to determine their own actions.

(…)

Typically in the humanities the focus is on the text. We perform textual analysis of books and films, and we think nothing of quoting an author without seeking their permission first. In the social sciences, though, the person is put first. It’s why we have ethics boards in universities and why we have to consider the repercussions for our research participants. There is not a simple dichotomy between social sciences and humanities, of course. My work falls squarely under the humanities banner, as done much fan studies, but we are asking permission of fans and seeking out ethical approval from institutions for our research. But privilege is still an issue which needs to be understood more fully in academia and we have to recognise the ways in which we, as well as the press, engage with fans.


- ‘The Ethical Hearse’: Privacy, Identity and Fandom Online | Bethan Jones
fanhackers 
september 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • I’ve been trying to think through this kind of...
"I’ve been trying to think through this kind of canon versus fanon kind of thing, and for the longest..." “

I’ve been trying to think through this kind of canon versus fanon kind of thing, and for the longest time I was a “who needs canon” kind of person. We have our archetypes, we have our narratives, and we’ll run with it. And those are the stories I want, and I don’t care whether they are the same stories I’ve read a hundred times, those are the stories I want. But as those stories themselves, as those characters have changed, I’ve realized that it’s not that simple. That I can go and find versions of queerness, but those versions of queerness in fandom will mostly be white queerness. They’re not going to be brown queerness, they’re not going to be black queerness. And that’s something that I’m going to have to rely on canon to center those characters to the point that they cannot be ignored. And that is very very rare.

We’ve now kind of come to the tipping point where how much primacy can a character of color get and still be marginalized in fandom? And you know, it seems like we’ve come to the end of that rope! I don’t think you could have—this is a question I think that a lot of people have kind of been thinking about at the back of their minds. Surely some text will come along where there’s no other option. And we’ve seen that fandom will make the option and it still won’t be black or brown queerness.


- Rukmini Pande, Episode 29 of @fansplaining, “Shipping and Activism.” There are so many things I want to quote from this episode, but this segment in particular was extraordinary in helping me frame my thinking about conflict between fanon, canon, queerness, and race.
(via elizabethminkel)
fanhackers 
september 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Fan fiction often demonstrates a high level of...
"Fan fiction often demonstrates a high level of knowledge of and insight into its source texts (or..." “Fan fiction often demonstrates a high level of knowledge of and insight into its source texts (or canons, in fan fiction vocabulary) and, as an allusive literary form, rewards equally high levels of knowledge in its readers. This knowledge has an erotic inflection (as, famously, in early English translations of the Bible, where to know is to intimately penetrate); fans have not only understanding but intimacy with their canon, and fan fiction increases this intimacy. Theorists of fan fiction often speak of fan fiction as filling the gaps in a source text, a phrase with its own sexual undertones that also describes fan fiction’s self-assumed role as interlinear glossing of a source text. Silences and absences in the source text act as barriers to intimacy, and fan fiction writers fill these silences with their imaginative activity, enabling their own deeper understanding of the world and characters of the source text. In its current context in popular media fandom, fan fiction is, among other things, a heuristic tool: a mental technology that facilitates understanding of a text by means of an affective hermeneutics—a set of ways of gaining knowledge through feeling.”
- Wilson, Anna. 2016. “The Role of Affect in Fan Fiction.” In “The Classical Canon and/as Transformative Work,” edited by Ika Willis, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 21.http://ift.tt/2c6cCRl.
(via wildehacked)
fanhackers 
august 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Football slash fan fiction is both a result of and...
"Football slash fan fiction is both a result of and reaction to mediated football fandom. It exists..." “

Football slash fan fiction is both a result of and reaction to mediated football fandom. It exists because of the understanding of football as a narrative, but also because of what mainstream football fandom leaves out of its world. It is a way to play with the boundaries between real and fictional while also exploring the hidden potential of the football narrative and experiencing it in a welcoming environment.

It is also a result of changes in fan fiction practice. Contemporary slash fan fiction writers see nearly any media narrative as transformable, and this potential increases when the narrative is seen as slashy. Changes in the way that fan fiction is distributed and consumed meant that the older proscriptions about what was “fic-able” and what wasn’t became less powerful. Once they learn the form, slash fan fiction writers become trained to see slash and fan fiction potential in the media they encounter. Professional football’s heavily homosocial environment makes it ideal for a slash interpretation, with the visual material to stimulate the imagination and a variety of potential relationship dynamics and character types to write and read about. Additionally, its similarity to cult narratives means that fan fiction writers recognize where they can fill in the narrative spaces of football to suit their needs. This is not necessarily in contrast to being a more traditional sports fan, but rather in tandem with it, a way to work through the emotions of being a football fan and to explore parts of it in a way not seen in more mainstream football fan spaces.


- The creation of football slash fan fiction | Abby Waysdorf | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
august 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The significance of manga and anime in German fan...
"The significance of manga and anime in German fan fiction remains recognizable today. 29 percent of..." “The significance of manga and anime in German fan fiction remains recognizable today. 29 percent of all pieces of fan fiction uploaded to FanFiktion.de and 49.5 percent of the 148,220 fan writings on Animexx are categorized as manga/anime (the latter unsurprising considering that the Web site caters to anime and manga fans), whereas the international FanFiction.net archive lists only 25.3 percent of its 41,183,979 texts in these categories and Archive of Our Own (http://ift.tt/1ffprbE) not even 12 percent (Table 1).”
- A brief history of fan fiction in Germany | Vera Cuntz-Leng | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
august 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Fandom and the Internet
Fandom and the Internet

Hello,

As part of my geography project, I am looking at factors of change in a community. I’m looking at the effect of Internet on the fandom, but I’m not old enough to know any fandom pre-Internet.

I’m hoping for some information on how fandom has been shaped and is being shaped by the Internet, whether it be higher visibility, easier access, different forms of fanworks gaining prominence, archives and more gathered communities etc.

I have looked at Fanlore, but since for this project I need primary as well as secondary sources, I was hoping to fulfil that requirement here.

Thank you so much.

Aileen Wang

Hi Aileen, do you mean you’re looking to hear from fans about their own experiences? By the way, there are also a lot of other good secondary sources on this topic besides Fanlore, for instance academic work. Are you looking for that sort of thing as well?
fanhackers 
august 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Upon the appearance of Web 2.0 sites like YouTube...
"Upon the appearance of Web 2.0 sites like YouTube or DeviantART (and especially their explicitly..." “Upon the appearance of Web 2.0 sites like YouTube or DeviantART (and especially their explicitly Japanese counterparts NicoNico Dōga and Pixiv) one might think that Comic Market as a physical and costly event would suffer from losing its monopoly on being the center of Japanese fan art. But once again Comike was the beneficiary of a new fan praxis: attendance reached new heights in 2007 (well over 500,000 people), a year without any outstandingly popular property to attract new visitors. It seems that dōjinshi circles are not switching entirely to the Internet but rather are using it as an informational and marketing platform for themselves and their creations, spreading the knowledge of and fascination with Comic Market to new spheres. The best example of this phenomenon is the already-mentioned Tōhō Project, which became popular mostly through Web 2.0 outlets.”
- Fan-Yi Lam, Comic Market: How the World’s Biggest Amateur Comic Fair Shaped Japanese Dōjinshi Culture, p243
fanhackers 
august 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Like other transformative practices, fan editing...
Like other transformative practices, fan editing continues its development amid ongoing challenges...

Like other transformative practices, fan editing continues its development amid ongoing challenges to accessibility that are complicated by legal and ethical disputes in online media. Because of their technical characteristics, fan edits are typically distributed through the same channels as are pirated works. However, when BitTorrent indexers and file lockers are seized by law enforcement agencies on grounds of piracy or are otherwise deactivated, fan edits like Psycho: The Roger Ebert Cut can be counted among the collateral damage. In other cases, access to high-profile projects such as Heaven’s Gate: The Butcher’s Cut and The Editor Strikes Back may be intentionally restricted by their creators. Fan editors have attempted to manually recreate these elusive works, but they naturally produce variants that reflect their own creative choices, similar to the way in which an inspired cook may deviate from a recipe.

(…)

The aforementioned home-brewed replications of fan edits, which stimulate creative variation, are procedurally different from the way in which most professional video projects are cloned between multiple parties by sharing software-based project files and edit decision lists (EDLs). These crucial files record every cut, trim, and reconfiguration of media in a video editing project, and subsequent editors can use them to reproduce the same project by automatically conforming (autoconform) identical source material. In answer to the access problems and regenerative fan editing described in this essay, further research could explore the potential for fan editors to circumvent some technical and legal obstructions by sharing customized project files or EDLs with other fans who would autoconform their own copies of fan edits using relevant source texts.
fanhackers 
august 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • (My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic) is feminized...
"(My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic) is feminized for adhering to (feminine) tropes, and for doing..." “

(My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic) is feminized for adhering to (feminine) tropes, and for doing so with bright pastel colors and chipper voices talking about friendship, but it was deliberately created to be both girly and good.

Bronies’ praise, however, frequently separates FiM from its association with its feminist possibility and young, gendered target audience. They contend that the series “has a higher quality writing style than other children’s shows, with varied themes, and the plot and characters develop over the seasons” (Angel 2012). Bronies discuss how they were not expecting to like and watch such a program. One recounts, “First we can’t believe this show is so good. Then we can’t believe we’ve become fans for life” (Watercutter 2011). Another notes, “If you asked me three years ago if I would be running pony stuff and watching My Little Pony, I would be like ‘What? No, that’s girl stuff’” (Peters 2013). The aspects of the show lauded by bronies, including its animation style and clever references to geek and pop culture, are associated with masculine genre and aesthetics, and their praise thus reframes it as something more suited to an adult male viewership.


