oripsolob + race   900

Mass Incarceration : NPR
The United States imprisons more people than any other country in the world, and a disproportionate number of those prisoners are Black. What are the origins of the U.S. criminal justice system and how did racism shape it? From the creation of the first penitentiaries in the 1800s, to the "tough-on-crime" prosecutors of the 1990s, how America created a culture of mass incarceration.

Features John Pfaff of "Locked In" and Emily Bazelon of "Charged". Emily explains how the "tyranny of the anecdote" drives American fears of crime. Pfaff uses Cook County to explain why suburban voters vote for tough on crime prosecutors even though they rarely witness crime.
NPR  Podcast  audio  prisons  race  history  inequalities  sociology  Books  Media  literacy 
9 weeks ago by oripsolob
How the Prosecutor Became the Most Powerful Person in the Justice System | On the Media | WNYC Studios
“The officer in uniform and the judge in robes are our indelible images of criminal justice. No one needs to explain the power they wield." And yet, she goes on, they fail to accurately reflect the justice system as it currently functions: "It is [the prosecutor] who today embodies the might and majesty of the state.”
Podcast  NPR  sociology  race  inequalities  prisons 
12 weeks ago by oripsolob
Abortion and Crime, Revisited (Ep. 384) - Freakonomics Freakonomics
The controversial theory linking Roe v. Wade to a massive crime drop is back in the spotlight as several states introduce abortion restrictions. Steve Levitt and John Donohue discuss their original research, the challenges to its legitimacy, and their updated analysis. Also: what this means for abortion policy, crime policy, and having intelligent conversations about contentious topics.

PLUS: a timeline of politicians and "get tough" crime measures and the emergence of the "superpredators".

Plus: TRANSCRIPT
Podcast  sociology  NPR  audio  mp3  history  race  inequalities  prisons  politics 
12 weeks ago by oripsolob
Chicago's Red Summer
Historian David Krugler is featured.
history  race  chicago 
july 2019 by oripsolob
Some Students Get Extra Time for New York’s Elite High School Entrance Exam. 42% Are White. - The New York Times
42% of students with a 504 were white.

White students in New York City are 10 times as likely as Asian students to have a 504 designation that allows extra time on the specialized high school entrance exams. White students are also twice as likely as their black and Hispanic peers to have the designation. Students in poverty are much less likely to have a 504 for extra time.
education  inequalities  race  class  sociology 
june 2019 by oripsolob
Study: 'To succeed in America, it's better to be born rich than smart'
“People with talent often don’t succeed. What we found in this study is that people with talent that come from disadvantaged households don’t do as well as people with very little talent from advantaged households."

What they found was that poor kindergartners with good scores are less likely to graduate from high school, graduate from college or earn a high wage than their affluent peers with bad grades.

Specifically, the study found that a kindergarten student from the bottom 25% of socioeconomic status with test scores from the top 25% of students has a 31% chance of earning a college education and working a job that pays at least $35,000 by the time they are 25, and at least $45,000 by the time they are 35.

A kindergarten student from the top 25% of socioeconomic status with test scores from the bottom 25% of students had a 71% chance of achieving the same milestones.

“People tend to blame the schools, and they ARE at fault for not saving people who start out smart,” he says. “But there are also a variety of factors that have to do with race and class and gender and everything from books in the home to how many words you know when you’re in the 1st grade, too. Disadvantage and advantage are very complex.”

The Georgetown study also explores the impact of the additional advantages experienced by the children of wealthy families. In 2016, families from the highest income quintile spent about $8,600 per year on child enrichment activities while families in the lowest quintile spent closer $1,700. (SEE SEAN REARDON)

Carnevale points to wide range of public policies that could help address educational inequality, including universal preschool, equitable K-12 school FUNDING, diversifying schools with high- and low-performing students in the SAME classes, ensuring stable living wages for parents and fostering safe schools and neighborhoods.
class  inequalities  Money  sociology  nthsea  Speech  education  race  gender 
june 2019 by oripsolob
What’s My Complicity? Talking White Fragility With Robin DiAngelo | Teaching Tolerance
I would actually agree with anyone who felt offended when I say, “It is inevitable that you are racist,” if their definition of a racist is someone who means harm.

When we understand racism as a system that we have been raised in and that its impact is inevitable, it’s really not a question of good or bad. It’s just, “I have it. I have been socialized into it.” And so, “What am I going to do about it?” is really the question.
race  sociology 
may 2019 by oripsolob
Groundbreaking World War II unit of African American women honored
When Anna Mae Robertson and her fellow soldiers arrived in England early in 1945, millions of pieces of mail and parcels destined for homesick American troops gathered dust in postal bags piled high in warehouses.

Knowing the importance to morale of letters and packages from home, commanders gave the difficult task of sorting through a months-long backlog of mail to the Women's Army Corps 6888 Central Postal Directory Battalion. The women devised a system, rolled up their sleeves and got to work.
history  race  women  inequalities  War  WWII 
may 2019 by oripsolob
The Chicago Band Who Disappeared for 30 Years Only to Return Weirder and Louder | HuffPost
Wearing a thrift-store bridesmaid gown and a cap made of little girl stockings, Travis struck the poise of a heroic Greek statue, but with a white beard appeared more like a Black Santa Claus crossed with Merce Cunningham. Travis brings his extraordinary and painful biography right on stage for all to experience. He served in the U.S. Navy during the Vietnam War.  A gay, African-American sailor at a time when our country was still segregated and unabashedly homophobic, he discovered the revolution at Stonewall Inn while on his first naval liberty.  After leaving the military he encountered the race riots of the early 1970s.
race  Music  gender  bands  chicago  inequalities  history 
may 2019 by oripsolob
Kandice Sumner: How America's public schools keep kids in poverty | TED Talk
Why should a good education be exclusive to rich kids? Schools in low-income neighborhoods across the US, specifically in communities of color, lack resources that are standard at wealthier schools -- things like musical instruments, new books, healthy school lunches and soccer fields -- and this has a real impact on the potential of students. Kandice Sumner sees the disparity every day in her classroom in Boston. In this inspiring talk, she asks us to face facts -- and change them.
class  inequalities  race  education  sociology  Video 
may 2019 by oripsolob
Overlooked No More: Barbara Johns, Who Defied Segregation in Schools - The New York Times
Then she saw the “white bus” go by; unlike her usual bus, a segregated one for black students that was always overcrowded, this one was half empty.

“Right then and there,” she later wrote in an unpublished diary, “I decided that indeed something had to be done about this inequality.”

Her younger sister, Joan Johns Cobbs, said in a telephone interview that Barbara forged a note to the teachers, purportedly from the principal, telling them to assemble the student body. When everyone gathered, “there was no principal there, and instead it was my sister on the stage,” Cobbs said. “All the students, like me, were in shock.”

Barbara Johns proceeded to walk out of the building. Everyone followed. “I was surprised the whole thing worked,” Cobbs said.

The strike, as they called it, preceded the Montgomery bus boycott in Alabama by four years and the Greensboro lunch-counter sit-ins in North Carolina by nine years, making Barbara Johns an early champion of civil rights.
race  education  history  inequalities 
may 2019 by oripsolob
Chicago Kids Exposed To Lead And Other Factors Struggle As Adults | WBEZ
Chicago kids who grow up with high levels of lead in their blood and in communities with high rates of violence and incarceration suffer as adults. That’s according to a new Harvard University study that examines data from Chicago children who grew up in the 1990s. The analysis was published this month in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 

Co-authored by PhD student Robert Manduca and sociologist Robert Sampson, the study aimed to go beyond a more traditional focus on poverty and tease out possible correlations between specific environmental factors and adult outcomes. 

The researchers refer to the three factors of incarceration, violence and lead exposure as creating “toxic neighborhood environments.” And they found that these factors were associated with disparities between groups in areas of incarceration, more teen pregnancy and lower wages.
class  race  inequalities  prisons  sociology  NPR 
april 2019 by oripsolob
Here's What's Become Of A Historic All-Black Town (Mound Bayou) In The Mississippi Delta : NPR
Teddy Roosevelt proclaimed it "The Jewel of the Delta."

Booker T. Washington praised it as a model of "thrift and self-government."

Mound Bayou, in the Mississippi Delta: a town founded in 1887 by former slaves, with a vision that was revolutionary for its time.

From the start, it was designed to be a self-reliant, autonomous, all-black community.

For decades, Mound Bayou thrived and prospered, becoming famous for empowering its black citizens. The town also became known as a haven from the virulent racism of the Jim Crow South.

"It's almost like it was an inverted or alternate universe, where being black was a positive thing," says Rolando Herts, director of the Delta Center for Culture and Learning at Delta State University.
history  race  inequalities 
march 2019 by oripsolob
Segregation in the Armed Forces During World War II and the Double V Campaign || The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross
Two months to the day after Pearl Harbor (Feb. 7, 1942), the most widely read black newspaper in America, the Pittsburgh Courier, found a way to split the difference — actually, the newspaper cleverly intertwined them into a symbol and a national campaign that urged black people to give their all for the war effort, while at the same time calling on the government to do all it could to make the rhetoric of the Declaration of Independence and the equal rights amendments to the Constitution real for every citizen, regardless of race. And in honor of the battle against enemies from without and within, they called it “the Double V Campaign.”
War  race  history  inequalities 
march 2019 by oripsolob
The Second Middle Passage || The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross
That second forced migration was known as the domestic, or internal, slave trade: “In the seven decades between the ratification of the Constitution [in 1787] and the Civil War [1861],” the historian Walter Johnson tells us in his book Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market, “approximately one million enslaved people were relocated from the upper South to the lower South … two thirds of these through … the domestic slave trade.” In other words, two and a half times more African Americans were directly affected by the second Middle Passage than the first one.
race  history  Economics  inequalities 
march 2019 by oripsolob
The Truth Behind '40 Acres and a Mule' || The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross
It is difficult to stress adequately how revolutionary this idea was: As the historian Eric Foner puts it in his book, Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877, “Here in coastal South Carolina and Georgia, the prospect beckoned of a transformation of Southern society more radical even than the end of slavery.”
War  race  history  inequalities 
march 2019 by oripsolob
Derek Black and Matthew Stevenson — How Friendship and Quiet Conversations Transformed a White Nationalist - The On Being Project
Sociology Sal:
Retweeted Krista Tippett
This was a great episode. For #teachsoc it highlights ingroups/outgroups, stereotypes, and the importance of personal connection. #race
inequalities  sociology  race  Podcast  NPR 
march 2019 by oripsolob
Folk and Blues: The Tribulations of The Old Town School
"The school’s economic crisis, detractors say, is largely of its own making, due to a decade of mismanagement, lost opportunities, misguided priorities and poorly timed decisions. For its part, the school argues that enrollment is down because guitar playing is out of fashion and because YouTube videos and School of Rock have crowded the marketplace."

...

A financial endowment is a donation of money or property to a nonprofit organization which uses the resulting investment income for a specific purpose.

Usually the endowment is structured so that the principal amount is kept intact, while the investment income is available for use, or part of the principal is released each year, which allows for their donation to have an impact over a longer period than if it were spent all at once. An endowment may come with stipulations regarding its usage.
Music  chicago  Money  race  labor 
february 2019 by oripsolob
Emmett Till’s Murder, and How America Remembers Its Darkest Moments - The New York Times
He walked into a store and it changed civil rights. That crumbling store has come to symbolize the struggle to address the nation’s racial violence.

MONEY, Miss. — Along the edge of Money Road, across from the railroad tracks, an old grocery store rots.

In August 1955, a 14-year-old black boy visiting from Chicago walked in to buy candy. After being accused of whistling at the white woman behind the counter, he was later kidnapped, tortured, lynched and dumped in the Tallahatchie River.

The murder of Emmett Till is remembered as one of the most hideous hate crimes of the 20th century, a brutal episode in American history that helped kindle the civil rights movement. And the place where it all began, Bryant’s Grocery & Meat Market, is still standing. Barely.
race  history  inequalities  Video 
february 2019 by oripsolob
From Blackface To Blackfishing : NPR: Mickey Mouse
Mickey's early appearances were just layered with markers of blackface minstrelsy.

SAMMOND: His facial characteristics, the gloves he sometimes wears, the way that he acts, his bodily plasticity, his ability to take punishment all are kind of markers of the minstrel that are actually - had - were kind of established by the time he came on the scene in the late 1920s.

"Turkey in the Straw"

Nicholas said these cartoons were not just inspired by minstrelsy. They were quite literally minstrels in cartoons that had the same structure as minstrel shows with real people. And the audience that's watching those shorts in those days, they understood them as minstrel shows. By the time Mickey Mouse debuts, vaudeville is already on the wane. But blackface didn't die. It just left the stage and moved over to this new medium.

...

Nicholas told me that in the script for "Dumbo," the lead crow was actually called Jim Crow.

...
"Coal Black And De Sebben Dwarfs," by the way, that short is part of what's now called the Censored Eleven - a bunch of Warner Brothers cartoons that have since been taken out of syndication for being too racist. So Coal Black was happening alongside Mickey Mouse and Bugs Bunny and Felix the Cat. But Nicholas said this newer version of blackface with these much more markedly racist caricatures, it's, like, so obviously racist that people just stopped paying attention to how racist Mickey Mouse and Felix the Cat were.

...
After World War II, the nascent civil rights movement and the advent of television changed the terrain for blackface again. "Amos 'N' Andy," that long-running blackface radio show, tried to make the jump to TV in 1951 only with an entire cast of black actors in those lead roles. But the show's blackface reputation preceded it. And civil rights groups, including the NAACP, successfully petitioned CBS to cancel the show. So it was gone after three seasons. The weird twist to that is there wouldn't be another TV show with a majority black cast for another two decades. That's "Sanford And Son" in case you were wondering.
...
And this isn't just about blackface. This is about the white fantasy of black culture generally, right? So I mean, that's where I see this coming from. It's that there's this is deep, deep fetishistic desire for temporary blackness or the benefits of blackness that then triggers an equally deep shame on the other side of it because they - people know it's wrong at some level, you know? I mean, how else do you explain something that just has been roundly condemned for generations and just keeps happening.

DEMBY: Which brings us to this phenomenon that people are referring to as a new form of blackface - blackfishing, you know, like catfishing
race  history  humor  NPR  Music  sociology  Social  Media 
february 2019 by oripsolob
'Unexampled Courage' Tells The Story That Inspired Integration Of U.S. Armed Forces : NPR
Isaac Woodard, Judge Jay Waties Waring (aristocratic descendant of slaveowners), and Harry Truman

Waring: "I had to decide whether I was going to be ruled by white supremacy or be a federal judge and decide the law."

Dissented in the landmark 1951 Briggs v. Elliott case.

Though the plaintiffs lost the case before the three judge panel which voted 2-1 for the defendants, