otw_news + fanhackers   241

Fanhackers • I'm not entirely sure if this is the right place...
I'm not entirely sure if this is the right place to ask, but is there any work on copyright disclaimers being used/not used by fan artists instead of fanficcers? Please and thank you!

Does anyone know of this kind of research? We’re aware of quite a few articles that discuss disclaimers on fics at least briefly, but nothing specifically about disclaimers on fan art.
fanhackers 
9 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Justice Scalia’s uncredited borrowing from a...
"Justice Scalia’s uncredited borrowing from a party’s legal brief escapes condemnation because the..." “Justice Scalia’s uncredited borrowing from a party’s legal brief escapes condemnation because the social context of his copying makes him a jurist, not a plagiarist. Similarly, fan creations, even without disclaimers, usually announce their unauthorized status so clearly through context that no deception is likely.”
-

Tushnet, R. (2007). Copyright law, fan practices, and the rights of the author. In Gray, J. A., Sandvoss, C., & Harrington, C. L. (Eds.). Fandom: Identities and communities in a mediated world. NYU Press.

Glorious snark about Supreme Court justices aside, this piece provides a useful timestamp in the evolution of fannish, scholarly, and legal thinking on issues of intellectual property, copyright, and transformative work. Tushnet traces the history and decline of the use of disclaimers on fan works, and the emergence of the idea of fan works as transformative rather than infringing. She makes a strong argument for the “fair use” view of fan works that we are now so familiar with. Whether you remember the bad old days from personal experience or wonder why some people still put disclaimers on their fic, this essay is a good introduction to the issues and a reflection of the state of thinking at a pivotal point in fannish history.
fanhackers 
10 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • "Vidding" documentaries (2008)
"Vidding" documentaries (2008) "Vidding" documentaries (2008):

Vidding (2008) is a series of six short documentaries produced by the Organization for Transformative Works for inclusion in the Learning Library of MIT’s New Media Literacies project. These films are part of a larger group of documentaries on remix culture, and the whole series is aimed at middle and high schoolers for inclusion in classrooms and after school programs. We hope they will also serve to introduce the art of vidding to a larger public.

The six parts of Vidding include: What is Vidding? (2:48), Technology and Tools (3:09), Good Vids, Bad Vids (3:18), I like to watch (3:19), Collaboration and Community (3:03), Why We Vid (3:50). They were directed by Francesca Coppa and edited by Laura Shapiro. Sound editing was done by AbsoluteDestiny. You can watch them here or in the MIT/NML Learning Library, where you can also see videos about cosplay, mashups, DJing, and other forms of remix culture. (From the page)
fanhackers 
11 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • In this way, machinima, at its core, is not...
"In this way, machinima, at its core, is not markedly different than vids. What truly differentiates..." “In this way, machinima, at its core, is not markedly different than vids. What truly differentiates machinima from vids are how each genre is perceived, evaluated and categorized within mainstream culture and its analysis within the academic community. This difference in evaluation is rooted, again, with cultural constructions of masculinity
and femininity that align technology, material production and work in the public sphere with masculinity and function to marginalize the labor, interests and concerns of women by associating them with the private, symbolic and bodily.”
-

Hampton, Darlene Rose. 2010. “Beyond Resistance: Gender, Performance, and Fannish Practice in Digital Culture.”

Really interesting look at how two forms of fan-made video (vids and machinima) are perceived differently based on the (assumed) gender of their creators.
fanhackers 
13 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Women’s childcare responsibilities not only...
"Women’s childcare responsibilities not only restrict their attendance at sport, but when children..." “Women’s childcare responsibilities not only restrict their attendance at sport, but when children are taken along in family units to sport events, women continue to be marginalized by the expectation that they will perform the role of primary carer in these public settings.”
-

Gosling, V. K. (2007). Girls allowed?: the marginalization of female sport fans. In Gray, J. A., Sandvoss, C., & Harrington, C. L. (Eds.). Fandom: Identities and communities in a mediated world. NYU Press.

This chapter provides a really handy overview of academic research and literature up to 2007 on women sports fans and the marginalisation they experience. It’s a great first step for anyone looking to understand the issues, with lots of useful references to other research.
fanhackers 
17 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Many (New York Times) articles frame fanfiction as...
"Many (New York Times) articles frame fanfiction as yet another aspect of these media brands. As..." “Many (New York Times) articles frame fanfiction as yet another aspect of these media brands. As Stuart Elliot (2005) notes: “[I]f you like the TV show, why not buy the fra- grance? Wear the jewelry? Read the book? Join other fans online to help write an episode?” (7). Due to corporations “co-opting” and “encouraging” fanfiction, participants in fanfiction communities have become “brand ambassadors” (Elliott 2005, 7), similar to the walking billboards of brand name clothing and logo-as-fashion (Stelter 2008).”
- Drew Emanuel Berkowitz, Framing the Future of Fanfiction: How The New York Times’ Portrayal of a Youth Media Subculture Influences Beliefs about Media Literacy Education, p205
fanhackers 
18 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • And let’s not pride ourselves on the monogamy,...
"And let’s not pride ourselves on the monogamy, either; this is another patriarchal imposition which..." “And let’s not pride ourselves on the monogamy, either; this is another patriarchal imposition which women have sexualized - in fact I believe it can be seen in the K/S [Kirk/Spock] material (as in the romances) as a metaphor for intensity. The telepathic union can also be read as a way of expressing intensity and completeness, not duration, but here too sexual expression waits on ‘love’ while desire, by itself is not enough. Again I think we’re dealing with a sexualization of the feminine condition.”
-

Russ, J. (1985). Pornography By Women For Women, With Love. In Magic Mommas, Trembling Sisters, Puritans & Perverts: Feminist Essays (pp. 79–99). Trumansberg, NY: The Crossing Press.

Like Lamb & Veith’s essay, this is a very early piece of fan studies writing and engagement with slash as a topic of study. As the title of the piece says, Russ views slash as “pornography by women, for women, with love”, thereby kickstarting a whole sub-branch of research on slash that seeks to map out its relationship to both porn and romance novels. Russ agrees with Lamb & Veith that slash, through depicting same-gender relationships, levels the playing field. But she also casts a critical eye over the genre, pointing out tropes where it romanticises and sexualises the constraints patriarchy puts on women.
fanhackers 
24 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • stitchmediamix: This is a narrated PowerPoint of...
stitchmediamix: This is a narrated PowerPoint of the...
stitchmediamix:

This is a narrated PowerPoint of the presentation I gave at the last Fan Studies panel at PCAACA 2017 April 15, 2017 since many people missed out on a chance to attend!

(I’ll update this with links to relatively required reading material!)
fanhackers 
27 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • In seeking to separate Benoit’s celebrity and...
"In seeking to separate Benoit’s celebrity and personal personas, some fans find the process easy...." “In seeking to separate Benoit’s celebrity and personal personas, some fans find the process easy. Respondent 710 notes: ‘I still remember him as one of the best workers of all time who had mental problems that led to his demise. I can easily separate the man and the wrestler.’ For others, the process is slightly more arduous. Respondent 14, for instance, notes that in working through his grief ‘I try to separate the man and the worker’, with Respondent 25 adding that ‘I’m starting to separate the character of Chris Benoit from the man, but it is still difficult to watch him … you know what he did and that is a hard pill to swallow’. Yet regardless of whether the separation of Benoit’s personas is easy or difficult for the individual, significantly it is a conscious and selective process.”
-

Phillips, T. (2015). Wrestling with grief: fan negotiation of professional/private personas in responses to the Chris Benoit double murder–suicide. Celebrity Studies, 6(1), 69-84.

In this paper, Tom Phillips investigates fans’ short- and long-term responses to celebrated wrestler Chris Benoit’s murder of his wife and child and subsequent suicide. He looks at issues of fannish grief and how it is shaped by official media narratives, as well as whether and how fans make distinctions between the public persona of a celebrity and their private self.
fanhackers 
4 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • List of openly accessible fan culture and popular...
List of openly accessible fan culture and popular culture studies journals List of openly accessible fan culture and popular culture studies journals:

The list is in French, but the journals listed are all in English, and they’re all free to access for anyone. Excellent resource.
fanhackers 
4 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • excerpt from videlicet
excerpt from videlicet
limblogs:

http://ift.tt/2pUgWwQ

OK so lemme expand a sec on matching.

So right now Fool For Love is playing in the other room; let’s break that
down briefly. The scene is Spike telling Buffy about killing his last
slayer and it’s a good example because it’s two fights cut together,
into one, explicitly, so it’s easier to really see the matches.
They are showing you the matches. The scenes are stitched together
through these motion matches until they occupy the same space. By the eyeline match, they can have 70s Spike addressing 2000s Buffy and it’s perfectly coherent.

Consider that these two scenes are really four scenes - that all
fight scenes are really shot as (at least two) separate scenes cut
together because the actors and the stunt doubles both act out the
scenes and then their motions are matched and cut together to form one
percept.

Now realise ALL continuity editing does this - even in the same scene with the same actors. You can connect any clip to any other clip, from anything, so long as there’s some continuity of form: in shape, colour, motion, eyeline…

Which reminds me, in Pteryx’s interview she talks about the Buffy titles, which have to be acknowledged as massively influential on vidding*.

Just spend some time watching these credits and look for motion matches,
graphic matches. This is like that, this is like that. Once you start
seeing them you’ll notice this all over.

Dawn’s eyebrow takes up the motion line. The motion builds a tangible space by bouncing itself against “walls”. 

Watch it again with another eyebrow follow-through. Dawn is the key. :P 

See how the motion moves one way and then resolves back: the conceptual “room” must have some limits, some rigid bodies and colliders
Swing the pendulum. Trace the arc

*As well as the Friends titles; I mean, the Friends titles basically
slowly teach you how to edit (very simply) to music- they start off with
the characters literally dancing to the music and then gradually over the years
replace each dance move with a clip from the show that dances in a
similar way. There’s a reason making Friends Style Credits is a gateway
drug.

http://ift.tt/2p6TMAK
fanhackers 
4 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Crip Fanfiction Research
Crip Fanfiction Research Crip Fanfiction Research:

Spotlighting some research in progress today. Cath Duchastel’s ongoing PhD research into disabled fans in online fanfiction communities looks at five key questions:

1. Are disabled fans contributing to the critical examination of disabled characters in fandoms and fanfiction?
2. Are disabled fans contributing to fostering discussion among fans about ablesim, web and other forms of accessibility, and the means by which disability oppression manifest?
3. Why have certain online fanfiction spaces welcomed disabled people whereas so many others have not?
4. What roles are the technological affordances and practices of digital media and technologies playing in the development of fanfiction communities as spaces where disability is present?
5. What insight can fanfiction as a creative practice offer about how and why cultural representation impacts agency and facilitates political participation and lasting social change?

One of Cath’s mini-projects is tracking of disability-related tags on AO3 over six months, and she is planning to put the results of this up on her website.
fanhackers 
5 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Literary references abound in judicial opinions....
"Literary references abound in judicial opinions. There are thousands of them, including a..." “Literary references abound in judicial opinions. There are thousands of them, including a substantial set of references to Sherlock Holmes. Within that Sherlockian set, there is an intriguing little subset: cases in which judges permit, endorse, or command engagement by other participants in the legal system in something that sounds a bit like Sherlockian role-playing. Are these judges—as they instruct or encourage—teaching participants in the legal system to be Sherlockians? Whatever the judges’ intentions, their messages ought, at the very least, to resonate with scholars and teachers who advocate for fandom in education.”
- Davies, Ross E. 2017. “The Fan-Judges: Clues to a Jurisculture of Sherlockian Fandom.” In “Sherlock Holmes Fandom, Sherlockiana, and the Great Game,” edited by Betsy Rosenblatt and Roberta Pearson, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 23.
fanhackers 
5 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • People called it “knotting au” or something to...
"People called it “knotting au” or something to that effect, and/or listed/tagged it with..." “People called it “knotting au” or something to that effect, and/or listed/tagged it with a series of tropes that made explicit (heh, explicit) what they meant. There wasn’t a fixed set of tropes. Because it spread via anon fic memes, the tropes featured in each fic depended on what the prompter suggested and on what the writer made of those requests. So some prompter could ask for “knotting au, heat, bonding, impregnation,” and different writers could take all of those tropes into account, or pick and choose which ones they wanted to tackle and/or add different ones. Other prompters would call for a different, more or less overlapping, set of tropes and so on. And the same prompt (the setting/premise) could be spun into very diverse directions. There was a fluidity to it that became a hallmark of the genre, so that each iteration could bring forth a new variation.”
-

Netweight (2013). The Nonnies Made Them Do It!

Have you ever looked at the Alpha/Beta/Omega Dynamics tag on AO3 and wondered how on earth we got here? Netweight has the answer, and the answer is Supernatural anon kinkmemes! In this meticulously researched piece of fannish meta, netweight traces the history of what eventually came to be known as A/B/O from its murky origins in some of Supernatural fandom’s anonymous online spaces, to being named, to hopping the fandom boundary and becoming the cross-fandom shared universe phenomenon it is today. She provides plenty of context for those of us who aren’t in SPN fandom, lots of links to primary sources, a bunch of useful timelines, as well as some good caveats on the limitations of the research. “The nonnies made them do it!” is a great effort to document and preserve a piece of fannish history which has puzzled many fans and fan studies scholars alike.
fanhackers 
6 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Many people, encountering fanfiction for the first...
"Many people, encountering fanfiction for the first time, wonder why so much of it is erotic. Anne..." “Many people, encountering fanfiction for the first time, wonder why so much of it is erotic. Anne Jamison, in Fic, gives a pretty good answer: a lot of fanfiction questions mainstream assumptions about gender, sexuality, and desire. But writing erotic fanfiction is also a wonderful game. The fanfiction community might be the first place where a woman is encouraged to enjoy her sexual fantasies and praised for the dirtiness of her imagination. Writing and reading fanfiction is a social, communal activity, and considering how much shame is still attached to the expression of female sexual desire (what’s so funny about it?) the creation of shared erotic fantasies is still radical.”
- Introduction to The Communications Officer’s Tale, The Fanfiction Reader: Folk Tales for the Digital Age (via francescacoppa)
fanhackers 
6 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Eventually many of us then have the Moment. It...
"Eventually many of us then have the Moment. It happens when we realize that we are not alone and..." “Eventually many of us then have the Moment. It happens when we realize that we are not alone and that others ask the same questions about the Sherlockian canon, puzzle over the same inconsistencies…and actually write about them…The learned articles, fascinating discourse, and impeccable research are immediately addicting. If others can do this, so can we.”
- Solberg, Andrew L., and Robert S. Katz. 2017. “Fandom, Publishing, and Playing the Grand Game.” In “Sherlock Holmes Fandom, Sherlockiana, and the Great Game,” edited by Betsy Rosenblatt and Roberta Pearson, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 23.
fanhackers 
7 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • By integrally linking the publication and...
"By integrally linking the publication and advertising strategies of his two major periodicals,..." “By integrally linking the publication and advertising strategies of his two major periodicals, proprietor and editor George Newnes manufactured one of the most vibrant literary fandoms in history.”
- McClellan, Ann K. 2017. “Tit-Bits, New Journalism, and Early Sherlock Holmes Fandom.” In “Sherlock Holmes Fandom, Sherlockiana, and the Great Game,” edited by Betsy Rosenblatt and Roberta Pearson, special issue, “Transformative Works and Cultures,” no. 23. http://ift.tt/2nEyWGx
fanhackers 
7 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Being a fan means doing life in a certain way. It...
"Being a fan means doing life in a certain way. It means being passionate. It means being playful. It..." “Being a fan means doing life in a certain way. It means being passionate. It means being playful. It means being creative and engaged. It means obsession and flailing. All of these perceived affordances of fandom are tied to norms, ideals, and practices, and these are again tied to self-reflections about age and their associated appropriateness. I argue that fandom, as a mediatized cultural practice, is transformative and thus has the potential to shape understandings of subjective age for its participants.”
- Petersen, Line Nybro. 2017. “‘The Florals’: Female Fans over 50 in Sherlock Fandom.” In “Sherlock Holmes Fandom, Sherlockiana, and the Great Game,” edited by Betsy Rosenblatt and Roberta Pearson, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 23.
fanhackers 
7 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • The Fanfiction Reader: Folk Tales for the Digital...
The Fanfiction Reader: Folk Tales for the Digital Age The Fanfiction Reader: Folk Tales for the Digital Age:

francescacoppa:

Ta-da!  Straight from its debut this weekend in Chicago at SCMS 2017! 

The Fanfiction Reader: Folk Tales for the Digital Age is a collection of fanfiction stories from a variety of big western media fandoms - Star Trek, Star Wars, X-Files, Buffy, Doctor Who, HP, MCU, popslash, etc. vaguely modeled on The Canterbury Tales - each with a contextualizing essay by me and featuring introductions and other scholarly apparatus also by me. 

This book was designed for classroom use - for teachers who want to teach a class or a unit on fanfiction (see a list of some current classes here at Fanlore) without sending their students to the wilds of the internet (and/or without bothering fanfiction-writing fans.)  The stories were selected to represent a range of tropes and themes and also for their teachability. 

The book was also created as a case study in transformative fair use; it was put together for an educational purpose and published with a non-profit scholarly press; all of the stories in this book remain available for free on the internet in their original archives; all royalties from the book are being donated to the Organization For Transformative Works & the Archive of Our Own. 

A note to teachers: ordered together with The Fan Fiction Studies Reader (U. Iowa,  2014) or Fic: Why Fanfiction Is Taking Over The World  (Smartpop, 2013), you have a course in a bottle: everything for your fanfic-teaching needs!

A note to fandom: This book is aimed at the classroom, not at fandom, though I have tried to write as fannish an academic book as possible & one with at least some of the spirit. (Also: I totally didn’t write that book copy up there about 50 Shades of Gray, I’m just saying. :D They don’t ask me about the book copy!)

The Fanfiction Reader is also available at Amazon.com or directly from the University of Michigan website, which was distributing a 30% off code at SCMS that is good until April 26, 2016: UMSCMS17. (Shout out to U. Michigan Press for their support of fandom, open access, and fair use.) Or there’s a big chunk available on Googlebooks if you just want to see what the hell the thing is.  
fanhackers 
8 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • SCMS Fan and Audience Studies Scholarly Interest...
SCMS Fan and Audience Studies Scholarly Interest Group
tea-and-liminality:

faassig:

This is the tumblr for the Fan and Audience Studies Scholarly Interest Group (SIG) of the Society for Cinema and Media Studies, intended as a scholar-fandom interface for anyone interested in fan and audience studies. Please feel free to follow!

So, this is me (and others as they participate), and I just wanted to invite anyone interested in fan studies to follow. I’m hoping to make this - as I wrote above - a kind of fan-scholar interface; that is, to disseminate stuff scholars are working on and just generally help give a better idea of what fan studies actually is and what we do. Welcome!
fanhackers 
8 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • [F]or as long as there has been a Sherlock Holmes...
"[F]or as long as there has been a Sherlock Holmes there have been judges who would be comfortable..." “[F]or as long as there has been a Sherlock Holmes there have been judges who would be comfortable seeing more rather than less of him in their own courtrooms.”
-

Davies, Ross E. 2017. “The Fan-Judges: Clues to a Jurisculture of Sherlockian Fandom.” In “Sherlock Holmes Fandom, Sherlockiana, and the Great Game,” edited by Betsy Rosenblatt and Roberta Pearson, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 23.

In this piece from the Transformative Works and Cultures special issue on Sherlock Holmes fandom, Ross Davies asks to what extent judges who cite Sherlock Holmes in their opinions, or encourage others in their courtroom to adopt a Sherlockian approach, are encouraging people to engage in fannish behaviour. Davies gives three examples of judges permitting, endorsing, or even commanding Sherlockian behaviour from people in their courtroom - for instance requiring an expert witness to reveal their methodology much like Sherlock explains his to Watson. He argues that the judges who do this must expect that the people they are addressing will be at least familiar - or willing to engage - with Sherlock Holmes. This in turn fosters a kind of Sherlcok Holmes fandom among participants in the legal process.
fanhackers 
8 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • There are many different Japanese fan cultures, of...
"There are many different Japanese fan cultures, of course, and some are themselves more culturally..." “There are many different Japanese fan cultures, of course, and some are themselves more culturally legitimated than others. Yet even in the case of otaku and fujoshi fan cultures—the former roughly equivalent to American geek culture, and the latter to English-language slash communities—we see slippage between fan and producer subjectivities.”
-

Morimoto, Lori. 2017. “Sherlock (Holmes) in Japanese (Fan) Works.” In “Sherlock Holmes Fandom, Sherlockiana, and the Great Game,” edited by Betsy Rosenblatt and Roberta Pearson, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 23. 

I like this quote partly because it reminds me of how infernally difficult it is to put a name on any kind of fandom/fan community. Take “English-language slash communities.” This is certainly a much better term than things like the dreaded “Western fandom” or “Japanese fandom,” ridiculous concepts that mean absolutely nothing. The use of a plural–cultures, communities–is also a good way to hint at more diversity. 

Still, especially to people in such communities, it’s clear that the concept of “slash communities” has its own issues. To name just one, it pins people down according to the kind of content they favor, but many people in these communities will write/read non-slash works as well. They’re “crossover individuals” between different content-based communities. But what about groups of fans who hang out together no matter what content any of them are currently focusing on (to give just one example)? That’s a very common and meaningful way for fans to interact. How do you name that kind of community? More broadly, how can you put a proper focus on human interactions between fans, when so many naming conventions for groups of fans focus on the kind of content people produce?

And now we’ve arrived at the “What makes a community” discussion, so time for me to run away screaming.
fanhackers 
8 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Going on right now: fan studies tweets from...
Going on right now: fan studies tweets from the SCMS conference

fanhackers:

The 2017 conference of the Society of Cinema and Media Studies (SCMS) is underway in Chicago until March 26th. SCMS is massive, and like every year, it features many great panels on the latest fan studies research. 

Definitely check out #FaAS, the Twitter hashtag of the SCMS Fan and Audience Studies Scholarly Interest Group, which brings the latest from all eight fan studies panels:

Chinese Queer Fan Cultures

Unsanctioned Television Access

“Stop Bringing Race Into This”

Poaching Politics

Connected Viewing

Public Life of Cinema in East Asia 3: Unexpected Audiences

Fandom and Merchandising

Teaching with Fan Video workshop

The group also has a tumblr.

Teaching with Fan Video workshop being tweeted now!
fanhackers 
8 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Going on right now: fan studies tweets from...
Going on right now: fan studies tweets from the SCMS conference

fanhackers:

The 2017 conference of the Society of Cinema and Media Studies (SCMS) is underway in Chicago until March 26th. SCMS is massive, and like every year, it features many great panels on the latest fan studies research. 

Definitely check out #FaAS, the Twitter hashtag of the SCMS Fan and Audience Studies Scholarly Interest Group, which brings the latest from all eight fan studies panels:

Chinese Queer Fan Cultures

Unsanctioned Television Access

“Stop Bringing Race Into This”

Poaching Politics

Connected Viewing

Public Life of Cinema in East Asia 3: Unexpected Audiences

Fandom and Merchandising

Teaching with Fan Video workshop

The group also has a tumblr.
fanhackers 
9 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • It’s impossible to read the Sherlock Holmes...
"It’s impossible to read the Sherlock Holmes stories without thinking about the inconsistencies..." “It’s impossible to read the Sherlock Holmes stories without thinking about the inconsistencies that make these tales unique in literature. Realizing that others wrote about these issues with the same passion that we felt was all the incentive it took to start us on a lifetime of research and publishing. There are many stories of crime and detection by other authors, with interesting plots and colorful characters. But none of them constitutes a chronicle spanning 40 years of one man’s life, and none has spawned as vast a literature as that surrounding the Holmes canon. When it comes to Sherlock Holmes, being a fan and being a writer are almost inseparable.”
- Solberg, Andrew L., and Robert S. Katz. 2017. “Fandom, Publishing, and Playing the Grand Game.” In “Sherlock Holmes Fandom, Sherlockiana, and the Great Game,” edited by Betsy Rosenblatt and Roberta Pearson, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 23.
fanhackers 
9 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • The newer fans’ language is perhaps less measured...
"The newer fans’ language is perhaps less measured (and certainly more concise) than that of..." “The newer fans’ language is perhaps less measured (and certainly more concise) than that of early Sherlockians, but it carries the same fundamental sentiment: that, regardless of the legal merits (or lack thereof) of their claims, those asserting legal objections to fandom are morally wrong.”
- Rosenblatt, Betsy. 2017. “The Great Game and the Copyright Villain.” In “Sherlock Holmes Fandom, Sherlockiana, and the Great Game,” edited by Betsy Rosenblatt and Roberta Pearson, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 23.
fanhackers 
10 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Lamb, P. F., & Veith, D. L. (1986). Romantic myth,...
Lamb, P. F., & Veith, D. L. (1986). Romantic myth,...
Lamb, P. F., & Veith, D. L. (1986). Romantic myth, transcendence, and Star Trek zines. Erotic universe: Sexuality and fantastic literature, 235-55.

One of the earliest pieces of research published about fan fiction, Lamb and Veith’s essay is a first crack at answering the foundational question of fan studies: why do straight women read and write about men banging? Lamb and Veith focus their analysis on Kirk/Spock slash. They argue that in fan fiction, rather than being presented as masculine, both characters become androgynous by acquiring both typically masculine and typically feminine characteristics, which often complement each other. By removing gender differences from the equation, fan fiction writers are free to explore relationships which are genuinely equal and unencumbered by power dynamics.

Image description

A table reproduced from Lamb and Veith’s essay outlining the different feminine and masculine characteristics given to Kirk and Spock in K/S fan fiction.

Kirk feminine qualities: Femininely “beautiful”; shorter, physically weaker; emotional; intuitive; sensuous, engages in much physical touching; verbal; evokes powerful emotional responses from others

Spock masculine qualities: Masculinely rugged; taller, more powerful; logical; rational; controlled, physically distant; reticent; keeps others at a distance

Kirk masculine qualities: Sexually ready at all times; is undisputed leader, initiator of action; is the “real” or “norm”, always at home; is fulfilled prior to Spock, only with acceptance of the bond is he firmly united with Spock; Spock complements his “at-homeness”; is sexually promiscuous (Spock assures his fidelity); is usually the seducer

Spock feminine qualities: Sexually controlled (except during his Vulcan mating cycle); needs to be led, follows Kirk into action; is the “alien” or “other”, always the “outsider”; is fulfilled only with Kirk; felt one-sided fidelity to Kirk even before the bond; needs Kirk for full identity; a virgin until marriage, he exhibits absolute monogamy after marriage; is usually seduced, but once unleashed his sexuality is very powerful
fanhackers 
10 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • When it comes to many online fandoms, whether they...
"When it comes to many online fandoms, whether they are for a TV show, book, or movie, at their heart..." “When it comes to many online fandoms, whether they are for a TV show, book, or movie, at their heart lies one thing: storytelling. Fans who have formed online communities around their fandoms may like the fandom’s object of focus for different reasons, but ultimately, regardless of its medium, it is something that was designed to tell a story. Even non-media-based fandoms, which might not readily seem like “storytelling” fandoms have significant storytelling elements; consider the Boston Red Sox fandom and the narrative of the “Curse of the Bambino.” This legendary bit of fan lore, which essentially states that the Boston Red Sox did not win a World Series for 86 years because they traded Babe Ruth in 1919, is a compelling narrative. So compelling, in fact, that Red Sox fans have used it as an emotional coping mechanism when their team comes up short (Prakash 2004). Stories help us make sense of what happens in life, whether it is as simple as a baseball team losing a game or something more profound such as the death of a loved one.”
-

 Heiden, Kat. 2017. “Storytelling through Online Fandom.”

I love it when research on media fandom touches upon sports fandom as well. Those kinds of fandoms are still often researched separately, but not always for good or obvious reasons. There’s a lot more crossover these days, for example research on soccer, hockey, etc fanworks. Check out more research on sports fandom here.
fanhackers 
10 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Nice basic overview of some big...
Nice basic overview of some big fanfic-and-copyright discussions...
Nice basic overview of some big fanfic-and-copyright discussions that have taken place over the years, from 50 Shades to Marion Zimmer Bradley to Kindle Worlds.

For more in-depth analysis of legal issues surrounding fanworks, check out some of the many, many articles in the “law” tag of the fan studies bibliography.
fanhackers 
11 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Given the dominance of pairings in fan fiction,...
"Given the dominance of pairings in fan fiction, (…) the opposition between romance and sex..." “Given the dominance of pairings in fan fiction, (…) the opposition between romance and sex can look like a sliding scale of visibility between G-rated stories, in which romance itself is only implied, and NC-17 stories, in which sex is explicitly represented. This emphasis on the visibility of sexual content through the use of the ratings system reveals the extent to which this assessment is drawn from the generic conventions of pornography. However, very explicit stories may also be very romantic, and the most popular romance stories may focus explicitly on sex. The genres are not poles at either end of the scale but axes between which every story can be plotted as more or less romance and more or less porn. Porn may be a slight or dominant element of a fluffy romance, and romantic completion can be used to ground PWPs as a rationale for the sex. Even this imaginary graph is a gross simplification, because porn and romance are not so separable in fan fiction and because they are not the only terms by which fan fiction is classified. Nevertheless, I would argue that while much fan fiction is explicitly romance and/or porn, all fan fiction is implicitly both.”
-

Driscoll, C. (2006). One True Pairing: The Romance of Pornography and the Pornography of Romance. Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet

Driscoll uses the example of fanfiction to re-evaluate the relationship between the genres of pornography and romance. For her, fanfiction is at least implicitly both porn and romance. She finds two types of sex in fanfiction. “Plot sex” is used to develop characters, further the plot and provide closure to a romance narrative. “Porn sex”, on the other hand, is written for its own sake, with the focus physical sex acts, like pornography. Importantly, porn sex in fanfiction - even in PWP stories - must retain an element of plot or characterisation in order to remain fanfiction. Even if such characterisation is only accessible to those who know the source material well, it has to be there for the work to still be fanfiction.
fanhackers 
11 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • The sexualised content of some Japanese media,...
"The sexualised content of some Japanese media, particularly in regard to representations of..." “The sexualised content of some Japanese media, particularly in regard to representations of characters who may ‘appear to be’ minors, has become the site of increased concern in some countries, notably Canada and Australia where fictional depictions of child characters have been included in the definition of ‘child-abuse publications’. The ever expanding scope of this legislation has led to the recent arrest and prosecution of manga and anime fans in both these countries and in the US.”
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McLelland, Mark. 2013. “Ethical and Legal Issues in Teaching about Japanese Popular Culture to Undergraduate Students in Australia.” Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies.

