otw_news + fanhackers   311

Fanhackers • Perhaps most notably, by offering works that...
"Perhaps most notably, by offering works that arguably “push the envelope” more than the works of the..." “Perhaps most notably, by offering works that arguably “push the envelope” more than the works of the formal manga industry, dōjinshi may produce examples of innovation that create new opportunities for the entire industry. Indeed, mainstream manga publishing companies have in the past brought the styles and ideas of “hot” subcultures into their own product lines. New genres fostered by the dōjinshi markets– genres that are often quite risqué – have been at times been adopted by mainstream commercial manga publishers.”

- Mehra, Salil. “Copyright and comics in Japan: Does law explain why all the cartoons my kid watches are Japanese imports.” Rutgers L. Rev. 55 (2002): 155.
fanhackers 
9 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • In the Japanese media system, organized around...
"In the Japanese media system, organized around idols, the consumer is positioned as a fan. For the..." “In the Japanese media system, organized around idols, the consumer is positioned as a fan. For the fan-consumer, the idol as an object of desire is a fantasy or ideal construct, a “mirror” reflection, which resonates with deep affective or emotional meaning.”

- Galbraith and Karlin, Idols and Celebrity in Japanese Media Culture, p2
fanhackers 
22 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Scholars within fan studies have generally...
"Scholars within fan studies have generally maintained, with varying degrees of insistence, that fan..." “Scholars within fan studies have generally maintained, with varying degrees of insistence, that fan texts are collaborative, but our understanding of the mechanics of fan collaboration, especially in vidding, is still incomplete. An ecological model of composition lets us have it both ways; it encourages us to pay attention to both the individual and social aspects of authorship and, perhaps more importantly, to the interactions between them. Studying the ecology within which vidders produce, including the generic and show-specific interpretive conventions that guide audience perception and thus vidder creation, allows us to think in new ways about vidders’ creative processes and the rhetorical work that goes into vidding.”

- Turk, Tisha and Joshua Johnson. 2012. “Toward an Ecology of Vidding.” In “Fan/Remix Video,” edited by Francesca Coppa and Julie Levin Russo, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 9.
fanhackers 
27 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Fan groups that translate anime and manga have had...
"Fan groups that translate anime and manga have had a strong influence on the evolution of commercial..." “Fan groups that translate anime and manga have had a strong influence on the evolution of commercial translation strategies for the medium, and anime clubs and conventions often develop symbiotic ties with industry retailers. As inferred by the terms “group” and “club,” manga and anime consumption is often viewed as a social activity. “Scanlations” (fan-made translations of manga) and “fansubs” (fan-made subtitled anime), which are produced for and distributed among fans, also often entail group effort. This direct involvement by fans in the introduction of the source material into the target culture allows them to be not only consumers but also distributors and producers. Furthermore, commercially translated manga tend to be consumed as overtly foreignized texts, with their readers well aware that they are reading translations, and this encourages the fanbase to appropriate the texts as more than foreign import products, establishing them as cultural possessions in the minds of the fanbase at large.”

- Manga Translation and Interculture | Cathy Sell
fanhackers 
29 days ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • The history of the Star Trek fandom has been...
"The history of the Star Trek fandom has been largely defined by its instances of fan mobilization...." “The history of the Star Trek fandom has been largely defined by its instances of fan mobilization. While the fandom can be said to have come into existence in 1966 with the premier of the first episode of Star Trek, the fandom arguably only truly came into its own when the series was cancelled. As previously discussed, when the original Star Trek series was cancelled in 1968, fans of the series mobilized around a letter writing campaign and “pressure[d] NBC to keep and later return their show to the airways” (Jenkins, as cited by Scardaville, 2005, p.882). Although the show‟s revival lasted only one season, the event marked a turning point for both the Star Trek fandom and for fandoms in general: the success of the letter writing campaign showed that fans can and do have an influence over the decisions producers make – that the power relations between fans and producers are not entirely unilateral. If not the first instance, the letter writing campaign has certainly been the most well documented instance of successful fan mobilization in the history of modern fandoms, and has been the standard for many subsequent fan mobilizations.”

- Devin Beauregard, Cultural Policy in the Digital Age: The Emergence of Fans as Political Agents in Copyright Discourse, p91
fanhackers 
5 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • The task of archiving was once entrusted only to...
"The task of archiving was once entrusted only to museums, libraries, and other institutions that..." “

The task of archiving was once entrusted only to museums, libraries, and other institutions that acted as repositories of culture in material form. But with the rise of digital networked media, a multitude of self-designated archivists—fans, pirates, hackers—have become practitioners of cultural preservation on the Internet. These nonprofessional archivists have democratized cultural memory, building freely accessible online archives of whatever content they consider suitable for digital preservation. In Rogue Archives, Abigail De Kosnik examines the practice of archiving in the transition from print to digital media, looking in particular at Internet fan fiction archives. 

De Kosnik explains that media users today regard all of mass culture as an archive, from which they can redeploy content for their own creations. Hence, “remix culture” and fan fiction are core genres of digital cultural production.



- Rogue Archives: Digital Cultural Memory and Media Fandom | Abigail de Kosnik
fanhackers 
5 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Lecture 3: Early Fan Studies | Lori Morimoto on...
Lecture 3: Early Fan Studies | Lori Morimoto on Patreon Lecture 3: Early Fan Studies | Lori Morimoto on Patreon:

Check out this free Fan Studies lecture on early fan studies by Lori Morimoto! It’s a great overview of some of the works that started fan studies as a discipline. It also puts them in a contemporary context, sketching out how fandom and approaches to studying it have changed since.
fanhackers 
6 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Unlike larger [K-pop] groups with official...
"Unlike larger [K-pop] groups with official Japanese fan clubs, Shin-Okubo idol groups usually..." “Unlike larger [K-pop] groups with official Japanese fan clubs, Shin-Okubo idol groups usually operate on a point card system. Attending each concert usually equals one point (though there are double point days), and purchasing certain merchandise (such as towels or penlights/fanlights) earns extra points. Bringing along a friend for their first concert also earns an extra point, which cultivates fan labor. As the points accumulate various benefits are awarded, often culminating with a rare option like the 5 minute date [with an idol] (say, after 50 points).”

-

‘Benefits’ and Labor – K-pop Fandom in Tokyo Beyond the Major Groups | Miranda Larsen

Part of a longer series about K-pop fandom that’s very much worth checking out.
fanhackers 
6 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Serialized stories encourage discussion and...
"Serialized stories encourage discussion and analysis. There is plenty of evidence of Victorian..." “Serialized stories encourage discussion and analysis. There is plenty of evidence of Victorian “reading groups,” where friends and families would come together to read aloud the latest installments of a favorite tale, and of book exchanges, where a single pamphlet would make it round an entire community. This impulse to share and discuss parallels the way a new chapter of a popular fic will be consumed and dissected by its readers on platforms like Tumblr.”

- @carolinecrampton on the history of serialized fiction and today’s fic WIPs (via fansplaining)
fanhackers 
7 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • While they received a lot of hostility and hate...
"While they received a lot of hostility and hate posts, the Brony audience did not respond to the..." “While they received a lot of hostility and hate posts, the Brony audience did not respond to the trolls in kind.  As with many internet groups, the Brony audience used catchphrases and memes such as “welcome to the herd” or “confound those ponies” to express their adherence to the audience and develop its culture. And during the ‘pony wars’ one meme in particular exploded in popularity and usage: “love and tolerate” (Fig 3.). Memes are an important part of an internet group as “they come to us framed by specific histories of use and meaning, and are products of specific ideological struggles,” [17] so the use of this particular meme as the Bronies’ main weapon and response to their ‘haters’ reveals how this audience was developing and creating its own identity during this time of tension and conflict.”

- A brief history of the 4chan ‘pony wars’, Claire Burdfield
fanhackers 
8 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • While role-play does offer therapeutic benefits,...
"While role-play does offer therapeutic benefits, the recent actions of Tumblr users show fans of..." “While role-play does offer therapeutic benefits, the recent actions of Tumblr users show fans of certain narratives moving beyond the need to improve one’s own relation to the world. Rather than the world serving the individual, the individual in these cases serves the world by allowing her– or himself to be swept up in play. A major part of this transindividual work is the acknowledgment that world building and narrative is an unpredictable activity: role players do not control their muses or seek to do so. In celebrating this loss of control, the player also opens him– or herself up to other players’ needs and strengths while navigating a scene.”

-

Howard, K. Shannon. 2017. “Surrendering Authorial Agency and Practicing Transindividualism in Tumblr’s Role-play Communities.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 25.

In this paper, Shannon Howard examines role-play on Tumblr as a hybrid between fan fiction and gaming. She compares it to other kinds of role-play, for instance tabletop and live action gaming, video games, or even online role-play on platforms like LiveJournal. She argues that Tumblr role-play is different, in part because of the technical features Tumblr offers as a platform. On LiveJournal, for instance, a user is in complete control of the interactions that happen on their account: they make posts, they pick or design the journal style, they may choose to engage with comments, but equally they may also delete comments. Tumblr’s features allow for a more porous relationship between accounts, players, and characters as interactions may be reblogged and added to, and no single individual is in complete control of the process. Howeard uses the framework of transindividualism to argue that Tumblr role-play is significantly different to other kinds of role-play as it is much less focused on the individual and more focused on the collaborative creatiion of a narrative.
fanhackers 
8 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Currently, the structure of fansubbing...
"Currently, the structure of fansubbing distribution is highly decentralized and  difficult  to..." “Currently, the structure of fansubbing distribution is highly decentralized and  difficult  to  coordinate.  In  peer-to-peer  file  sharing,  there  are  no  central organizations  but  rather  multiple  –  very  transient  –  global  networks  among individual file sharers. With such a structure, it might be hard for fansubbers and their users to reach a new consensus on their ethics: many fansubbers even feel that the field is too decentralized and globalized to be called a ‘commu-
nity’.”

-  Lee, Hye-Kyung. 2011. “Cultural Consumer and Copyright: A Case Study of Anime Fansubbing.” Creative Industries Journal 3 (3):237–252.  
fanhackers 
9 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • The provision of “official” GIFs also demonstrates...
"The provision of “official” GIFs also demonstrates that controlling what is provided and how it is..." “

The provision of “official” GIFs also demonstrates that controlling what is provided and how it is accessed is a key concern for many media rights holders. This control extends to developing specific settings for GIF engagement. Content providers like Disney and Viacom have launched their own branded keyboards in addition to hosting their own GIF channels on Giphy. Smartphone apps like the RuPaul’s Drag Race Keyboard App offer GIFs (and custom emoji) specific to a particular show. Snaps, the developer of the Drag Race app, has also produced similar commercial keyboards for shows including Mr. Robot, Portlandia, and Broad City. According to Snaps executive Austin Bone, these keyboards are a way for media properties to “empower” their fans (…).

Such “empowerment” is a lucrative endeavor. On top of inserting branded content into private conversations—an arguable advertising success in its own right—a keyboard app provides brands with valuable metrics, including realtime tracking of how many conversations are happening using the app, what content is being used the most frequently within those conversations, and by whom. These keyboards help brands achieve the holy grail of branded advertising: a multi-layered commodification of affect on the most intimate level.



- Miltner, K. M., & Highfield, T. (2017). Never Gonna GIF You Up: Analyzing the Cultural Significance of the Animated GIF. Social Media Society, 3(3), 1-11.
fanhackers 
10 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Fan Studies Network Australasia Inaugural...
Fan Studies Network Australasia Inaugural Conference 2017 (with images, tweets) · bertha_c Fan Studies Network Australasia Inaugural Conference 2017 (with images, tweets) · bertha_c:

Check out this great storify of tweets from the first Fan Studies Network conference in Australia. The full program of fan studies goodness is here.
fanhackers 
11 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Freedom is a slippery concept, especially when it...
"Freedom is a slippery concept, especially when it comes to digital media. When we think about..." “Freedom is a slippery concept, especially when it comes to digital media. When we think about questions of copyright and digital ownership through cultural theft, freedom from domination lines up with freedom from having to pay—at least on the surface. Theft, piracy, and the commons are all concerned with getting things for free, and current configurations of online media and culture are hospitable to their insurrectionary modes of ownership.”

- Lothian, Alexis. Living in a Den of Thieves: Fan Video and Digital Challenges to Ownership. Cinema Journal 48.4, Summer 2009. 130-136.
fanhackers 
11 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • fffinnagain: Lost Works and Posting Rates on...
fffinnagain:
Lost Works and Posting Rates on fanfiction.net and...
fffinnagain:

Lost Works and Posting Rates on fanfiction.net and Archive of Our Own

Recently, I posted an analysis of these two large fanfiction archives using work numbers (nodes) to get a sense of how active they have been over the years. Investigations since I’ve discovered how different these node counts are from the works CURRENTLY available in these archives.

In Red and Green above are the number of nodes assigned per month in each archive, going back to 2001 for Fanfiction.net and to AO3’s beginning in 2009. These nodes are assigned to each new work, or (on AO3) each new saved draft on the archive. The Blue and Yellow are estimates of the works currently in each archive from these past times, hence, works surviving.

Not only is the gap between Nodes and Surviving Works very big, it is shaped totally different for these two archives. To see this directly, here is the percentage of nodes with works currently in the archives, by month.

If we are going to compare fan activity on these archives from these data, Nodes and Current works, we need to get a better sense of what is going on. Below I get into the details of where these numbers come from, their historical context, and justify my interpretations, but here are the main points fanfiction readers might want to know:

Fanfiction.net has lost a lot of posted works over the years, up to 70% of those posted before 2003.

The proportion of works removed from fanfiction.net has gone down to ~20% since 2016

While some loss of works is to be expected, this amount of works removed over time suggests active curation by the FFN community and staff.

On AO3, the proportion works removed, or drafted but never posted is probably around 20%.

AO3 has a spam problem, with non-fan agents flooding the archives with fake works.

AO3 outpaced FFN in terms of works being posted to these archives in 2015 (as suggested in previous analysis) in the middle of messy part of the plot at the top.

In 2019, AO3 could reach FFN’s past peak posting rate of ~3500 fanworks per day.

So where are all the fanworks? 

Did they disapeare or did they never exist in the first place?

Find out under the read more, where I also explain these numbers, how I reached these conclusions, and some historical explanations for the changes over time.

I’ll also try to add corrections there, if new information comes to light.

Keep reading
fanhackers 
11 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • These questions give us the opportunity to rethink...
"These questions give us the opportunity to rethink how we understand the emergence and spread of..." “These questions give us the opportunity to rethink how we understand the emergence and spread of distinctive cultural forms as something other than a game of “follow the money.” Instead, we need to follow the activity, the energy, the commitment of those who care, starting with what is most meaningful to them. Anime is instructive because it reveals the centrality of a kind of social energy that emerges in the space between people and media. For me, the soul of anime does not point to some ultimate, internal essence of the media as an object. Rather, the soul of anime points to this social energy that arises from our collective engagements through media, and as such, it gives us an alternative way to think about what is of value in media.”
- Condry, Ian. The soul of anime: collaborative creativity and Japan’s media success story. Durham, N.C.: Duke Univ. Press, 2013.
fanhackers 
12 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • The rise of the Internet also meant that Comike...
"The rise of the Internet also meant that Comike lost its monopoly as the center of otaku and..." “The rise of the Internet also meant that Comike lost its monopoly as the center of otaku and dōjinshi culture. Nevertheless, Comike remained the most important event for Japanese fans, especially after companies with otaku-related products started to exploit it. Firms had been interested in Comic Market for decades as a never-ending pool of promising new talent and as a place to exploit them commercially, and they were willing to pay much money for direct access to these masses of otaku. Starting with NEC in the summer of 1995, companies were granted exhibition space to market or to sell their newest products. This was the birth of the dealer booth at Comike, and, as with dōjinshi circles, the number of applicant companies was much higher than that of available spaces: a self-sustaining event with such high attendance was too important for any related company to ignore. Companies accepted the existence of unlicensed parody dōjinshi using copyrighted material (albeit in a transformative and thus arguably fair-use manner) since they could now sell exclusive goods at Comike or use it as a marketing place, attracting to the convention people who were not interested indōjinshi.”
- Fan-Yi Lam, Comic Market: How the World’s Biggest Amateur Comic Fair Shaped Japanese Dōjinshi Culture, p240
fanhackers 
12 weeks ago by otw_news
Fanhackers • Imaginactivism is—perhaps self-evidently—a...
"Imaginactivism is—perhaps self-evidently—a compound word made up of Imagine and Activism, but..." “Imaginactivism is—perhaps self-evidently—a compound word made up of Imagine and Activism, but intended to connote the process relationship between imagining and acting to make change in the world. The coinage is intended to signal a positive and effective relationship between creating and sharing visions of a better world that is possible and being moved by those visions to take practical action. It also suggests that we value imagining and imagination as an active process of crafting a vision that is a necessary precursor to worldly action, and sharing it with and in a community of ideas. The temporality of that relationship might work differently; our shared visions might emerge from the actions we take, or they might co-emerge or be co-created, but the important point is that we don’t regard the practice of imagining as simply escape or retreat from the world.”
- Joan Haran (2017): Instantiating Imaginactivism: Le Guin’s The Dispossessed as Inspiration. Ada: A Journal of Gender, New Media, and Technology, No. 12. http://ift.tt/2z8ivsl
fanhackers 
november 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • As demonstrated above, the norms of print...
"As demonstrated above, the norms of print publishing above all else value public access: public..." “As demonstrated above, the norms of print publishing above all else value public access: public publishing, public circulation, public market through public buying and public selling, public reading, public engagement. The average fan text flouts these norms, whether because print zines are sold literally “under the table” at conventions or because fan works are posted to member-only online communities. The meaning of the word publish, “to issue text for sale or distribution to the public,” derives from its etymological root, which means “people.” This raises a deceptively simple question that has long dogged historians of women’s writing: What does it mean to be “published”? Historically, the difference between manuscript publishing and print publishing has rested on the insularity of the intended audience in the private sphere and the public acts associated with the public sphere.”
-

Coker, Catherine. 2017. “The Margins of Print? Fan Fiction as Book History.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 25.

In case you missed it, Cait Coker discusses fan fiction, the OTW, and this paper in a recent guest post for the OTW.
fanhackers 
november 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • In this sense, therefore, the informal practices...
"In this sense, therefore, the informal practices of fan culture appear uniquely compatible with a..." “

In this sense, therefore, the informal practices of fan culture appear uniquely compatible with a free and open culture in which participation in the processes of creation is unhindered by institutional or legal means.

More recent research into fan practice—particularly in relation to gaming—has nevertheless complicated the strict boundaries this “folk” imagery implies between fan and corporate production in a digital age. (…) Fans have thus been repeatedly conceptualized as the vanguard of new economies based in open, participatory cultural production.

But the fan-programmers behind Dominion War—just like those behind Gundam Century, Open Rebellion, and others—embraced hierarchy, closure, and proprietary creativity at the same time as they experimented with production logics outside of copyright control. As a case study, Dominion War complicates this equation of fan practice with free culture by pointing to negotiated transitions between closed commodity culture and open, peer-to-peer collaboration. While this TC did bear potential for ongoing, collectively intelligent cultural production, it also operated by upholding corporate hierarchies, privatized ownership, and monopolies of culture that thwarted the processual realization of that potential.


- Derek Johnson, StarCraft Fan Craft: Game Mods, Ownership, and Totally Incomplete Conversions, p53
fanhackers 
november 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • In discussing the idol system in Japan, we tend to...
"In discussing the idol system in Japan, we tend to think of the idol as a performer who is produced..." “In discussing the idol system in Japan, we tend to think of the idol as a performer who is produced by a talent agency and lends his/her image to the promotion of goods and services. However, as Bruno Latour (2005) argues, a better approach perhaps is to consider agency as distributed across a network of actors that all contribute to how interactions take place. That is, idols not only promote the sale of goods and services, but actually are produced by the goods and services that they sell. Rather than idols selling products, we have a system of commodities that is selling idols. By focusing on the idol alone, one loses sight of the network of relations that go into producing the idol. We falsely assume that agencies produce idols to perform on television or some other media stage, but the capitalist system too needs idols to advertise the products that it produces. The idol, then, is but a node in the network of the capitalist system of commodities that links producers to consumers.”
- Galbraith and Karlin, Idols and Celebrity in Japanese Media Culture, p8
fanhackers 
november 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The New York Times validates the literary merit of...
"The New York Times validates the literary merit of fanfiction writing. Articles assure parents that..." “The New York Times validates the literary merit of fanfiction writing. Articles assure parents that their children’s dwindling literacies are simply being replaced by equally viable alternatives: their children are not reading and writing less, they are simply reading and writing differently. Fanfiction is framed as a healthy literacy practice, employed by local kids in public libraries (Aspan 2007; Warren 2011).”
- Drew Emanuel Berkowitz, Framing the Future of Fanfiction: How The New York Times’ Portrayal of a Youth Media Subculture Influences Beliefs about Media Literacy Education, p204
fanhackers 
november 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • This very brief analysis of the history of German...
"This very brief analysis of the history of German fan fiction, as well as the results of our cursory..." “This very brief analysis of the history of German fan fiction, as well as the results of our cursory comparison of the exclusively German-language archive FanFiktion.de and the international Archive of Our Own, suggest that fandoms, fan practices, and fannish affections are complex and heterogeneous. Generalizing assumptions about an (imagined) unity in a specific fan fiction community are highly questionable. There is not, for example, a single Harry Potter fan fiction community but rather numerous ones that differ in their sets of rules, the socialization and education of their members, and the popularity of certain characters, pairings, tropes, or genres. In addition, political, historical, economic, and legal factors influence a national fan fiction history.”
- Cuntz-Leng, Vera, and Jacqueline Meintzinger. 2015. “A Brief History of Fan Fiction in Germany.” In “European Fans and European Fan Objects: Localization and Translation,” edited by Anne Kustritz, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 19.
fanhackers 
november 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • By revising contemporary narratives of both book...
"By revising contemporary narratives of both book history and fan history, we can reread..." “By revising contemporary narratives of both book history and fan history, we can reread women’s work in the literary and book trades from the seventeenth and the twenty-first centuries as a function of operating with and subverting patriarchal norms of literary production. In other words, the more things change, the more they stay the same.”
- Coker, Catherine. 2017. “The Margins of Print? Fan Fiction as Book History.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 25.
fanhackers 
october 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • If Whedon received scrutiny due to his feminist...
"If Whedon received scrutiny due to his feminist stance, and was limited by a studio system..." “If Whedon received scrutiny due to his feminist stance, and was limited by a studio system apparently reluctant to engage with gender representation, George Miller was comparatively unconstrained. One may expect a film concerned with male control and female autonomy would be scrutinised for having an all-male writing team, however Fury Road avoided this. (…) Issues of franchise and audience expectation are also relevant: both films were anticipated returns of popular franchises, but arguably Fury Road did not have the ‘baggage’ of incredibly high audience expectation, and the pressure of contributing to an expansive ‘super franchise’. Moreover, the Mad Max franchise is typically considered ‘masculinist’ escapist fantasy, leading to the presumption of a smaller female audience, as well as lowering expectations of female representation, thus creating favourable conditions for a ‘surprise’ feminist film. Seemingly, Whedon’s activism and feminist concerns added to the aforementioned ‘baggage’ making outright critical and fan praise potentially unachievable. Hence, if Whedon’s feminism clashed with Marvel’s sexism, creating ambiguity which invites criticism, Miller’s high-octane tale of emancipation paired with its legitimising feminist consultancy, suffered no such issues.”
-

ROWSON, Emily. 2017. ‘We Are Not Things’: Infertility, Reproduction, and Rhetoric of Control in Avengers: Age of Ultron and Mad Max: Fury Road. Networking Knowledge: Journal of the MeCCSA Postgraduate Network, 10(3) pp. 57-70.

Mad Max: Fury Road and Avengers: Age of Ultron were both released in 2015. MMFR was lauded by feminists (while upsetting “Men’s Rights Activists”) for its exploration of issues of bodily autonomy, while Ultron faced a much colder reception and was critised in particular for its treatment of Black Widow’s infertility. In this paper, Emily Rowson looks beyond the fan and audience reaction to these movies. She combines three different kinds of analysis. She takes into account the audience reception of the films. She also performs a close reading of the feminist themes in both movies. Finally, she looks at the role of the director (and particularly the director as auteur) in shaping both the film and the audience’s expectations of it. Ultimately she argues that MMFR perhaps wasn’t as feminist as we would like to think, while Ultron was somewhat hard done by. This paper may be a good opportunity to revisit both films to see what you think. (Or to watch cars explode in the desert. That’s good too.)
fanhackers 
october 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • One of the most important goals that Fan Studies...
"One of the most important goals that Fan Studies can achieve as a discipline is to record watershed..." “One of the most important goals that Fan Studies can achieve as a discipline is to record watershed moments in online cultural history that often pass under the notice of more mainstream analysis.”
- Hemmann, Kathryn. 2017. Anime Fan Communities: Transcultural Flows and Frictions, by Sandra Annett [book review]. Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 25.
fanhackers 
october 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • I was once told that book history is not...
"I was once told that book history is not applicable to the study of fan fiction as, “by..." “I was once told that book history is not applicable to the study of fan fiction as, “by definition,” such writing is not disseminated in book form—that is, as a printed codex.”
- Coker, Catherine. 2017. “The Margins of Print? Fan Fiction as Book History.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 25.
fanhackers 
october 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Although Disney has yet to feature a queer female...
"Although Disney has yet to feature a queer female heroine in its fairy tale canon, that does not..." “Although Disney has yet to feature a queer female heroine in its fairy tale canon, that does not deter queer Disney femslash fans from poaching Disney texts in order to create fairy tales that legitimise their place in society. Through poaching, cutting, and splicing female characters from Disney’s animated canon, these Sapphic fans are re-joining Disney’s conservative silence with boundless creativity. In these new Disney fairy tales queer identities are no longer monstrous but commonplace, normal, and utterly human. So long as Walt Disney Studios remains silent on queer female representation in their animated films, the femslash fandom will continue to camp outside the Magic Kingdom’s gates.”
- Maier, Kodi (2017) Camping Outside the Magic Kingdom’s Gates: The Power of Femslash in the Disney Fandom. Networking Knowledge: Journal of the MeCCSA Postgraduate Network 10(3), p. 27-43.
fanhackers 
october 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Issues of class, combined with issues of academic...
"Issues of class, combined with issues of academic disciplines, create a scholarly void where no one..." “Issues of class, combined with issues of academic disciplines, create a scholarly void where no one asks what fan fictions do that distinguishes them from other genres (Gray 2003). Instead, scholarship fixates on the acts of writers and the responding acts of readers, deftly avoiding horrifying h/c [hurt/comfort]’s unsavory content. In doing so, unique and inventive attributes of the genre are overlooked.”
- Linn, Rachel. 2017. “Bodies in Horrifying Hurt/Comfort Fan Fiction.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 25.
fanhackers 
october 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • DIYHistory | Transcribe | Hevelin Fanzines
DIYHistory | Transcribe | Hevelin Fanzines DIYHistory | Transcribe | Hevelin Fanzines:

What an awesome opportunity for fans to get involved with the preservation of fannish materials and with fan studies research!
fanhackers 
october 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Fanfiction is acting on media in at least two...
"Fanfiction is acting on media in at least two ways. By infrastructuring communities and publics,..." “Fanfiction is acting on media in at least two ways. By
infrastructuring communities and publics, authors, read-
ers and platform runners build up (own) communicative
and (quasi-)material spaces for circulating, sharing and
archiving the stories they want to write and read, for
the stories they cannot find in official canon productions.
By doing fanfiction, whether it is their intention or not,
they also question the existing political-juridical condi-
tions which frame transformative working and publish-
ing of derivative material. Fanfiction challenges preva-
lent concepts of individual authorship and proprietary of
cultural goods.”
-

Reißmann, W., Stock, M., Kaiser, S., Isenberg, V., & Nieland, J. U. (2017). Fan (fiction) acting on media and the politics of appropriation. Media and Communication, 5(3), 15-27.

This article uses the concept of “acting on media” to look at fannish activities. Acting on media is the idea that some media consumers (for instance activists, special interest groups, etc.) not only consume media or even contribute to things like social media sites - they actively shape media infrastructures and environments. Reißmann et al. find that fans do this in two ways: we actively build our own infrastructures (like the AO3) or appropriate and shape existing infrastructures for our own ends. Remeber what Maciej Cegłowski (the Pinboard Guy) said about the fannish migration from del.icio.us to Pinboard? That’s acting on media. Equally, through our sheer stubbornness and insistance in being allowed to create and share transformative works, we also ask all sorts of uncomfortable questions about who owns culture, who gets to be an author, and why.
fanhackers 
october 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Theme parks function as storytelling...
"Theme parks function as storytelling devices—material interfaces simultaneously engaging multiple..." “Theme parks function as storytelling devices—material interfaces simultaneously engaging multiple senses to immerse visitors in a variety of story worlds.”
- Godwin, Victoria. 2017. “Theme Park as Interface to the Wizarding (Story) World of Harry Potter.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 25.
fanhackers 
october 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Asked about his group’s goals, he [Daniel, the...
"Asked about his group’s goals, he [Daniel, the founder of LEGO fan group Schwabenstein 2x4]..." “Asked about his group’s goals, he [Daniel, the founder of LEGO fan group Schwabenstein 2x4] says, “The fact that LEGO is art and culture has not yet sunk in with people. And that is why I consider it important and the right thing to do that we founded this association, in order to make people aware of the fact that Lego is not just a toy, it is a means to transform your thoughts into buildings” (translated by S. E.).”
- Einwächter, Sophie Gwendolyn, and Felix M. Simon. 2017. “How Digital Remix and Fan Culture Helped the Lego Comeback.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 25.
fanhackers 
october 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • It requires a certain cultural expertise and...
"It requires a certain cultural expertise and freedom to be able to arrange cultural fragments..." “It requires a certain cultural expertise and freedom to be able to arrange cultural fragments skilfully to new ends. This is reflected in The LEGO Movie, where the most prestigious characters are so-called masterbuilders, people who have the actual ideas for new arrangements and who can build their own creations (MOCs) without instructions. Interestingly, the crime of the film’s villain consists of gluing Lego bricks together so they can no longer be used by someone else or for different purposes. The narrative can thus be read alongside popular critiques of copyright like the one undertaken by Lawrence Lessig (2008) in his book Remix where he states that cultural production has always depended on the usage of existing material and that current copyright and trademark legislations increasingly hinder cultural participation. The glue in the Lego film’s narrative can thus be interpreted as a copyright not flexible enough for creative and out-of-the-box-thinking, a threat to the masterbuilders of our culture. While subtly criticizing a copyright not fit for the digital age of remixing, The LEGO Movie pays homage to older media and to the tangibility of Lego bricks through analog cues.”
- Einwächter, Sophie Gwendolyn, and Felix M. Simon. 2017. “How Digital Remix and Fan Culture Helped the Lego Comeback.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 25.
fanhackers 
october 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The collective nature of the event, with thousands...
"The collective nature of the event, with thousands of players convening on one digital space, has a..." “The collective nature of the event, with thousands of players convening on one digital space, has a disruptive effect on the gameplay of others, analogous to that of a sit-in or blockade…Players who are not aware of the event are often surprised as a large group of gnomes runs through their area; sometimes they join the event out of curiosity and learn about the charity cause along the way.”
- Collister, Lauren B. 2017. “Transformative (H)activism: Breast Cancer Awareness and the World of Warcraft Running of the Gnomes.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 25.
fanhackers 
october 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • New fan studies research post coming next week
New fan studies research post coming next week

We have to skip a week with our list of new/recent fan studies research because we’re experiencing technical issues. Apologies for the inconvenience!
fanhackers 
september 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • [T]his essay (…) forwards an initial rereading of...
"[T]his essay (…) forwards an initial rereading of the Superman origin story as influenced by..." “[T]his essay (…) forwards an initial rereading of the Superman origin story as influenced by my own experiences of transitioning genders. Within the world of comics, an origin story typically refers to a canonized account that explains how a hero or group of heroes came into being. The assumption that one may be able to precisely locate the moment or moments during which the superhero identity began to take shape may ring familiar to trans readers, who may similarly be asked to continually locate the origins of their own gender identities—the presumption being, of course, that cis persons are not usually asked the question ‘When did you know?’ While the textual examples used in this article in some way entertain the idea that a point of origin is possible to locate, I wish to show how these narratives are perhaps the most malleable to reinterpret from a trans reading position given the overlapping and persistent preoccupation with locating identity within a specific temporal boundary.”
-

Vena, Dan. 2017. “Rereading Superman as a Trans F/Man.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 25.

Dan Vena’s essay intertwines his experience as a trans man and trans fan with his reading and “transing” of Superman, as well as theories of comic books, superheroes, and gender. His rereading of Superman as a trans character allows him to ask questions about ideas of boyhood, masculinity, and becoming a man - for both trans and cis men. Vena’s personal narrative of his experiences of transition and his relationship with SUperman as a fan object is a running theme throughout the essay, making it a very accessible piece of scholarship.
fanhackers 
september 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Contemporary fan fiction is overwhelmingly digital...
"Contemporary fan fiction is overwhelmingly digital in both publication and dissemination; it has..." “Contemporary fan fiction is overwhelmingly digital in both publication and dissemination; it has never been easier to access this subculture of writers and writing. However, fan fiction in print has likewise never been so accessible, as a slew of recent popular novels proudly proclaim their fannish origins and make claims such as “More Than 2 Million Reads Online—FIRST TIME IN PRINT!” Further, traditional fannish mores insist that fan work should never be done for profit, and yet numerous print works adapted from fan fiction have become best sellers. I would like to problematize how we consider form and content in both creation and reception, how the popular value of work waxes and wanes in relation to its fan fiction status. In other words, how can we read fan fiction as part of a continuum of historical publication practices by women, and problematize our hierarchies of value between print and digital?”
- Coker, Catherine. 2017. “The Margins of Print? Fan Fiction as Book History.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 25.
fanhackers 
september 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Beginning with a general overview of the...
"Beginning with a general overview of the historical roots of slash fan fiction and its theoretical..." “

Beginning with a general overview of the historical roots of slash fan fiction and its theoretical interest to feminist and gender studies scholars, we posit three waves in the relationship between slash and queer culture:

1. Initial woman-centric slash that consciously used male protagonists and male bodies to envision ideal relationships and fantasise about sexual experimentation, often within deeply committed romantic relationships.

2. A politically self-aware movement towards realism that confronted these fantasy men not only with the realities of male bodies and sexualities, but also with the cultural realities of gay lives.

3. Slash fiction that is deeply embedded within a self-defined queer space, neither fantastically creating nor idealising yet othering gay men, but rather writing multiple genders and sexualities as both reflections and fantasies of the complexly diverse community of readers and writers.


-

Busse, K. and Lothian, A. (2018). “A history of slash sexualities: Debating queer sex, gay politics and media fan cultures”. In Smith, C., Attwood, F. and McNair, B. (Eds.) The Routledge Companion to Media, Sex and Sexuality. Oxon: Routledge.

This is a really neat essay that returns to and updates for the 21st century what I jokingly refer to as the Foundational Question of Fan Studies: why do straight women write about men banging? The breakdown into the three waves is a useful structure both for those who’ve been kicking around slash fandom forever and for those of us who joined somewhere along the way. Busse and Lothian back up their analysis with a range of examples of fan fiction from all three waves, and “which of these have I read” is a fun game to play with this essay.
fanhackers 
september 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • New fan studies research - September 19th, 2017
New fan studies research - September 19th, 2017

A weekly list of new/recent fan studies research that’s just been added to the Fan Studies Bibliography. Works are divided into things that are open access (=immediately readable for anyone) and not open access (=behind a paywall or not yet public).

Also make sure to check out the new issue of Transformative Works and Cultures that just came out-individual articles will be included in next week’s update.

If we missed anything or made a mistake, submit a correction and we’ll fix it in next week’s edition. Happy reading!

Open access:

Andò, Romana. 2017. “Girls and the Media: Girlhood Studies Agenda and Prospects in Italy.” Issue: Gender/Sexuality/Italy, 4 (2017). http://ift.tt/2hipQxI

Marjuni, Nasrum, and Andi Bungawati. 2017. “The Perception of Makassar’s Teenagers toward Korean Drama and Music (Case Study on Makassar Korean Lovers Community).” English and Literature Journal 2 (01): 66–80. http://ift.tt/2hgHuFO

Morimoto, Lori. 2017. “‘First Principles’: Hannibal, Affective Economy, and Oppositionality in Fan Studies.” http://ift.tt/2hipR4K

Sieders, Kimberley Johanna Arendina. 2017. “Make Campaigning Great Again: Fan’s Appropriation of the Mythology of Drumpf’s 2016 Presidential Campaign.” MA thesis. http://ift.tt/2hf48hQ

Vojtíšková, Tereza. 2017. “The South Korean Body Factory: Celebrity Culture, Mass Media and Cosmetic Surgery.” BA thesis, Empire State College. http://ift.tt/2hipSpk

Not open access:

Biggin, Rose. 2017. “Fan Interactivity: Communicating Immersive Experience.” In Immersive Theatre and Audience Experience, 97–112. Springer. http://ift.tt/2heCWzV

Chen, Lu. 2017. Chinese Fans of Japanese and Korean Pop Culture: Nationalistic Narratives and International Fandom. Routledge. http://ift.tt/2hipTto

Hutchinson, Jonathon. 2017. “Alternative Forms of Participation in Media Organizations.” In Cultural Intermediaries, 175–200. Springer. http://ift.tt/2hfTQ1d

Jang, Won ho, and Jung Eun Song. 2017. “The Influences of K-Pop Fandom on Increasing Cultural Contact: With the Case of Philippine Kpop Convention, Inc.” 지역사회학 18: 29–56. http://ift.tt/2hipU0q
fanhackers 
september 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • TWC No. 25 is published
TWC No. 25 is published

transformativeworksandcultures:

Table of Content

Editorial
Editor, Copyright and Open AccessTheory
Catherine Coker, The margins of print? Fan fiction as book history
E. J. Nielsen, Christine de Pizan’s The Book of the City of Ladies as reclamatory fan work
Lesley Autumn Willard, From co-optation to commission: A diachronic perspective on the development of fannish literacy through Teen Wolf’s Tumblr promotional campaigns
Shannon Howard, Surrendering authorial agency and practicing transindividualism in Tumblr’s role-play communities
Milena Popova, “When the RP gets in the way of the F”: Star Image and intertextuality in real person(a) fiction
Dan Vena, Rereading Superman as a trans f/manPraxis
Lauren B. Collister, Transformative (h)activism: Breast cancer awareness and the World of Warcraft Running of the Gnomes
Ludi Price and Lyn Robinson, Fan fiction in the library
Rachel Elizabeth Linn, Bodies in horrifying hurt/comfort fan fiction: Paying the toll
Victoria Godwin, Theme park as interface to the wizarding (story) world of Harry Potter
Sophie Gwendolyn Einwächter amd Felix M. Simon, How digital remix and fan culture helped the Lego comeback
Seth M. Walker, Subversive drinking: Remixing copyright with free beerSymposium
Kevin D. Ball, Fan labor, speculative fiction, and video game lore in the Bloodborne community
Babak Zarin, “Can I take your picture?“—Privacy in cosplay
Kelli Marshall, Milk and mythology in Singin’ in the Rain
Liza Potts, A case of Sherlockian identity: Irregulars, feminists, and millennialsReview
Bethan Jones, Post-object fandom: Television, identity and self-narrative, by Rebecca Williams
Amanda D. Odom, Role playing materials, by Rafael Bienia
Kathryn Hemmann, Anime fan communities: Transcultural flows and frictions, by Sandra Annett
Sandra Annett, Boys love manga and beyond: History, culture, and community in Japan, edited by Mark McLelland et al.Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC), ISSN 1941-2258, is an online-only Gold Open Access publication of the nonprofit Organization for Transformative Works. TWC is a member of DOAJ. Contact the Editor with questions.
fanhackers 
september 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • But in the middle of the decade, one manga and its...
"But in the middle of the decade, one manga and its anime not only saved dōjinshi fandom from near..." “

But in the middle of the decade, one manga and its anime not only saved dōjinshi fandom from near extinction but was responsible for its biggest boom yet. Takahashi Yōichi’s Captain Tsubasa (1981–88, Kyaputen tsubasa), about boys competing in the then-exotic sport of soccer, felt like a mixture of shōnen and shōjo manga in its depiction of both competition and friendship between boys (in contrast to thegekiga-esque martial arts manga that had formerly dominated the sports genre). From 1986, bishōnen soccer stars’ homo erotic and homosexual dōjinshi exploits stoked female fans and creators’ fantasies and shifted yaoi to the center of female otaku-ism, which today is known as fujoshi culture. Within a year, attendance at Comike nearly doubled (to approximately sixty thousand in winter 1987), and a majority of attendees were again women. Popular titles like Seint Seiya (1986–90) and the anime Ronin Warriors (1988–89, Yoroiden samurai trooper) held women’s interest after Captain Tsubasa ended serialization.

In contrast to the earlier aniparo phenomenon, the yaoi boom was dominated by young women just out of high school who—unlike their counterparts in earlier decades—now had everything they needed to create dōjinshi: manga drawing techniques and tools. Photocopiers had become common, and an entire rapid-printing industry had arisen, offering all-inclusive services from manuscript touchup to professional offset printing, to delivery direct to Comike for reasonable prices. New dōjinshi conventions appeared, and manga shops began selling dōjinshi on commission. Comparatively lush, custom-made, oversized dōjinshi with more than one hundred pages became common, and popular circles could now live on their fanworks’ profits.


- Fan-Yi Lam, Comic Market: How the World’s Biggest Amateur Comic Fair Shaped Japanese Dōjinshi Culture
fanhackers 
september 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • New fan studies research - September 5th, 2017
New fan studies research - September 5th, 2017

A weekly list of new/recent fan studies research that’s just been added to the Fan Studies Bibliography. Works are divided into things that are open access (=immediately readable for anyone) and not open access (=behind a paywall or not yet public).

If we missed anything or made a mistake, submit a correction and we’ll fix it in next week’s edition. Happy reading!

Open access

Möller, Jessica. 2017. “A Look at Improvement Possibilities of Online Dating Considering Personal Interests and Fandoms.” Accessed September 5. http://ift.tt/2vIRazk

Nugraha, Raindra Yudha. 2017. “Subtitling Strategies of Taboo Words Used in Fans Sub and Pro Sub in ‘The Wolf of Wall Street’ Movie.” Dian Nuswantoro University. http://ift.tt/2wEDX7R

Pillai, Meena T. 2017. “The Many Misogynies of Malayalam Cinema.” Economic & Political Weekly 52 (33): 53. http://ift.tt/2vIwasB

Russell, N’Donna Rashi. 2017. “Make-up!: The Mythic Narrative and Transformation as a Mechanism for Personal and Spiritual Growth in Magical Girl (Mahō Shōjo) Anime.” Thesis. http://ift.tt/2wEktAz

Shepherd, Dustin L. 2017. “The Functionality of Reboots.” MA thesis. http://ift.tt/2vIr4N0

Yildiz, Buket Nur, and others. 2017. “K-Wave Experience in Turkey-Handling Subjugation in a Patriarchal Society.” http://ift.tt/2wEIA1O  

Not open access

Brown, Kenon A., Andrew C. Billings, Breann Murphy, and Luis Puesan. 2017. “Intersections of Fandom in the Age of Interactive Media: ESports Fandom as a Predictor of Traditional Sport Fandom.” Communication & Sport, August, 2167479517727286. doi:10.1177/2167479517727286

Brown-Devlin, Natalie, Michael B. Devlin, and Phillip W. Vaughan. 2017. “Why Fans Act That Way: Using Individual Personality to Predict BIRGing and CORFing Behaviors.” Communication & Sport, August, 2167479517725011. doi:10.1177/2167479517725011

Castellano, Mayka, and Heitor Leal Machado. 2017. “‘Please Come to Brazil!’ The Practices of RuPaul’s Drag Race’s Brazilian Fandom.” In RuPaul’s Drag Race and the Shifting Visibility of Drag Culture, 167–77. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-50618-0_12

Jowett, Lorna, Stacey Abbott, and Bronwen Calvert. 2017. “Buffy at 20 - a Round Table Discussion with Some Senior Scoobies.” University of Huddersfield. http://ift.tt/2vIr67A.  
fanhackers 
september 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Shipping idols together is a common pastime in...
"Shipping idols together is a common pastime in Asian idol fandom. The first episode of SNL Korea..." “Shipping idols together is a common pastime in Asian idol fandom. The first episode of SNL Korea featured a skit recreating the events of a famous boy band fan fiction story. There’s international academic scholarship on idol femslash (Yang and Bao 2012). Idol shipping is fairly popular even outside of Asia. On the highest ranked international K-pop fan site, Allkpop (http://www.allkpop.com/), articles have titles such as “10 of the Most Popular K-Pop Fan-Fictions Out There,” “11 Ships You Wish Were Real,” and “7 Times Hani Proved to Be Totally Shippable.” On the J-pop fan forum site JPHIP (http://forum.jphip.com/), there are two forums dedicated to idol pairings and about half a dozen forums and archives dedicated to idol fan fiction. The lesbiansubtextinkpop Tumblr posted over 2,300 posts from 2011 to 2013. On the Archive of Our Own (AO3; http://ift.tt/1ffprbE), there are over 6,000 fan stories tagged J-pop, over 60,000 tagged K-pop, and several dozen tagged C-pop.”
- Lin, Elaine Han. 2017. “Unseen International Music Idol Femslash.” In “Queer Female Fandom,” edited by Julie Levin Russo and Eve Ng, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 24.
fanhackers 
august 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • In football, “no single game ever represents the...
"In football, “no single game ever represents the game for players or spectators”..." “In football, “no single game ever represents the game for players or spectators” (Hughson and Free 2006, 76), as each game is part of the narrative of the season or the tournament, and each season or tournament is part of the seasons or tournaments that came before it and that will come after. These games rotate around the comings, goings, and doings of the players (and managers) that perform in them. In combination, these two elements are what keep football engaging and entertaining to the majority of its fans. They are heavily discussed and promoted in all facets of the football media, contributing to an ongoing, long-term interest in the narratives by the fans who continually discuss and debate them. As a result, to truly understand football, one must look at not only the 90 minutes of the match but also the surrounding media, which function as necessary paratexts.”
-

Waysdorf, Abby. 2015. “The Creation of Football Slash Fan Fiction.” In “European Fans and European Fan Objects: Localization and Translation,” edited by Anne Kustritz, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 19.

In this paper, Abby Waydorf goes beyond the traditional conception of the authentic sports fan as someone who is not affected my the media spectacle surrounding the sport. She uses the case study of Football (soccer!) RPF to show how a range of authentic fannish engagements are possible, and how mediation of sports - like the marketing of individual star players, and wider narratives spanning multiple seasons - makes European football (and other sports) really attractive to fan fiction writers. In sports, we find characters and story arcs similar to those we love in our favourite TV shows. Players rise from obscurity to stardom, are traded and build relationships within their teams, retire in glory or back in obscurity. Teams have intense rivalries, they win and lose games, championships and trophies. Those are all classic elements that fan fiction writers can pick up on and take as the jumping-off point for fic, just like we use characters and plots from other media. These expressions of fandom are no less authentic (though they are frequently denigrated and marginalised) than attending games, wearing your team’s scarf, and cheering them on through their ups and downs.
fanhackers 
august 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • […] fans are well positioned for politicization...
"[…] fans are well positioned for politicization because they already have communities built..." “[…] fans are well positioned for politicization because they already have communities built around the kinds of intense affective investments that often drive political action, which has greatly facilitated the organization of HPA and the Nerdfighters. HPA is the most prominent of these civic-minded fan groups, with chapters in 300 community institutions nationwide and abroad; its members engage in a wide variety of cultural, educational, philanthropic, and more traditional political activities that often overlap and converge.”
- McCracken, Allison. 2017. By Any Media Necessary: The New Youth Activism, by Henry Jenkins et al. [book review]. In “Queer Female Fandom,” edited by Julie Levin Russo and Eve Ng, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 24.
fanhackers 
august 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Media fandom is an ephemeral culture, and online...
"Media fandom is an ephemeral culture, and online fandom even more so. A printed zine from the 1970s..." “Media fandom is an ephemeral culture, and online fandom even more so. A printed zine from the 1970s may last longer than a story published online in the last six months. In fact, continual changes in publication preference and fannish infrastructure have impacted the accessibility and permanence of fan fiction: zines may have a much lower initial circulation, but hard copies have a permanence that newsgroup posts, mailing-list e-mails, or blog posts may lack. Even as fandom as a whole has become more widely accepted and openly public, distribution patterns have moved away from public archives toward individual fan archiving, which allows writers to maintain greater control.”
-

Versaphile. 2011. “Silence in the Library: Archives and the Preservation of Fannish History.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 6.

This piece by fan writer and archivist Vesaphile is a great overview of the technical challenges fannish communities have historically faced in the preservation of our fan works, culture, and history. Published in 2011, it covers everything from zines and bulletin boards to mailing lists and LiveJournal. It predates fandom’s big migration to Tumblr and only touches on the Archive of Our Own, but it also makes some quite prescient comments about the ways in which fannish online presence and archiving efforts might develop. Versaphile speaks from her own lived experience as a long-time fan archivist, and it’s great to see that knowledge recognised and preserved in an academic journal.
fanhackers 
august 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • New fan studies research - August 15th, 2017
New fan studies research - August 15th, 2017

A weekly list of new/recent fan studies research that’s just been added to the Fan Studies Bibliography. Works are divided into things that are open access (=immediately readable for anyone) and not open access (=behind a paywall or not yet public).

If we missed anything or made a mistake, submit a correction and we’ll fix it in next week’s edition. Happy reading!

Open access

Cavcic, Antonija. 2017. “Boys’ Love for the Love of It: Progressive Prosumers and the Proliferation of Queer Culture through Manga.” PhD dissertation, Murdoch University. http://ift.tt/2x1VvtE

Kolehmainen, Pekka. 2017. “Social Media Narratives as Political Fan Fiction in the 2016 US Presidential Election.” European Journal of American Studies 12 (12–2). http://ift.tt/2w7Pn6Q

Valero Porras, María José; Cassany, Daniel. 2017. “Translation by Fans for Fans : Organization and Practices in a Spanish-Language Community of Scanlation.” BiD: Textos Universitaris de Biblioteconomia i Documentació, no. 38

Yang, Benny Chen-heng. 2017. “Why Godzilla? The Factors for Global Fame of Tokusatsu Giant Monsters.” International Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Science 5 (5). http://ift.tt/2x1D34o

Not open access

Buozis, Michael. 2017. “Doxing or Deliberative Democracy? Evidence and Digital Affordances in the Serial SubReddit.” Convergence, August, 1354856517721809. doi:10.1177/1354856517721809

Carviou, James. 2017. “Modern Family and Family Guy: Representation and Relevancy among Twitter Fans.” PhD dissertation, University of Iowa. http://ift.tt/2w7Sb3V

Creekmur, Corey, Melanie Kohnen, Jonathan McIntosh, Lori Morimoto, Katherine Morrissey, Suzanne Scott, and Louisa Stein. 2017. “Roundtable: Remix and Videographic Criticism.” Cinema Journal 56 (4): 159–84. doi:10.1353/cj.2017.0044

Kyriakidou, Maria, Michael Skey, Julie Uldam, and Patrick McCurdy. 2017. “Media Events and Cosmopolitan Fandom: ‘Playful Nationalism’in the Eurovision Song Contest.” International Journal of Cultural Studies, 1367877917720238. http://ift.tt/2x1QRMq

Wu, Jingsi Christina. 2017. “Voting for the Next Super Girl and Political Talk.” In Entertainment and Politics in Contemporary China, 89–130. East Asian Popular Culture. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-48264-4_3
fanhackers 
august 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • During the 2006–7 television season, the...
"During the 2006–7 television season, the production team and cast for Grey’s Anatomy (2005–)..." “

During the 2006–7 television season, the production team and cast for Grey’s Anatomy (2005–) dealt with a series of unfortunate industry events that significantly affected the writers’ room, cast, and ongoing story lines of the show. An actor uttered a homophobic slur, which received wide media coverage, and which ultimately led Grey’s Anatomy to create a compelling, true-to-life lesbian story line.

This essay examines the discourse surrounding these events, including news reports and audience reaction to the story lines developed in response to the scandal. The LGBT fan community I examine here is Erica_Callie, a LiveJournal (LJ) community, which was highly active during the 2008–9 TV season, with over 1,800 individual posts and tens of thousands of comments.

The production response to real-life events relies on underlying production-culture knowledge of media concepts, such as authenticity, audience identification, and emotional realism, as a remedy for the damage inflicted by the scandal on both the show and the affected LGBT audience. The development of the lesbian story line in Grey’s Anatomy was an act of industry public relations; the story line was constructed to develop and resonate with LGBT audiences.


- Zuk, Tanya D. 2017. “Coming Out on Grey’s Anatomy: Industry Scandal, Constructing a Lesbian Story Line, and Fan Action.” In “Queer Female Fandom,” edited by Julie Levin Russo and Eve Ng, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 24.
fanhackers 
august 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Corporate sales, creator identity, and audience...
"Corporate sales, creator identity, and audience heterogeneity lead yuri to an awkward place in terms..." “Corporate sales, creator identity, and audience heterogeneity lead yuri to an awkward place in terms of genre identity. Is yuri the schoolgirl romance created by men for a male audience who consider love between girls pure, or is it the girl’s romance that has roots in S literature for a female audience who fondly remember their days admiring upperclassmen at all-girls schools? Or is it for lesbians, whose stories are nominally acknowledged in narratives of self-awareness of love for a member of the same sex or feelings of being different, without any use of the word lesbian? The heterogeneity of creator and audience causes difficulty in both definition and scholarship. Who gets to define yuri?”
-

Friedman, Erica. 2017. “On Defining Yuri.” In “Queer Female Fandom,” edited by Julie Levin Russo and Eve Ng, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 24.

This piece looks at the history of and the different influences on yuri - the Japanese genre depicting love and relationships between women. Friedman’s main point is that the creators, publishers, and audiences for yuri are hugely diverse and frequently have diverging interests, resulting in a genre (or possibly collection of genres) that is difficult to pin down. Some works are aimed women (queer and/or straight), some are aimed at straight men, some depict love between women without touching on lesbian and queer identities, some are by lesbian creators, though many are not. The paper is relatively short and covers a lot of ground - I’d love to see a longer piece elaborating on some of the aspects this only hints at.
fanhackers 
august 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Queerbaiting is the outcome of increased...
"Queerbaiting is the outcome of increased paratextual discourse about LGBT content at a specific..." “Queerbaiting is the outcome of increased paratextual discourse about LGBT content at a specific moment of queer contextuality. We might be tempted to reserve the term, in the sense that I use it, for media texts that fail to have canonically queer characters despite textual and paratextual content that suggests the possibility. However, doing so would not explain why The 100, with a canonical F/F couple, has also been widely cited as an example of queerbaiting. The crucial element is not a lack of canonicity, but how satisfactorily queerness plays out in the canonical text relative to viewer expectations that emerge from the reading of multiple texts and paratexts and that take account of queer contextuality.”
- Ng, Eve. 2017. “Queerbaiting and the Contemporary Media Landscape in Rizzoli & Isles and The 100.” In “Queer Female Fandom,” edited by Julie Levin Russo and Eve Ng, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 24.
fanhackers 
august 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Slash - even more so than gay romance - is the...
"Slash - even more so than gay romance - is the ultimate fictional expression of erotic faith. The..." “Slash - even more so than gay romance - is the ultimate fictional expression of erotic faith. The romance heroes in these stories fall so in love with their male friend or partner, so embrace the religion of erotic faith, that they can’t help committing themselves as lovers. These male heroes may not understand themselves as “really” gay and may be portrayed as heterosexual men whose beloved simply happens to be another man. But the love these men discover for each other is strong enough to defeat patriarchy’s chief rule that a man must be straight. In a society that preaches the religion of erotic faith - where love provides meaning and fulfillment as the path to the promised land - the ultimate test of erotic faith is for a heterosexual alpha male to willingly and openly love in a romantic way another such male. To do so is much riskier than the expected path of loving a woman, for it is to breach the great taboo against same-sex male love that defines patriarchal masculinity.”
-

Roach, C. M. (2016). Happily Ever After: The Romance Story in Popular Culture. Indiana University Press.

Remember Catherine Roach and her breakdown of the key elements of the romance story? Towards the end of her book, Roach turns to gay romance and slash fan fiction. There has of course been a fair amount of fannish meta written about the exact relationship between slash and queer sexualities, and some academic research too. Roach’s perspective is as someone who is primarily a romance scholar (and writer), not a fan studies scholar, so she perhaps emphasises different aspects of slash to those fans and fan studies scholard to. What do you think?
fanhackers 
august 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • SwanQueen creates a space where female concerns,...
"SwanQueen creates a space where female concerns, even queer distress, are not merely brushed aside..." “SwanQueen creates a space where female concerns, even queer distress, are not merely brushed aside but discussed and dealt with—discussions that I and other fans find pleasurable in many ways.”
- Strauch, Sandra. 2017. “Once Upon a Time in Queer Fandom.” In “Queer Female Fandom,” edited by Julie Levin Russo and Eve Ng, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 24.
fanhackers 
july 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • CFP Tumblr & Fandom
CFP Tumblr & Fandom

itisbeeing:

It’s not too late to submit a short symposium piece to the #TWC special issue on Tumblr & Fandom! So if you’re sitting on some Tumblr/Fandom thoughts, do consider submitting! See the call for more info, contact info etc here:

http://ift.tt/2tx2Tjs
fanhackers 
july 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • CFP: Fan Studies Network Australasia 2017
CFP: Fan Studies Network Australasia 2017 CFP: Fan Studies Network Australasia 2017:

If you’re in Australasia and were following the FSN2017 coverage and wishing you could be here, FSN is coming to you!! And while it doesn’t say so on this post, the deadline for the CfP has been pushed back to August 25th, so there’s still time to pitch!
fanhackers 
july 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • FSN 2017 Louisa Stein ‘Fandom/Resistance’ Keynote:...
FSN 2017 Louisa Stein ‘Fandom/Resistance’ Keynote: audio recording FSN 2017 Louisa Stein ‘Fandom/Resistance’ Keynote: audio recording:

If you were following us on Twitter over the weekend of June 24th-25th this year, you may have noticed that we went to the Fan Studies Network Conference and did a spot of live-tweeting. We may also have mentioned that Louisa Stein’s excellent keynote titled “Fandom/Resistance” made us cry - in fact it made an entire room of totally respectable, grown-up academics tear up on several occasions. The Fan Studies Network has published an audio recording of Louisa’s keynote, along with timestamps and links to the videos Louisa shared. It’s definitely 30 minutes well spent.
fanhackers 
july 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • (… ) racial and ethnic identity must be considered...
"(… ) racial and ethnic identity must be considered as important to our conceptualizations..." “(… ) racial and ethnic identity must be considered as important to our conceptualizations about fandom spaces as we have always considered gender and sexuality. To do otherwise will be to repeat the mistakes of fields such as feminist and queer studies that have at times unwittingly reinscribed the idea that race is somehow an additional aspect of cultural experience, something that can be disregarded at will (…). Fan studies continues to have a strong thread of reading fan culture (especially female-dominated aspects of it) as enabling spaces that allow for greater freedom in (re)crafting the cultural narratives that seek to order our world. While these spaces definitely work to disrupt hegemonic constructions of what kinds of stories are allowable in fan communities, their recurrent biases and erasures are equally present.”
-

Pande, Rukmini and Swati Moitra. 2017. “Racial dynamics of online femslash fandoms.” In “Queer Female Fandom,” edited by Julie Levin Russo and Eve Ng, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 24.

One of several strong recent works on fandom and race, this article looks at Once Upon a Time femslash to analyze and question the “subversiveness” of fannish and academic practices that neglect to consider race. Make sure to check out co-author Rukmini Pande’s Decolonising Fan Studies reading list for more on this topic.
fanhackers 
july 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Visible, too, in the defense of Sansa Stark are...
"Visible, too, in the defense of Sansa Stark are the attempts of young feminists to both validate and..." “Visible, too, in the defense of Sansa Stark are the attempts of young feminists to both validate and unpack the self: the experiences and traumas of female adolescence, the passionate consumptions and productions of media fandom, the revelations of feminist ideas in new and old forms. Feminist fans invite each other to treat the creative and critical discourse through which they interact, the “doing of fandom,” as praxis. Through these intensities of engagement with a beloved character and the insights these generate, they ultimately propose to transform the fan communities they inhabit. Consciousness-raising for the twenty-first century, indeed.”
- Naylor, Alex. (2016). “My Skin Has Turned to Porcelain, to Ivory, to Steel”: Feminist Fan Discourses, Game of Thrones, and the Problem of Sansa. In E. R. Helford, S. Carroll, S. Gray, & M. R. Howard (Eds.), The Woman Fantastic in Contemporary American Media Culture (pp. 39-60). Jackson, MI: University Press of Mississippi.
fanhackers 
july 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Calling the practice of modding more empowering or...
"Calling the practice of modding more empowering or resistive than other fannish practices is..." “Calling the practice of modding more empowering or resistive than other fannish practices is problematic because, use of technology aside, modding is not significantly different than the writing of fan fiction or the creation of vids. Modding is, essentially, the practice of taking the tools provided by an existing media text and twisting them to a different purpose. Just like other fannish productions, mods are created (both legitimately and within hacker culture) by game fans for other game fans. They are distributed and evaluated within the community and tend to perform the values associated with the
gender that makes up a majority of the population. In the case of gaming, the values being performed most often are those associated with traditional notions of masculinity: competition, broadcasting, aggression and the expectation that males repress emotions and do not engage in intimacy among other males. Just like fan fiction and vidding, modding and machinima perform individual negotiations of ideologies of gender and sexuality that vary in terms of their resistance to the ideological status quo.”
-

Hampton, Darlene Rose. 2010. “Beyond Resistance: Gender, Performance, and Fannish Practice in Digital Culture.” 

A very interesting look at the gendered aspects of how different kinds of fanworks are talked about and evaluated as more or less “resistive.”
fanhackers 
july 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The narrative structure of the ideal romance is...
"The narrative structure of the ideal romance is summarized below: 1. The heroine’s social identity..." “The narrative structure of the ideal romance is summarized below:
1. The heroine’s social identity is destroyed.
2. The heroine reacts antagonistically to an aristocratic male.
3. The aristocratic male responds ambiguously to the heroine.
4. The heroine interprets the hero’s behavior as evidence of a purely sexual interest in her.
5. The heroine responds to the hero’s behavior with anger or coldness.
6. The hero retaliates by punishing the heroine.
7. The heroine and hero are physically and/or emotionally separated.
8. The hero treats the heroine tenderly.
9. The heroine responds warmly to the hero’s act of tenderness.
10. The heroine reinterprets the hero’s ambiguous behavior as the product of previous hurt.
11. The hero proposes/openly declares his love for/demonstrates his unwavering commitment to the heroine with a supreme act of tenderness.
12. The heroine responds sexually and emotionally.
13. The heroine’s identity is restored.”
-

Radway, J. A. (1984). Reading the romance: Women, patriarchy, and popular literature. Univ of North Carolina Press.

I mentioned in a recent post that trying to break up the romance novel narrative into a set of distinct strctural elements is a common activity in Popular Romance Studies. In some ways, Radway’s structure (which was the first such attempt) is slightly less abstract than Roach’s. It’s more of a chronological step by step guide through a romance novel’s plot than an attempt to abstract the key messages of the romance narrative.

From a fannish and fan studies point of view, of course, one of the interesting things is to what extent fan fiction makes use of the same structures. So go on, take this as an excuse to reread your favourite romance fanfic, all 100k words of it, and see which bits match and where there are differences. (And feel free to tell us all about it, in reblogs, replies, submissions, etc. - I’d love to see what you find!)
fanhackers 
june 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • New fan studies research - June 27th, 2017
New fan studies research - June 27th, 2017

A weekly list of new/recent fan studies research that’s just been added to the Fan Studies Bibliography. Works are divided into things that are open access (=immediately readable for anyone) and not open access (=behind a paywall or not yet public). Mostly new theses this week.

If we missed anything or made a mistake, submit a correction and we’ll fix it in next week’s edition. Happy reading!

Open access:

Black, Eleanor Frances. “The Fantasy Begins: The Affective Potential of Games Through Final Fantasies I and VI.” B.S. thesis, Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University, 2017. Available: http://ift.tt/2t1UlxL

Cronan, Allison. “I’ve Got a Theory, It Could Be Whedon: Understanding the Televisual Auteur.” B.S. thesis, Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University, 2017. Available: http://ift.tt/2shQRtT

DeLallo, Jessica B. “Fandoms in the Lives of Gifted Individuals with Imaginational Overexcitabilities.” Ph.D., Denver: University of Denver, 2017. Available: http://ift.tt/2t1UdOo

Jacobs, Melissa. “‘ They’ve Come to Draw Blood’-How Women Fans of World Wrestling Entertainment Perceive Women Wrestlers.” M.A., Clemson: Clemson University, 2017. Available: http://ift.tt/2shSNCw

Richardson, Ashley. “Fandom, Racism, and the Myth of Diversity in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.” B.S. thesis, Williamsburg: College of William and Mary, 2017. Available: http://ift.tt/2s3hd24

Smith, Edmund. “Superheroes and Shared Universes: How Fans and Auteurs Are Transforming the Hollywood Blockbuster.” Media, Film, and Communication Working Paper Series 3 (2017). Available: http://ift.tt/2sioDPz

Williams, Bailey. “Ode To You: A Generative Criticism of the Rhetorical Characteristics Employed By The Twenty One Pilots Fandom To Create and Maintain A Community On Twitter.” B.S. thesis, Wooster: The College of Wooster, 2017. Available: http://ift.tt/2t1FFi7

Not open access:

Veale, Kevin. “‘Friendship isn’t an emotion fucknuts’: Manipulating affective materiality to shape the experience of Homestuck’s story.” Convergence (2017): 1354856517714954.
fanhackers 
june 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Going on right now: Fan Studies Network Conference...
Going on right now: Fan Studies Network Conference 2017

Your Fanhackers mods elmyra and Nele are in Huddersfield this weekend for the Fan Studies Network Conference 2017. Keep an eye on the #FSN2017 Twitter hashtag and the @fanhackers Twitter account for live updates from the conference.
fanhackers 
june 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • transformativeworksandcultures:Vol 24 (2017):...
transformativeworksandcultures: Vol 24 (2017): Special Issue...
transformativeworksandcultures:

Vol 24 (2017): Special Issue Queer Female Fandom

Edited by Julie Levin Russo and Eve Ng

Table of Content

Editorial
Eve Ng and Julie Levin Russo Envisioning queer female fandomTheory
Eve Ng, Between text, paratext, and context: Queerbaiting and the contemporary media landscape
Rukmini Pande and Swati Moitra, “Yes, the Evil Queen is Latina!”: Racial dynamics of online femslash fandomsPraxis
Jing (Jamie) Zhao, Queerly imagining Super Girl in an alternate world: The fannish worlding in FSCN femslash romance
Ria Narai, Female-centered fan fiction as homoaffection in fan communities
Faithe Day and Aymar Jean Christian, Locating black queer TV: Fans, producers, and networked publics on YouTube
Kelsey Cameron, Constructing queer female cyberspace: The L Word fandom and Autostraddle.comMultimedia
Julie Levin Russo, Femslash goggles: Fan vids with commentary by creatorsSymposium
Mel Stanfill, Where the femslashers are: Media on the lesbian continuum
Lucy Irene Baker, The surface of women
Erica Friedman, On defining yuri
Elaine Han Lin, Unseen international music idol femslash
Tanya D. Zuk, Coming out on Grey’s Anatomy: Industry scandal, constructing a lesbian story line, and fan action
Victoria Serafini, Bisexual erasure in queer sci-fi “utopias”
Sandra Strauch, Once Upon a Time in queer fandomReview
Allison McCracken, By any media necessary: The new youth activism, by Henry Jenkins et al.
Alice Marwick, Girls’ feminist blogging in a postfeminist age, by Jessalyn Keller
Nicolle Lamerichs, International perspectives on shojo and shojo manga, edited by Masami TokuTransformative Works and Cultures (TWC), ISSN 1941-2258, is an online-only Gold Open Access publication of the nonprofit Organization for Transformative Works. TWC is a member of DOAJ. Contact the Editor with questions.
Image credit: Kelsey Showalter, http://ift.tt/2rCwrGD.

New issue of TWC! As per usual, we’ll be posting choice quotes from the new articles in the next weeks.
fanhackers 
june 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • In the romance, the imperative “Love!” can be...
"In the romance, the imperative “Love!” can be fleshed out into nine key elements that are always..." “In the romance, the imperative “Love!” can be fleshed out into nine key elements that are always present, even if only implied. These essential elements of the romantic love story are (1) IT IS HARD TO BE ALONE, especially (2) as a WOMAN IN A MAN’S WORLD, but (3) romance helps as a RELIGION OF LOVE, even though it involves (4) HARD WORK and (5) RISK, because it leads to (6) HEALING, (7) GREAT SEX, and (8) HAPPINESS, and it (9) LEVELS THE PLAYING FIELD for women.”
-

Roach, C. M. (2016). Happily Ever After: The Romance Story in Popular Culture. Indiana University Press.

Permit me a further digression into popular romance studies this week. This quote is from a recent book by academic and romance novel author Catherine M. Roach/Catherine LaRoche.

There’s an amusing feature of popular romance studies where everyone tries to break down the romance novel into a number of key structural elements: Radway has them (and I promise I’ll show you hers too), Regis has them, and Catherine Roach has them. And of course, everyone’s breakdown is different, emphasising different aspects of the romance story.

Roach’s main argument, built around the nine core elements she identifies above, is that romance novels have a contradictory message for women: “You can’t fight the patriarchy/You must fight the patriarchy”. This message, grounded in the themes of love, hard work, risk, and healing, creates a space within which women can process the challenges and contradictions patriarchy poses to them in their day-to-day lives.

Roach’s book is interesting for a number of reasons. Like many popular romance researchers, she looks at both the romance texts and their readers, but unlike most, she also looks at the production side of things: who writes and publishes romance novels? How and why? Becoming a romance novel author was part of her research method, and it makes for entertaining reading, as chapters in the book alternate between the (very accessible) academic and a much more informal “overly confessional” approach narrating Roach’s experience as a reader and writer of romance novels.
fanhackers 
june 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • While many people think fanfiction is about...
"While many people think fanfiction is about inserting sex into texts (like Tolkien’s) where it..." “While many people think fanfiction is about inserting sex into texts (like Tolkien’s) where it doesn’t belong, Brancher sees it differently: “I was desperate to read about sex that included great friendship; I was repurposing Tolkien’s text in order to do that. It wasn’t that friendship needed to be sexualized, it was that erotica needed to be … friendship-ized.” Many fanfiction writers write about sex in conjunction with beloved texts and characters not because they think those texts are incomplete, but because they’re looking for stories where sex is profound and meaningful. This is part of what makes fan fiction different from pornography: unlike pornography, fanfic features characters we already care deeply about, and who tend to already have long-standing and complex relationships with each other. It’s a genre of sexual subjectification: the very opposite of objectification. It’s benefits with friendship.”
- Francesca Coppa, “Introduction to The Dwarf’s Tale,” The Fanfiction Reader (via rembrandtswife)
fanhackers 
june 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Russ, J. (1983). How to suppress women’s writing....
Russ, J. (1983). How to suppress women’s writing....
Russ, J. (1983). How to suppress women’s writing. University of Texas Press.
The cover of Russ’s book does an excellent job of summarising its main argument: that women’s writing is deliberately devalued in a range of ways. It’s on the wrong subject matter, it’s the wrong genre, it’s morally objetionable, it’s not proper art. In 1983 Russ wasn’t writing specifically about fan fiction (yet), but fan fiction readers and writers will recognise these tactics employed against them. “She wrote about men banging! And it most definitely isn’t art - it’s derivative and unoriginal!”

One of my favourite moments in the book comes towards the end, when after some self-reflection Russ realises that she and other white women within academia and the feminist movement have been employing exactly the same tactics to devalue Black women’s writing. With recent debates on race in both fandom and Fan Studies, this powerful moment of realisation is worth keeping in mind.

Image description:

The cover of How to suppress women’s writing by Joanna Russ, which consists of the following text:

She didn’t write it. But if it’s clear she did the deed… She wrote it but she shouldn’t have. (It’s political, sexual, masculine, feminist.) She wrote it, but look what she wrote about. (The bedroom, the kitchen, her family. Other women!) She wrote it, but she wrote only one of it. (“Jane Eyre. Poor dear, that’s all she ever… “) She wrote it, but she isn’t really an artist, and it isn’t really art. (It’s a thriller, a romance, a children’s book. It’s sci fi!) She wrote it, but she had help. (Robert Browning. Branwell Brontë. Her own “masculine side.”) She wrote it, but she’s an anomaly. (Woolf. With Leonard’s help…) She wrote it BUT
fanhackers 
june 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • The Internet has fueled a massive amount of...
The Internet has fueled a massive amount of creativity, from the...

The Internet has fueled a massive amount of creativity, from the silly to the profound. Information scientist and copyright advocate Casey Fiesler talks about her experiences as a remixer, including how her feminist remix of a Barbie book went viral and taught the world a lesson about women in tech. She argues for the importance of protecting rather than suppressing creative forms of critique, and lays out how copyright law when used as intended can help keep the Internet awesome. 

A very accessible talk about copyright and online creativity, including fanworks, by academic Casey Fiesler. She discusses how copyright law wasn’t written to deal with the internet, how this causes intense confusion about how copyright law applies to remix works, and how that confusion can stifle online speech by fans.

If you hear something you like, read about the details in Fiesler’s work on fandom, copyright, feminism, the AO3 and so on in the Fan Studies Bibliography. Most of the papers are open access (=no paywall).
fanhackers 
june 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Call for Papers: Edited Collection on Race in...
Call for Papers: Edited Collection on Race in Fandom Call for Papers: Edited Collection on Race in Fandom:

Call for papers with deadline (technically) today. Collection editor Rukmini Pande says on Twitter:

#RaceInFandom abstracts have been super exciting but still looking to fill some gaps! Latinx and Asian fans/fandoms are under-repped atm

and

Please do get in touch if you have an idea! I can extend the deadline for a bit!
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • maptowhereialreadyam said: The link to Kellye...
maptowhereialreadyam said: The link to Kellye Guinan’s paper is broken, FYI.Should be fixed now,...

maptowhereialreadyam said: The link to Kellye Guinan’s paper is broken, FYI.

Should be fixed now, thanks for pointing that out! It was Tumblr doing unfortunate things with the periods at the end of the URLs.
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • I'm not entirely sure if this is the right place...
I'm not entirely sure if this is the right place to ask, but is there any work on copyright disclaimers being used/not used by fan artists instead of fanficcers? Please and thank you!

Does anyone know of this kind of research? We’re aware of quite a few articles that discuss disclaimers on fics at least briefly, but nothing specifically about disclaimers on fan art.
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Justice Scalia’s uncredited borrowing from a...
"Justice Scalia’s uncredited borrowing from a party’s legal brief escapes condemnation because the..." “Justice Scalia’s uncredited borrowing from a party’s legal brief escapes condemnation because the social context of his copying makes him a jurist, not a plagiarist. Similarly, fan creations, even without disclaimers, usually announce their unauthorized status so clearly through context that no deception is likely.”
-

Tushnet, R. (2007). Copyright law, fan practices, and the rights of the author. In Gray, J. A., Sandvoss, C., & Harrington, C. L. (Eds.). Fandom: Identities and communities in a mediated world. NYU Press.

Glorious snark about Supreme Court justices aside, this piece provides a useful timestamp in the evolution of fannish, scholarly, and legal thinking on issues of intellectual property, copyright, and transformative work. Tushnet traces the history and decline of the use of disclaimers on fan works, and the emergence of the idea of fan works as transformative rather than infringing. She makes a strong argument for the “fair use” view of fan works that we are now so familiar with. Whether you remember the bad old days from personal experience or wonder why some people still put disclaimers on their fic, this essay is a good introduction to the issues and a reflection of the state of thinking at a pivotal point in fannish history.
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • "Vidding" documentaries (2008)
"Vidding" documentaries (2008) "Vidding" documentaries (2008):

Vidding (2008) is a series of six short documentaries produced by the Organization for Transformative Works for inclusion in the Learning Library of MIT’s New Media Literacies project. These films are part of a larger group of documentaries on remix culture, and the whole series is aimed at middle and high schoolers for inclusion in classrooms and after school programs. We hope they will also serve to introduce the art of vidding to a larger public.

The six parts of Vidding include: What is Vidding? (2:48), Technology and Tools (3:09), Good Vids, Bad Vids (3:18), I like to watch (3:19), Collaboration and Community (3:03), Why We Vid (3:50). They were directed by Francesca Coppa and edited by Laura Shapiro. Sound editing was done by AbsoluteDestiny. You can watch them here or in the MIT/NML Learning Library, where you can also see videos about cosplay, mashups, DJing, and other forms of remix culture. (From the page)
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • In this way, machinima, at its core, is not...
"In this way, machinima, at its core, is not markedly different than vids. What truly differentiates..." “In this way, machinima, at its core, is not markedly different than vids. What truly differentiates machinima from vids are how each genre is perceived, evaluated and categorized within mainstream culture and its analysis within the academic community. This difference in evaluation is rooted, again, with cultural constructions of masculinity
and femininity that align technology, material production and work in the public sphere with masculinity and function to marginalize the labor, interests and concerns of women by associating them with the private, symbolic and bodily.”
-

Hampton, Darlene Rose. 2010. “Beyond Resistance: Gender, Performance, and Fannish Practice in Digital Culture.”

Really interesting look at how two forms of fan-made video (vids and machinima) are perceived differently based on the (assumed) gender of their creators.
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Women’s childcare responsibilities not only...
"Women’s childcare responsibilities not only restrict their attendance at sport, but when children..." “Women’s childcare responsibilities not only restrict their attendance at sport, but when children are taken along in family units to sport events, women continue to be marginalized by the expectation that they will perform the role of primary carer in these public settings.”
-

Gosling, V. K. (2007). Girls allowed?: the marginalization of female sport fans. In Gray, J. A., Sandvoss, C., & Harrington, C. L. (Eds.). Fandom: Identities and communities in a mediated world. NYU Press.

This chapter provides a really handy overview of academic research and literature up to 2007 on women sports fans and the marginalisation they experience. It’s a great first step for anyone looking to understand the issues, with lots of useful references to other research.
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • Many (New York Times) articles frame fanfiction as...
"Many (New York Times) articles frame fanfiction as yet another aspect of these media brands. As..." “Many (New York Times) articles frame fanfiction as yet another aspect of these media brands. As Stuart Elliot (2005) notes: “[I]f you like the TV show, why not buy the fra- grance? Wear the jewelry? Read the book? Join other fans online to help write an episode?” (7). Due to corporations “co-opting” and “encouraging” fanfiction, participants in fanfiction communities have become “brand ambassadors” (Elliott 2005, 7), similar to the walking billboards of brand name clothing and logo-as-fashion (Stelter 2008).”
- Drew Emanuel Berkowitz, Framing the Future of Fanfiction: How The New York Times’ Portrayal of a Youth Media Subculture Influences Beliefs about Media Literacy Education, p205
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • And let’s not pride ourselves on the monogamy,...
"And let’s not pride ourselves on the monogamy, either; this is another patriarchal imposition which..." “And let’s not pride ourselves on the monogamy, either; this is another patriarchal imposition which women have sexualized - in fact I believe it can be seen in the K/S [Kirk/Spock] material (as in the romances) as a metaphor for intensity. The telepathic union can also be read as a way of expressing intensity and completeness, not duration, but here too sexual expression waits on ‘love’ while desire, by itself is not enough. Again I think we’re dealing with a sexualization of the feminine condition.”
-

Russ, J. (1985). Pornography By Women For Women, With Love. In Magic Mommas, Trembling Sisters, Puritans & Perverts: Feminist Essays (pp. 79–99). Trumansberg, NY: The Crossing Press.

Like Lamb & Veith’s essay, this is a very early piece of fan studies writing and engagement with slash as a topic of study. As the title of the piece says, Russ views slash as “pornography by women, for women, with love”, thereby kickstarting a whole sub-branch of research on slash that seeks to map out its relationship to both porn and romance novels. Russ agrees with Lamb & Veith that slash, through depicting same-gender relationships, levels the playing field. But she also casts a critical eye over the genre, pointing out tropes where it romanticises and sexualises the constraints patriarchy puts on women.
fanhackers 
may 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • stitchmediamix: This is a narrated PowerPoint of...
stitchmediamix: This is a narrated PowerPoint of the...
stitchmediamix:

This is a narrated PowerPoint of the presentation I gave at the last Fan Studies panel at PCAACA 2017 April 15, 2017 since many people missed out on a chance to attend!

(I’ll update this with links to relatively required reading material!)
fanhackers 
april 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • In seeking to separate Benoit’s celebrity and...
"In seeking to separate Benoit’s celebrity and personal personas, some fans find the process easy...." “In seeking to separate Benoit’s celebrity and personal personas, some fans find the process easy. Respondent 710 notes: ‘I still remember him as one of the best workers of all time who had mental problems that led to his demise. I can easily separate the man and the wrestler.’ For others, the process is slightly more arduous. Respondent 14, for instance, notes that in working through his grief ‘I try to separate the man and the worker’, with Respondent 25 adding that ‘I’m starting to separate the character of Chris Benoit from the man, but it is still difficult to watch him … you know what he did and that is a hard pill to swallow’. Yet regardless of whether the separation of Benoit’s personas is easy or difficult for the individual, significantly it is a conscious and selective process.”
-

Phillips, T. (2015). Wrestling with grief: fan negotiation of professional/private personas in responses to the Chris Benoit double murder–suicide. Celebrity Studies, 6(1), 69-84.

In this paper, Tom Phillips investigates fans’ short- and long-term responses to celebrated wrestler Chris Benoit’s murder of his wife and child and subsequent suicide. He looks at issues of fannish grief and how it is shaped by official media narratives, as well as whether and how fans make distinctions between the public persona of a celebrity and their private self.
fanhackers 
april 2017 by otw_news
Fanhackers • List of openly accessible fan culture and popular...
List of openly accessible fan culture and popular culture studies journals List of openly accessible fan culture and popular culture studies journals:

The list is in French, but the journals listed are all in English, and they’re all free to access for anyone. Excellent resource.
fanhackers 
april 2017 by otw_news
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