- What we talk about when we talk about bronies | Anne Gilbert | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
august 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • As this media mix has had several more decades to...
"As this media mix has had several more decades to evolve in Japan than in the United States and..." “

As this media mix has had several more decades to evolve in Japan than in the United States and Europe, the Japanese understanding of convergence culture is significantly more progressive concerning the user-generated portion of the mix (note 6). Specifically, Japanese publishers, producers, and entertainment corporations create media properties in such a way as to encourage audience participation through transformative works, the production of which is taken for granted and directly incorporated into their business strategies and marketing models (Steinberg 2012).

Instead of discouraging fan works such as fan fiction, fan art, and fan comics, Japanese media producers depend on them to ensure a healthy and stable economic ecosystem for their franchise properties. After all, many highly successful content creators were once fans themselves (note 7). Therefore, in Japan, fans do not exist outside of transmediality and corporate convergence cultures but instead are integral to the success of the media mix.

Since the Japanese media mix model may serve as an indicator of the future evolution of overseas media cultures, which are increasingly pursuing mutually beneficial relationships with fan cultures (note 8), a better understanding of Japanese fan works and their relationship to mainstream media is useful for understanding the transnational fandom response to titles such as Sherlock (note 9).


- Queering the media mix: The female gaze in Japanese fan comics | Kathryn Hemmann | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
august 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • [REQUEST] Fan studies-friendly undergraduate...
[REQUEST] Fan studies-friendly undergraduate programs

Hi! I was wondering if anyone could recommend or share any information on undergraduate media studies programs that are fan studies-friendly (include fan studies courses, have fan studies scholars teaching, etc.). I’ve found a lot of graduate programs that seem to fit the bill, but I was curious as to whether any of you had great fan studies experiences at any universities/colleges at the undergraduate level. Would greatly appreciate any help you could give! Thanks!

Hey there! We had a similar question a while ago that got some good replies in the notes. But it’s been a while and the other question was more graduate-focused, so maybe people have more answers by now. Anyone?
fanhackers 
august 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • In a criminal case, if you are charged with an...
"In a criminal case, if you are charged with an assault, the state incurs the cost of your defense,..." “In a criminal case, if you are charged with an assault, the state incurs the cost of your defense, should you be unable to provide one for yourself. In a civil case, no matter which side you are on, you always incur the legal costs yourself. Large media companies, the ones actually engaging in legal action (NOT the creators), often have to do little more than threaten a lawsuit (or send a cease and desist letter) to elicit the desired behavior, even if they think they can’t win in court, because they know the defendant lacks the financial resources to defend him/herself and will thus back off, even if legally they are not obliged to do so. Scanlators generally cannot defend themselves and often lack the necessary legal knowledge (or access to a professional) so as to ascertain which legal threats have teeth and which do not. There may be ways of doing scanlation without express permission that do not violate copyright; it’s likely we will never know what they are, since the publishers hold (nearly) all the cards.”
- Ba Zi, 9a. Copyright, Scanlation, and the Ethics of Unfettered Reading
fanhackers 
august 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Digital consumers overall read more comic texts...
"Digital consumers overall read more comic texts and spend more money on comic books than those who..." “Digital consumers overall read more comic texts and spend more money on comic books than those who exclusively collect and read physical formats. When the two outliers who purchase no physical material are excluded, it appears the publisher gets more revenue from the digital format consumers than the physical format consumers. Much like the iTunes model, consumers who are offered accessible, legal means of consuming digitally are often willing to pay for their wares; piracy is a matter of convenience, not necessarily a matter of maliciousness.”
- (Re)examining the attitudes of comic book store patrons | Stevens | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
august 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • “If Beatlemania quickly became synonymous with The...
"“If Beatlemania quickly became synonymous with The Beatles as a star text, then so too did the..."
fanhackers 
june 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • A Question for Academics and Grad Students who are...
A Question for Academics and Grad Students who are working in the field of Fan Studies (or know of people who work in it)
fanhackers 
march 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • An Archive of Their Own: A Case Study of Feminist...
An Archive of Their Own: A Case Study of Feminist HCI and Values in Design (CHI 2016)
fanhackers 
february 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • On 9 June 2011, news of nuclear contamination in...
"On 9 June 2011, news of nuclear contamination in earthquake-stricken Japan took a backseat to the..."
fanhackers 
january 2016 by otw_news
On-line Attire Procuring Tips To Purchase Celebration Gown
On-line Attire Procuring Tips To Purchase Celebration Gown
fanhackers 
november 2015 by otw_news
[QUOTE] From Mel Stanfill – Fandom, public, commons
[QUOTE] From Mel Stanfill – Fandom, public, commons
fanhackers 
march 2015 by otw_news
Call For Collaboration-Textual Analysis of Supernatural
Call For Collaboration-Textual Analysis of Supernatural
fanhackers 
february 2015 by otw_news
[QUOTE] From Drew Emanuel Berkowitz, Framing the Future of Fanfiction: How The New York Times’ Portrayal of a Youth Media Subculture Influences Beliefs about Media Literacy Education
[QUOTE] From Drew Emanuel Berkowitz, Framing the Future of Fanfiction: How The New York Times’ Portrayal of a Youth Media Subculture Influences Beliefs about Media Literacy Education
fanhackers 
october 2014 by otw_news
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