After the uproar about last week’s BBC3 documentary that attempted to link sexually explicit manga to real-life sexual abuse, it seems appropriate to bring back one of many articles that discuss how (attempted) censorship of sexual content has impacted fans around the globe.

Many fans will be familiar with the story of how censorship incidents on LiveJournal inspired calls for the fan-owned, fan-operated fanworks archive that would become the Archive of Our Own (AO3). These days, fans of Japanese media–inside and outside Japan–are perhaps the ones who are the most likely to encounter censorship in some way or another, and it’s a hot topic in Japanese fan communities. For some more background on media censorship in Japan, see this blog post on censorship and anime/manga fandom that I wrote for the OTW’s main blog in 2014.

For more academic works on censorship and fandom, see the “censorship” tag in the Fan Studies Bibliography.
fanhackers 
11 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Livestream TODAY at 7pm, Thursday, March 2: Black...
Livestream TODAY at 7pm, Thursday, March 2: Black Women Defense Squads in Online Fandom Livestream TODAY at 7pm, Thursday, March 2: Black Women Defense Squads in Online Fandom:
fanhackers 
12 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • HANNIBAL: A Fanvid | [in]Transition
HANNIBAL: A Fanvid | [in]Transition HANNIBAL: A Fanvid | [in]Transition:

tea-and-liminality:

Some of you saw this vid(eo essay) when I circulated it in an earlier version last spring, but now I’m happy to say it’s found its final form in the latest issue of the online videographic essay journal [in]Transition. I’ve watched this approximately 10,000 times since it was accepted for publication, trying to figure out if it does what I wanted it to do - I think it does, and together with the short accompanying essay, I’m actually kind of proud of it. I’m especially grateful to Louisa Stein and Francesca Coppa, two scholars of fanvidding practices and aesthetics, for their generous reviews of the piece (which are also printed here, as is standard for the journal). They both saw things I hadn’t, making it an especially interesting experience of authorship and what happens when a thing leaves the nest.

There’s one quick long (distant) shot of the “valentine” Hannibal leaves Will in this vid; otherwise, it’s gore-free. If you have thoughts, I’d love to hear them!

**expand the vid to watch it - it looks much, much better when it’s larger

This is a really interesting project in which a scholar uses a fannish format (the vid) to make a video essay that, according to one reviewer, “brings out the analytical and critical nature of many affective fan works.” With accompanying essay.
fanhackers 
12 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • I realised that I was spending all this time...
"I realised that I was spending all this time trying to think about how to engage women with..." “I realised that I was spending all this time trying to think about how to engage women with technology, and I was ignoring the fact they already were. They were essentially already video editors, graphic designers, community managers.  They were teaching each other CSS to make their tumblr themes look more gorgeous, and they were using Chrome extensions in anger to make tumblr do what they wanted. These were basically front end developers, social media managers, they were absolutely immersed in technology, every day, and we weren’t paying attention, because they were doing it in service of something we don’t care about.”
-

Sacha Judd, How The Tech Sector Could Move In One Direction. Presented at Beyond Tellerrand, Berlin, November 2016.

A really interesting look at fannish engagement with technology. Covers many topics, from the AO3 to fanworks and activism by Larry fans to Pinboard. We know many fans are good at technology, but it’s fascinating to read about it from the perspective of someone whose goals are a) to convince tech companies that (female) fans make great employees, and b) offer those companies concrete pointers on how to attract fans to their job postings.
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • MIT Live Webcast RIGHT NOW: Fan fiction and fair...
MIT Live Webcast RIGHT NOW: Fan fiction and fair use MIT Live Webcast RIGHT NOW: Fan fiction and fair use:

There are millions of fan fiction works both online and off. Though many content creators support or even encourage fan-made books, comics, plays, or films inspired by their work, others see them as infringing their copyrights or eating into their profits. Some have responded with lawsuits. In this talk, Harvard Copyright Advisor Kyle Courtney explores court cases related to fan fiction and fair use, the doctrine in copyright law that allows users to build on others’ work without permission. 

Cases discussed include the recently settled Star Trek case, Paramount Pictures v. Axanar, and the JK Rowling/Harry Potter lawsuit, Warner Brothers v. RDR Books. 

Presenter: Kyle Courtney, Copyright Advisor, Harvard Library Office for Scholarly Communication
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • So archontic literature and women’s writing, at...
"So archontic literature and women’s writing, at least in the English language, have been linked for..." “So archontic literature and women’s writing, at least in the English language, have been linked for at least four hundred years, and from the first, the act of women entering the archives of male-authored texts and adding their own entries to those archives has generated conflict. Wroth, who was Sidney’s niece, received sharp criticism for writing the Urania from fellow noble Sir Edward Denny, who lambasted her for producing a romance, a type of work unseemly for a woman - the only appropriate genres for women writers being, according to Denny, translations of scripture and other devotional material. Wroth responded to Denny by parodying a poem that Denny had written to censure her. She adopted his rhyme scheme, including the exact rhyming words, and defended herself archly, demonstrating that a female writer could freely enter and add to any male-authored archive she wished, and that such archontic activity could be a successful technique for critiquing the style or message of the male writer’s writing.”
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Derecho, A. (2006). Archontic literature: A definition, a history, and several theories of fan fiction. Fan fiction and fan communities in the age of the internet, 61-78.

In this paper, Derecho is interested in fanfiction as an art form rather than simply a social phenomenon, which was the predominant approach in fan studies at the time. Theorising how fanfiction works, she coins the term “archontic literature”. This is partly an attempt to move away from value-laden words such as “derivative” or “appropriative”. “Archontic” refers to the idea of an archive, which is ever-expanding, and where the addition of any new work alters the entire archive. Derecho also uses “originary” (rather than “original” or “source”) for a work which may serve as inspiration for fanfiction. Conceptualising fanfiction in this way allows for a less hierarchical view of the relationship between fanfiction and the works it is based on. Derecho argues that fanfiction is part of a wider genre of archontic literature - works based and building on other existing works. She traces a history of archontic writing, showing how it has often been used as a tool of social and cultural critique by minority and marginalised groups. She gives a number of examples including women’s writing from the 17th century, and more recently postcolonial and ethnic American literature such as Alice Randall’s The Wind Done Gone.
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The late Marion Zimmer Bradley once said of her...
"The late Marion Zimmer Bradley once said of her own most famous fictional world, “I..." “The late Marion Zimmer Bradley once said of her own most famous fictional world, “I didn’t invent Darkover, I discovered it.” Unlike most authors, who at best enjoy their admirers’ activities, and at worst try to end them, Bradley and her sizable community of fans collaborated in the publication of a large body of work fairly harmoniously for over two decades. However, this collaboration came to an abrupt end in 1992 with an event that can be referred to as the Contraband Incident. (…)  The case of Bradley and of Contraband has perhaps attained the status of a fable whose moral is “Be careful [authors who read fan fiction], because this could happen to you.””
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Coker, Catherine. 2011. “The Contraband Incident: The Strange Case of Marion Zimmer Bradley.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 6. 

An article about one of the most (in)famous conflicts between a pro creator and a fan, “frequently cited by authors who object to fanfiction to one degree or another, or as evidence that professional authors should avoid reading fanfic based on their published works, to a degree that approaches “urban legend” status.” (from Fanlore's long article on the incident, which has more background information and alternative takes)
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The biopic viewer, like the fan fiction reader,...
"The biopic viewer, like the fan fiction reader, can choose to compartmentalize the variations on the..." “The biopic viewer, like the fan fiction reader, can choose to compartmentalize the variations on the celebrity’s star image. However, the legitimized Hollywood film is branded with a greater connection to truth than RPF fan fiction, with the latter often marked up front by disclaimers deliberately announcing its status as fiction. This is in contrast to the variations on a “based on a true story” title card often seen at the beginning of a biopic. As a for-profit venture, the Hollywood biopic is assumed to have enough adherences to truth in dealing with the likeness of a real person to avoid accusations of defamation. It is understood that the biopic is not a documentary, and thus some degree of fictionalization or invention, such as composite characters or the compression of time, is to be expected (Bingham 2010, 5). Even so, the biopic carries the weight of an intended connection to actuality that RPF fan fiction does not similarly claim. Thus there is less of an expectation that the viewer will strictly compartmentalize versions of the real person, and the recontextualization of the public image in light of the presented private self is less of an invitation to play and more of an argument for a possible actuality.”
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Piper, M. (2015). Real body, fake person: Recontextualizing celebrity bodies in fandom and film. Transformative Works and Cultures, 20.

Melanie Piper’s paper on Real Person(a) Fiction investigates how RPF is similar and different to more commercial forms of fiction based on real people or events, such as the Hollywood biopic. Can we meaningfully say that Aaron Sorkin has fallen face-first into Silicon Valley RPF fandom? Piper argues that RPF and biopics “work” in similar ways: they take a celebrity’s public image and recontextualize it to show a fictionalized, private self. A major difference between the two is the level of truth claim they make. A biopic is often the only one of its kind and the first and only time the majority of its audience will engage with the subject. Because of this, it makes a much stronger implicit truth claim than a piece of RPF, which is one of often hundreds or thousands about that particular celebrity. The circulation of many different, clearly fictional, accounts of the same “canon” events in RPF communities creates a stronger awareness that the limited information available can be interpreted in a variety of ways. In this way, it encourages at least some compartmentalization between the celebrity persona, private person, and fictionalized character.
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • In recent years, patterns of sociability among...
"In recent years, patterns of sociability among weblogs (blogs) have been analyzed using link..." “In recent years, patterns of sociability among weblogs (blogs) have been analyzed using link analysis, including within large blog hosting communities such as LiveJournal. Social networks have been identified based on blog topic (e.g., politics), common interests (e.g., fandom), and online and offline friendship connections; bloggers converse within these networks by linking to and commenting on one another’s content. More basic than these forms of social glue, however, is language. Indeed, a shared language would seem to be the sine qua non for meaningful interconnection and conversation.”
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Herring, Susan C. 2007. “Language Networks on LiveJournal.” In Proceedings of the Fortieth Hawai’i International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-40). Los Alamitos: IEEE Press. 

This is a really interesting analysis of the role language plays/played in community-building on LiveJournal. Would love to see similar research on, say, Tumblr.
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Looking for fan studies work from a network...
Looking for fan studies work from a network science POV

val-mora asked:

Do you (collectively) know anyone who is taking a network science approach, rather than a humanities/social science approach, to fan studies, that I can learn from? I’m an undergraduate in engineering and am looking for ways to make “hey the ao3 tag sets provide a really rich dataset! and fandom is worth studying! and there are legitimate things to learn!” into something I can say to an engineering professor dude that will convince him to let me use such data for some kind of final project for the degree. Any suggestions or names to read papers of would be appreciated!

That’s a great question, anyone have suggestions?

(btw your submission form with ‘ask us anything’ cuts off the instructions for the captcha, at least on my screen and in two different browsers, so it’s actually impossible for me to send you asks, um)

Thanks for pointing that out, we’ll look into it!
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Even the most cursory look at different literary...
"Even the most cursory look at different literary schools through the ages easily shows the..." “Even the most cursory look at different literary schools through the ages easily shows the difference a shared canon (or the absence thereof) makes in the way the process of textual creation and elaboration is played out. In the Middle Ages, for example, cultured people were expected to have a knowledge of a shared allegorical code, which then allowed a compressed, multilayered reading, such as the four levels of textual fruition (literal, moral, allegoric, and anagogic) famously detailed by Dante in the second book of his Convivio.”
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Stasi, M. (2006). The toy soldiers from leeds: The slash palimpsest. Fan fiction and fan communities in the age of the internet, 115-133.

In this paper, Stasi is interested in the relationships between different fanfiction works, as well as the relationship of those works to the canon they’re based on. She uses the metaphor of a palimpsest (a piece of writing material with multiple layers of writing on it, where parts of the earlier layers may still be visible) to describe slash works and fanfiction more broadly. The palimpsest for Stasi is “a nonhierarchical, rich layering of genres, more or less partially erased and resurfacing, and a rich and complex continuum of themes, techniques, voices, moods, and registers”. Being able to rely on the reader’s knowledge of the canon enables fanfiction authors to compress meaning through dense intertextual references. Stasi argues that such extreme compression of meaning is highly unusual in modern prose: “it points back to techniques more commonly used in poetry, or in genres such as folktales or mythological cycles”.

Amusingly, Stasi recounts William Blake’s attempt to create his own system of intertextual symbols and references. The result was so incomprehensible that Blake effectively became “a fandom of one”.
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Web 2.0 phenomena have been called the...
"Web 2.0 phenomena have been called the “read/write” Web (Berners-Lee, 2005), where users’..." “Web 2.0 phenomena have been called the “read/write” Web (Berners-Lee, 2005), where users’ contributing of comments and content can provide equivalent, and sometimes greater, value to a website than content merely posted in static pages by the site’s owner.”
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Warren, Jonathan. ‘Constructing Artistic Discourse: Amateur Reviews of Amateur Movies in a Large New Media Community.’ Working Paper, School of Libraryand Information Science, Indiana University, 1 May 2008.

This quote, and the many others like it, underscores how fannish content is almost always made up of not just a “work” but a “work” plus the conversation around it. A fic on AO3 is never just text posted by a writer; the text is literally surrounded by extra bits of content added by other fans, and that content helps shape meaning, telling other fans how to interpret it. Before we even start reading, we see how many hits or kudos or comments a fic has, and that influences how we approach that work. And we can add to the fic with our own kudos and comments.

Just like a fic on AO3 or ff.net or Wattpad isn’t just the author’s text, a piece of fanart on deviantART or pixiv isn’t just the image. That image comes embedded in a wealth of little bits of conversation built by many other fans interacting with it: likes, comments, indications of what user galleries or groups an image has been added to, user-added tags (for pixiv), and so on.

All that conversation surrounding a fic or a piece of fanart doesn’t just add “value"–it’s an integral part of the work. You can’t miss it, and if you want to see just the text or the image, you have to work to strip away the extra layers of content added to it by others.
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Is Fandom the New Cinephilia?
Is Fandom the New Cinephilia? Is Fandom the New Cinephilia?:

There are two specific reasons I think the current state of fandom could be seen as a successor — or at least a second cousin twice removed — of classical cinephilia, and the first one is this: just as cinephilia came into (or perhaps more accurately closest to) the mainstream was when the first generation of cinephiles grew up and started working behind the camera, creating entire film movements like the French New Wave, some devoted fans have started getting their hands on the reins of long-running franchises.
fanhackers 
february 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The  basic  ideas  behind  fandom’s  treatment  of...
"The  basic  ideas  behind  fandom’s  treatment  of  copyright  may track  to  fair  use  and  basic..." “The  basic  ideas  behind  fandom’s  treatment  of  copyright  may
track  to  fair  use  and  basic  copyright  law,  but  it  tracks  even  more closely  to  something  else. Consider  three  key  pieces together:  the freedom  to  create  derivative  works,  the  requirement  that  the  new work  be  not-for-profit,  and  the  requirement  that  the  work  be attributed to the appropriate sources.  This could be a description of the  most  frequently  adopted  type  of  Creative  Commons  license: Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike. (…) The  terms  of  a  CC  license  might  seem  intuitively  familiar  to fan  fiction  writers,  as  the  restrictions  are  the  same  ones  that  they apply to their own work.”
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Fiesler, Casey. 2007. “Everything I Need to Know I Learned from Fandom: How Existing Social Norms Can Help Shape the next Generation of User-Generated Content.” Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment and Technology Law 10: 729–62.

I love the connection made between fanwork-related norms and CC licenses here.

By the way, it’s really interesting how you can tell when an article is “older” (in this case, a mere 10 years old) just by the way it describes the norms of English-language media fandom. Just like Scott’s work from 2009, this article was written at a time when involving money in fanworks exchange was much more controversial than it is today. Things evolve fast.
fanhackers 
january 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The regifting economy that is emerging, I argue,...
"The regifting economy that is emerging, I argue, is the result of the industry’s careful..." “The regifting economy that is emerging, I argue, is the result of the industry’s careful cultivation of a parallel fan space alongside grassroots formations of fandom. By precariously attempting to balance the communal ideals of fandom’s gift economy with their commercial interests, the regifting economy of ancillary content models in particular can be viewed as attempting to regift a narrowly defined and contained version of fandom to a general audience. This regifted version of fandom that ancillary content models represent exchanges grassroots fandom’s organically generated output and fluid exchange of fan works for the regulation and resale of fan works through contests and the elusive promise of credibility. Although unofficial fan works and official ancillary content both contribute to the narrative world of a series and do similar textual work, the impetus behind their creation and exchange is fundamentally different. As Hyde (1983:70) stresses, “there are many gifts that must be refused” as a result of the motives behind their presentation; thus, the term regifting economy is meant to synthesize the negative social connotations tied to the practice of regifting with a brief analysis of why acafans and existing fan communities should be aware and critical of these planned communities and their purpose as a site of initiation for the next generation of fans.”
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 Scott, Suzanne. 2009. “Repackaging Fan Culture: The Regifting Economy of Ancillary Content Models.” Transformative Works and Cultures 3.

Scott’s article on industry attempts to co-opt the concept of a fannish “gift economy” was published in 2009. Around this time, the idea of involving money in fannish interactions in any way was still somewhat outlandish for many people in English-speaking Western media fandom, and to scholars in English-language media studies who focused on that fandom. 

Things have gotten more complex since then; art commissions, for example, are now considered perfectly normal pretty much everywhere, and fic commissions are fairly common too. Industry reactions to that complicating of the fannish “gift economy” are very diverse and have evolved as well. However, Scott’s framing of industry involvement and its (potential) effects on the social fabric of fandoms remains extremely relevant and important.
fanhackers 
january 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • While all of the women were conscious of the fact...
"While all of the women were conscious of the fact that being a woman sports fan had negatively..." “While all of the women were conscious of the fact that being a woman sports fan had negatively impacted how they were perceived, very few challenged the root of that exclusion: the ways in which sports fandom was gendered masculine. Most did not articulate narratives of exclusion as sports fans because of their gender. When this exclusion (perhaps by another name) was acknowledged, their approach to negotiating that exclusion was largely through the lens of individualism; it is their own individual responsibility to either not let sexism in sports fan communities bother them, or to better conform to those communities, rather than advocate for the elimination of masculinist discourse from sports fan communities.”
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Esmonde, K., Cooky, C., & Andrews, D. L. (2015). “It’s supposed to be about the love of the game, not the love of Aaron Rodgers’ eyes”: Challenging the exclusions of women’s sports fans. Sociology of Sport Journal, 32(1), 22-48.

Research on sports fandom ends up in all sorts of non-Fan Studies publications, so it can be a little tricky to hunt down. This paper looks at the experiences of women sports fans in what are ultimately very masculine spaces, and examines how they negotiate sexism, their own femininity, and their identity as sports fans.
fanhackers 
january 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • [Star Wars: The Old Republic fans on BioWare’s fan...
"[Star Wars: The Old Republic fans on BioWare’s fan forums] argued over whether an online game..." “[Star Wars: The Old Republic fans on BioWare’s fan forums] argued over whether an online game is an appropriate venue to discuss the sexual politics and the problem of heteronormativity in virtual worlds. What was often framed by the participants as a benevolent desire to prevent political and ideological conflict from leaking into gaming and ruining its unique attractions manifested as the maintenance of a heterocentric power structure. True gamers and fans are assumed to be straight (or, if they are queer, it is assumed that they will remain in the closet while participating in the gaming forum), and out queer gamers and their allies are flagged as disruptive and harmful interlopers. This stance implies that BioWare would be doing its real fans (the ones they rely on to sustain their profit margins) a disservice were it to cater to the desires of queer players by making the forum community queer friendly. A similar debate arose 2 years later when BioWare made the decision to include gay male romance options in their popular single player role-playing game franchise, Dragon Age.”
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 Condis, Megan. 2015. “No Homosexuals in Star Wars? BioWare, ‘gamer’ Identity, and the Politics of Privilege in a Convergence Culture.” Convergence 21 (2): 198–212.

This paper is a great in-depth exploration of how different groups of fans react to explicitly queer characters in games, and especially about how they construct their discourse. Interested as I am in online infrastructure, I also love Condis’ focus on the role that fan forums play here.
fanhackers 
january 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Perhaps most notably, by offering works that...
"Perhaps most notably, by offering works that arguably “push the envelope” more than the works of the..." “Perhaps most notably, by offering works that arguably “push the envelope” more than the works of the formal manga industry, dōjinshi may produce examples of innovation that create new opportunities for the entire industry. Indeed, mainstream manga publishing companies have in the past brought the styles and ideas of “hot” subcultures into their own product lines. New genres fostered by the dōjinshi markets– genres that are often quite risqué – have been at times been adopted by mainstream commercial manga publishers.”
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Mehra, Salil. 2002.  “Copyright and Comics in Japan: Does Law Explain Why All the Cartoons My Kid Watches Are Japanese Imports?” SSRN eLibrary.

Mehra’s paper is fifteen years old, but it’s still a great explanation of the legal position of fanworks in Japan, and why these fanworks show that letting fans create (and even sell) work freely makes economic sense for media companies. One of those reasons is that fanworks are a hotbed of content innovation that companies can take advantage of. The most famous example of a dōjinshi genre that was adopted by the mainstream manga industry is probably yaoi, the Japanese equivalent of slash, which inspired the massively popular commercial manga genre called BL/boys’ love.

I highly recommend this paper for anyone looking to learn more about Japanese law and fanworks.
fanhackers 
january 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Hi. I'm a "media" student from a third world...
Hi. I'm a "media" student from a third world country but due to the low quality of education many things, as I realized now that I am researching for my undergraduate thesis, weren't thought to us (all we were though was how to write articles and stuff). With that said I just wanna ask what is a media text? What is the difference when you say media and media text and when should I be using one or the other? I just wanna learn more you see and there so much I still need to know. Thank you.

Does anyone know of a good basic Media Studies resource for this anon? Preferable one that’s freely available online?
fanhackers 
january 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • A residual effect of this closeness was that the...
"A residual effect of this closeness was that the “real” personalities and lives of bandom subjects..." “A residual effect of this closeness was that the “real” personalities and lives of bandom subjects threatened to overwhelm the creative aspect of RPF. Studies of RPF often focus on the inherent flexibility of celebrity identity, because it allows authors and readers the opportunity to invent personalities for celebrities and fill the celebrity vessel with traits that align with the authors’ desires. The proximity of the celebrity subjects created a number of issues for bandom authors and readers, but became particularly intense in a controversy over some musicians’ performances of “stage gay,” in which the performers groped, kissed, or flirted with one another onstage. This practice stirred controversy because the band members’ perceived support for and sensitivity towards feminist and queer communities was of paramount importance to many bandom participants. Some bandom participants felt validated by these onstage displays of affection, connecting it with the bands’ stated support for gay rights. Others thought that “stage gay” was little more than sexual identity tourism, given that a majority of the musicians were in heteronormative relationships and did not have to face the social consequences of queerness. Questions over what the musicians intended by these actions, coupled with several hurtful comments made by some musicians on Twitter, created a situation in which the accepted “fanon” characteristics of these musicians were threatened by new canonic evidence. The feeling of closeness engendered by social media likely only intensified the sense of disappointment and even betrayal that some in bandom reported.”
-

Hagen, R. (2015). “Bandom Ate My Face”: The Collapse of the Fourth Wall in Online Fan Fiction. Popular Music and Society, 38(1), 44-58.

There is relatively little scholarship on RPF, particularly in light of how popular and controversial the practice is within fandom circles. This paper looks at what happens when RPF meets social media. Focusing on Bandom - one of the first RPF fandoms to really benefit (or suffer?) from the constant flood of new canon via social media - Hagen asks how much canon a fandom can absorb before there are no gaps left in which fannish creativity can flourish.
fanhackers 
january 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Vidding is a form of grassroots filmmaking in...
"Vidding is a form of grassroots filmmaking in which clips from television shows and movies are set..." “Vidding is a form of grassroots filmmaking in which clips from television shows and movies are set to music. The result is called a vid or a songvid. Unlike professional MTV-style music videos, in which footage is created to promote and popularize a piece of music, fannish vidders use music in order to comment on or analyze a set of preexisting visuals, to stage a reading, or occasionally to use the footage to tell new stories. In vidding, the fans are fans of the visual source, and music is used as an interpretive lens to help the viewer to see the source text differently. A vid is a visual essay that stages an argument, and thus it is more akin to arts criticism than to traditional music video. As Margie, a vidder, explained: “The thing I’ve never been able to explain to anyone not in [media] fandom (or to fans with absolutely no exposure to vids) is that where pro music videos are visuals that illustrate the music, songvids are music that tells the story of the visuals. They don’t get that it’s actually a completely different emphasis” (personal communication, October 24, 2006).”
- Women, Star Trek, and the early development of fannish vidding | Francesca Coppa
fanhackers 
january 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • I’ve been trying to think through this kind of...
"I’ve been trying to think through this kind of canon versus fanon kind of thing, and for the longest..." “

I’ve been trying to think through this kind of canon versus fanon kind of thing, and for the longest time I was a “who needs canon” kind of person. We have our archetypes, we have our narratives, and we’ll run with it. And those are the stories I want, and I don’t care whether they are the same stories I’ve read a hundred times, those are the stories I want. But as those stories themselves, as those characters have changed, I’ve realized that it’s not that simple. That I can go and find versions of queerness, but those versions of queerness in fandom will mostly be white queerness. They’re not going to be brown queerness, they’re not going to be black queerness. And that’s something that I’m going to have to rely on canon to center those characters to the point that they cannot be ignored. And that is very very rare.

We’ve now kind of come to the tipping point where how much primacy can a character of color get and still be marginalized in fandom? And you know, it seems like we’ve come to the end of that rope! I don’t think you could have—this is a question I think that a lot of people have kind of been thinking about at the back of their minds. Surely some text will come along where there’s no other option. And we’ve seen that fandom will make the option and it still won’t be black or brown queerness.


- Rukmini Pande, Episode 29 of @fansplaining, “Shipping and Activism.” There are so many things I want to quote from this episode, but this segment in particular was extraordinary in helping me frame my thinking about conflict between fanon, canon, queerness, and race.
(via elizabethminkel)
fanhackers 
january 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Whereas women artists are more likely to extract...
"Whereas women artists are more likely to extract beloved characters out of their favourite manga,..." “Whereas women artists are more likely to extract beloved characters out of their favourite manga, and develop love stories around them, often as beautiful gay boy couplings wholly unrelated to the originals. This approach, called yaoi -yamanashi “no climax,” ochinachi “no punchline,” iminashi “no meaning”- has since given rise to a new commercial genre known as “boys’ love comics.” (Largely simultaneous to yaoi, a similar vein of fan fiction called “slash” has emerged among American science fiction fandom, indicating that this taste is not an isolated phenomenon peculiar to Japanese women, but has a more universal appeal.)”
- Yoshihiro Yonezawa, 2004. Dojinshi as Otaku Expression: The State of Japanese fanzinedoms.
fanhackers 
january 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • However, because permitting — let alone...
"However, because permitting — let alone encouraging — dojinshi runs afoul of copyright law, the..." “

However, because permitting — let alone encouraging — dojinshi runs afoul of copyright law, the agreement remains implicit: The [Japanese] publishers avert their eyes, and the dojinshi creators resist going too far. This anmoku no ryokai [“unspoken, implicit agreement”] business model helps rescue the manga industrial complex in at least three ways.

First, and most obviously, it’s a customer care program. The dojinshi devotees are manga’s fiercest fans. “We’re not denying the viability or importance of intellectual property,” says Kazuhiko Torishima, an executive at the publishing behemoth Shueisha. “But when the numbers speak, you have to listen.”

Second, as Takeda put it at Super Comic City, “this is the soil for new talent.” While most dojinshi creators have no aspirations to become manga superstars, several artists have used the comic markets to springboard into mainstream success. The best example is Clamp, which began as a circle of a dozen college women selling self-published work at comics markets in the Kansai region. Today, Clamp’s members are manga rock stars; they have sold close to 100 million books worldwide.

Third, the anmoku no ryokai arrangement provides publishers with extremely cheap market research. To learn what’s hot and what’s not, a media company could spend lots of money commissioning polls and conducting focus groups. Or for a few bucks it could buy a Super Comic City catalog and spend two days watching 96,000 of its best customers browse, gossip, and buy in real time. These settings often provide early warnings of the shifting fan zeitgeist. For instance, a few years ago several circles that had been creating dojinshi for the series Prince of Tennis switched to Bleach, an indication that one title was falling out of favor and another was on the rise. “The publishers are seeing the market in action,” Ichikawa says. “They’re seeing the successes and the failures. They’re seeing the trends.”

Taking care of customers. Finding new talent. Getting free market research. That’s a pretty potent trio of advantages for any business. Trouble is, to derive these advantages the manga industry must ignore the law. And this is where it gets weird. Unlike, say, an industrial company that might increase profits if it skirts environmental regulations imposed to safeguard the public interest, the manga industrial complex is ignoring a law designed to protect its own commercial interests.


- Japan, Ink: Inside the Manga Industrial Complex | Daniel Pink
fanhackers 
january 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Fan fiction archives can teach information science...
"Fan fiction archives can teach information science about what it means to try to preserve culture in..." “

Fan fiction archives can teach information science about what it means to try to preserve culture in the moment of its unfolding, cultural forms at their peak production levels. Information science understands a lot about preserving cultural objects that are old, that have taken on great significance in the time since their release, but preserving digital culture means archiving texts, images, video, and motion graphics a s they are circulating, when they’re the most relevant, not when they are already relegated to “the past.”

Fan fiction archives led the way in the effort to try to effectively store, and make available, digital cultural works as they were being generated. What archivists of both physical and digital objects share is a need to keep and maintain those objects because they are important, and they are in constant threat of being lost. And digital objects are even more prone to sudden disappearance than physical ones ­­ a hosting company can decide not to host your fan fiction works anymore, or an archivist can “flounce” from their archive and simply shut it down, or a social media platform can opt to delete fanfic stories without notifying anyone, or servers can simply crash.

Fan fiction archivists got into the digital preservation game so early that they definitely encountered all of these dangers and more, and have collectively created many defenses against digital loss and disappearance that all archivists can and should learn from.


- Abigail de Kosnik, in Why Study Fan Archives: An Interview with Abigail De Kosnik (Part One)
fanhackers 
december 2016 by otw_news
Five Things Nele Noppe Said
In FiveThings, Nele Noppe discusses the purpose of Fanhackers, how she got into fan studies & making a difference https://goo.gl/qOnCYK
Five-Things  fanhackers  Academia  Volunteering 
december 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • When asked for the reasons why they fansub, the...
"When asked for the reasons why they fansub, the interviewees all claimed that it provides them a..." “

When asked for the reasons why they fansub, the interviewees all claimed that it provides them a sense of relief or escapism from the daily routine of their lives. Despite the time, energy, and effort that fansubbing requires, fansubbing gave them a sort of “me-time” where they can indulge in their objects of interest and, at the same time, learn more about themselves.

For example, Shiri mentions that one of the rewards of fansubbing for her was that she is able to train herself to be more disciplined and work toward her set goals. She uses the toils and labors of fansubbing to test her limits and measure her strengths, which she notes she can apply to similar activities that require effort and discipline (studies, work, etc.).

Other interviewees also expressed the same idea, claiming that releasing a finished product to the rest of the community is a reward in itself. The act of completing something that took time and effort gives them a sense of achievement.


- Hybrid Identities: Filipino Fansubbers of Japanese Media and Self-Construction | Mizhelle D. Agcaoili
fanhackers 
december 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Fan writing, especially the more highly publicized...
"Fan writing, especially the more highly publicized homoerotic form known as “slash,” has gained a..." “

Fan writing, especially the more highly publicized homoerotic form known as “slash,” has gained a certain rebel mystique. As media conglomerates become ever larger and copyright law expands to curb the free exchange of internet file-sharing, any instance of consumer agency may be interpreted as subversive to corporate control, while stories written by amateur authors and circulated beyond the professional publishing apparatus may appear stridently rebellious.

(…) Implicit assumptions that the content of fan writing meaning fully diverges from the limited set of options provided in mainstream mass media cannot account for fans’ creative work that happily reproduces forms, themes, and content borrowed directly from the mainstream, at times even normalizing conventions, like “benign rape,” which could arguably be termed reactive and regressive. 

Some fan fiction does indeed produce radically transformative and transgressive racial, sexual, and class scenarios, but after living in the same culture as professional writers, fans’ writing cannot be assumed to present a meaningful ideological divergence merely by virtue of its amateur status or provocative appropriation of published characters.


- Domesticating Hermione: The Emergence of Genre and Community from WIKTT (When I Kissed The Teacher)’s Feminist Romance Debates | Anne Kustritz
fanhackers 
december 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Afrofuturism does not stop at merely depicting...
"Afrofuturism does not stop at merely depicting more colorful futures; another important tenet of the..." “Afrofuturism does not stop at merely depicting more colorful futures; another important tenet of the movement is using these depictions of the future as a strong critique of the present, working to make the world we live in better now. By encouraging the reader to challenge these visions of the future—and, in turn, to challenge the society of now that might allow (or prevent) such a future from existing—Afrofuturism does more than just present a diverse future; it works to redress some of the deeply rooted prejudices and biases that exist in society’s present.”
- Racebending fandoms and digital futurism | Elizabeth Gilliland | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
december 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Machinimators have created and distributed tens of...
"Machinimators have created and distributed tens of thousands of fan vids, parodies, satires,..." “

Machinimators have created and distributed tens of thousands of fan vids, parodies, satires, reenactments and original content through online fora in an increasingly complex ecology of technologies and new media. Its influence has been widespread, impacting digital arts, film, new media platforms and even politics through the user-generated co-created and produced content, some of which has been used as ‘pre-production’ for big budget films that have subsequently been realised in mainstream environments such as Hollywood (eg., The Lord of the Rings and Resident Evil).

[Machinima’s] growth in popularity has impacted games developers significantly because it challenges the ways in which they view their intellectual property and the role of their customers (games players) in the creation of commercial value, effectively testing the boundaries between authorship and ownership. In turn, this has resulted in a shift in thinking about the format and framing of end-user license agreements (by eg., Microsoft, EA Games).


- Machinima: A Meme of Our Time | Tracy Harwood
fanhackers 
november 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Star Wars and the legitimisation of fans in...
Star Wars and the legitimisation of fans in fandom-sceptical South East Asia Star Wars and the legitimisation of fans in fandom-sceptical South East Asia:

As films like Star Wars become more prominent, and with the growing importance of Chinese audiences, these kinds of marketing strategies that capitalises on the official and special edition merchandise will become more common. Fans as consumers will be normalised, as rather than participating in practices that often challenge the readings of the text or (Asian) societal norms, consumption advances the capitalist sensibilities of Hollywood studios that produce franchises like Star Wars.
fanhackers 
november 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Rarely are computing systems developed entirely by...
"Rarely are computing systems developed entirely by members of the communities they serve,..." “Rarely are computing systems developed entirely by members of the communities they serve, particularly when that community is underrepresented in computing. Archive of Our Own (AO3), a fan fiction archive with nearly 750,000 users and over 2 million individual works, was designed and coded primarily by women to meet the needs of the online fandom community. Their design decisions were informed by existing values and norms around issues such as accessibility, inclusivity, and identity.”
- An Archive of Their Own: A Case Study of Feminist HCI and Values in Design | Casey Fiesler, Shannon Morrison, and Amy S. Bruckman
fanhackers 
november 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • As noted above, material culture is generally...
"As noted above, material culture is generally limited by money and space (Woo 2014, ¶4.1). This is..." “As noted above, material culture is generally limited by money and space (Woo 2014, ¶4.1). This is not the case for textual productions, because anyone with a computing device, an Internet connection, and network permission to visit a relevant Web site (e.g., Equestria Daily) can find and access them. Thus they belong to no one in particular but rather to the fandom as a whole (Busse and Hellekson 2006, 7). In contrast to Derek Johnson’s argument that assigning authorship to bronies “attributes the creativity of participatory culture to exclusively masculine, adult, and heterosexual identities” (Johnson 2013, 145), I have found that the combination of accessibility and the ambiguity of digital creativity creates a situation in which no one possesses exclusive rights to fan fiction, just as no one owns the show Friendship Is Magic. As a means of participation and expression, fan fiction and digital media allow individuals and groups to explore and renegotiate the MLP source text in a way that has a tangible impact on how the community in general thinks about and draws from pony and its own history.”
- Cuteness, friendship, and identity in the brony community | Theo A. Peck-Suzuki | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
november 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Monster High’s recent ad campaign claims, “We are...
"Monster High’s recent ad campaign claims, “We are monsters. We are proud.” Race,..." “Monster High’s recent ad campaign claims, “We are monsters. We are proud.” Race, ethnicity, and disability are coded into the dolls as selling points. The allure of Monster High is, in part, that political identity and the celebration of difference become consumable. The female body, the racialized body, and the disabled body have long been coded as monstrous. Monster High reclaims this label, queering it.”
- Valuing queer identity in Monster High doll fandom | Sara Mariel Austin | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
november 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • (S)he not only recasts popular fandoms with...
"(S)he not only recasts popular fandoms with diverse characters, but also constructs a new historical..." “(S)he not only recasts popular fandoms with diverse characters, but also constructs a new historical and social narrative within her fan art. Her fan castings not only include a token person of color, but also often say something important about that character’s newly ethnicized background, and how it changes the familiar story now that this background has been included.”
- Racebending fandoms and digital futurism | Elizabeth Gilliland | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
november 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Fans rarely possess equal power with commercial...
"Fans rarely possess equal power with commercial producers. Despite this, SotMK fans co-opt the..." “Fans rarely possess equal power with commercial producers. Despite this, SotMK fans co-opt the space, reconstructing the expected practices of theme park visitors. In fact, while the text of SotMK cannot be changed by fans, the text of the Magic Kingdom is being actively altered. In this way, fans are participating in a process, similar to what Juli Parrish (2013) describes (in reference to fan fiction) as “world building,” or a “process that remakes the place itself” rather than just borrowing pieces of it.”
- Creative choices and fan practices in the transformation of theme park space | Carissa Ann Baker | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
november 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • This problem is especially pernicious in–though as...
"This problem is especially pernicious in–though as the J.K. Rowling/Harry Potter lexicon case..." “This problem is especially pernicious in–though as the J.K. Rowling/Harry Potter lexicon case demonstrates, not limited to–visual media, where the legal cases involving images and questions of fair use have placed far more limited restrictions on what can be done with images as opposed to, say, text. A scholar of a modern or contemporary poet would likely not even think of requesting permission to reprint an entire poem in a scholarly work (because, of, you know, fair use), whereas in, say, comics studies, it has become standard practice for publishers of comics scholarship to demand that authors get express written permission for each and every image to be reproduced, even though a work of scholarship is an obvious example of fair use.”
- Ba Zi, 9c. Fair Use and the Translation Stranglehold
fanhackers 
november 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Syllabi for fan studies classes
Syllabi for fan studies classes Syllabi for fan studies classes:

Great list of syllabi on a wide range of fandom-related topics. Check them out, and add your own if you’re a teacher.
fanhackers 
november 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The kind of literature that fan fiction is did not...
"The kind of literature that fan fiction is did not spring fully formed into being in the 1960s and..." “

The kind of literature that fan fiction is did not spring fully formed into being in the 1960s and 70s, though some journalists still seem to think so. Throughout this book I have been stressing the link, in literary terms, between fan fiction and any other fiction based on a shared canon […]. It is clear from the comments of fan fiction writers like Ika and Belatrix Carter that one major attraction of this genre for writers is the sense of a complicit audience who already share much information with the writer and can be relied on to pick up ironies or allusions without having them spelled out. Writing based on the canons of myth and folklore can do this too, though as Belatrix Carter pointed out in chapter 7, these canons have been so extensively used for so long it is becoming harder to do anything with them that feels original.

But there is another point, implied in Ika’s remark in chapter 2 - ‘What I like about fan fiction is that you can still get that very highly trained audience that can understand very, very complex and allusive things.’ The use of ‘still’ alludes to the undoubted fact that for the traditional canons of myth, Bible, history, and folklore, this “very highly trained” audience is not as reliable as it once was, because the canon information is not as widely shared as it used to be. […] a writer can no longer allude to Lazarus, Circe or Alexander and be reasonably sure that most of his readers have in their heads the thoughts, stories or images for which he was aiming. The human need for heroes and archetypes does not go away, but their faces change with time, and one avatar takes the place of another. Ika’s point is a shrewd one: in an age of fragmented rather than shared cultures the fan fiction audience is unusual in having as thorough a knowledge of its particularly shared canon as a Bible-reading or classically educated audience once did.


- Sheenagh Pugh, The Democratic Genre: Fan Fiction in a Literary Context, p. 219 (via nihilistelektra)
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • A goodwill approach to fan scholarship should take...
"A goodwill approach to fan scholarship should take the time to consider and negotiate fans’..." “A goodwill approach to fan scholarship should take the time to consider and negotiate fans’ privacy concerns and make research findings fully available to fans. Furthermore, goodwill requires what bell hooks would call a “loving critique”: taking the time to analyze, engage with, and question fan texts just as fans do with popular culture texts.”
- Toward a goodwill ethics of online research methods | Brittany Kelley | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The mainstreaming of fandom into millennial...
"The mainstreaming of fandom into millennial culture is a chosen stance of fans to represent their..." “The mainstreaming of fandom into millennial culture is a chosen stance of fans to represent their modes of engagement as more than only niche and subcultural. Fans choose to post about their fan engagement in the public spaces of Tumblr rather than the locked communities and friends-only journals of the late 1990s and early 2000s. They may perceive these fan spaces as intimate publics, as I’ve written about elsewhere, yet they choose to allow for the possibility of visibility, for a default public culture, albeit one with intimate semi-private pockets. Indeed, the social activism of, for example, what some refer to as Tumblr feminism is part of—or at least deeply connected to—this fan performance of fandom as an expansive mode of engagement with something important to share and spread.”
-

Who Are Millennial Fans?: An Interview with Louisa Stein (Part One)

See also @millennialfandom
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • don’t forget- the fssa open house is tomorrow!
don’t forget- the fssa open house is tomorrow!

meeedeee:

fanstudiesosu:

The Fan Studies Student Association fall open house is tomorrow, Monday October 24th, 6-8pm in Denney 311. If you are interested in learning more about what we do & want to meet others who are interested in fans, fanworks, and fan cultures, please join us! This is an informal meet & greet event, so you are welcome to drop in for a few minutes or hang out for the full two hours. Pizza, soda, and fantasy baked goods will be provided. We hope to see you there!

Ohio!
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Understanding that comic book fandom has...
"Understanding that comic book fandom has historically been organized around the physical, tangible..." “Understanding that comic book fandom has historically been organized around the physical, tangible objects of comic books in paper pamphlet form is critical to examining the way technological innovations affect the industry’s future prospects and the relationship between reader and text and any potential shifts in the role comic book stores play in those relationships. Are comic book readers not fans if they collect digital files instead of physical texts, or has this historic boundary shifted as a result of textual digitization? Can one “own” a digital comic book text and, if so, how does this ownership alter the historic boundaries between comic book readers and comic book fans? And how does the locus of fan community shift if texts are no longer primarily distributed through comic book stores?”
- (Re)examining the attitudes of comic book store patrons | Stevens | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Less a form of antisocial (or subsocial) behavior,...
"Less a form of antisocial (or subsocial) behavior, fandom is shown as a way for individuals to..." “Less a form of antisocial (or subsocial) behavior, fandom is shown as a way for individuals to creatively manage, at both the personal and the interpersonal levels, the “rules of play” imposed upon them by a variety of social institutions (economics, education, family, etc.). At least, this is what the episode itself suggests has happened for the protagonists Dean and Sam, who are depicted leaving the fan convention with a new appreciation not only for Supernatural fans, but also (…) for each other.”
- Review of Playing fans: Negotiating fandom and media in the digital age, by Paul Booth | Gregory Steirer | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Corporations no longer need to sue fanfiction...
"Corporations no longer need to sue fanfiction communities; rather than being litigated into..." “Corporations no longer need to sue fanfiction communities; rather than being litigated into submission, authors now give up their rights willingly.”
- Drew Emanuel Berkowitz, Framing the Future of Fanfiction: How The New York Times’ Portrayal of a Youth Media Subculture Influences Beliefs about Media Literacy Education, p205
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Fan fiction archives’ mission is to preserve all...
"Fan fiction archives’ mission is to preserve all fan works for all fans, not to judge which are..." “Fan fiction archives’ mission is to preserve all fan works for all fans, not to judge which are “worth” saving and which are not worthy. Fan critics can debate which fan works, in any given universe, are the “best,” but fan archivists strive to preserve all of the works, as much as they can ­- because they value their fandoms as important and significant living cultural communities, and they feel that every corner of their cultures is worth safeguarding.”
- Abigail de Kosnik, in Why Study Fan Archives: An Interview with Abigail De Kosnik (Part One)
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Social science research has pointed to a gradual...
"Social science research has pointed to a gradual lessening of both homophobia and heteronormativity..." “Social science research has pointed to a gradual lessening of both homophobia and heteronormativity in the United States since the 1970s. That this lessening is mirrored in K/S fan fiction points to the utility of fan fiction as a lens through which to study society. While writers of slash fan fiction might be, on the whole, more accepting of nonheterosexuality than their nonslash-writing peers, these individuals are still clearly influenced by normative cultural expectations. Therefore, a study of slash fan fiction across the decades could also point to changes in how sexual identity is understood, how roles within relationships should be articulated, or even in our understanding of what is sexually pleasurable. Thus, studying changing US norms of gender and sexuality through slash fan fiction is a fruitful—dare I say logical—endeavor.”
- Homophobia, heteronormativity, and slash fan fiction | April S. Callis | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The importance of having an online space to...
"The importance of having an online space to explore identity is perhaps not as clearly defined as..." “The importance of having an online space to explore identity is perhaps not as clearly defined as seeing, say, a blockbuster superhero film helmed by a black actor, or a post-apocalyptic society populated by more than one or two token people of color; however, these spaces still allow unparalleled explorations of self, as well as how that self is defined, in ways that we perhaps do not yet fully understand.”
- Racebending fandoms and digital futurism | Elizabeth Gilliland | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Fan fiction often demonstrates a high level of...
"Fan fiction often demonstrates a high level of knowledge of and insight into its source texts (or..." “Fan fiction often demonstrates a high level of knowledge of and insight into its source texts (or canons, in fan fiction vocabulary) and, as an allusive literary form, rewards equally high levels of knowledge in its readers. This knowledge has an erotic inflection (as, famously, in early English translations of the Bible, where to know is to intimately penetrate); fans have not only understanding but intimacy with their canon, and fan fiction increases this intimacy. Theorists of fan fiction often speak of fan fiction as filling the gaps in a source text, a phrase with its own sexual undertones that also describes fan fiction’s self-assumed role as interlinear glossing of a source text. Silences and absences in the source text act as barriers to intimacy, and fan fiction writers fill these silences with their imaginative activity, enabling their own deeper understanding of the world and characters of the source text. In its current context in popular media fandom, fan fiction is, among other things, a heuristic tool: a mental technology that facilitates understanding of a text by means of an affective hermeneutics—a set of ways of gaining knowledge through feeling.”
- Wilson, Anna. 2016. “The Role of Affect in Fan Fiction.” In “The Classical Canon and/as Transformative Work,” edited by Ika Willis, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 21.http://ift.tt/2c6cCRl.
(via wildehacked)
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The behavior is a blur between punk fashion and...
"The behavior is a blur between punk fashion and commune. Like punks, mass hoarders implicitly..." “The behavior is a blur between punk fashion and commune. Like punks, mass hoarders implicitly critique capitalist values by inventing a playstyle that elevates self-expression, personal goals, and nontraditional desires. But this practice is communally rather than rebelliously focused: they create a mutually supportive subculture in which the profit motive is derailed in favor of a rigorous sense of fairness. Through this combination, the fans turn an app designed to stress profit and acquisition and to minimize personality into a space where both clear identities and fair play can rule. They create pockets of humanity and humane behavior in a digital world where those sentiments were (perhaps intentionally) omitted.”
- Hoarding and community in Star Wars Card Trader | Jeremy Groskopf | Transformative Works and Cultures
fanhackers 
october 2016 by otw_news
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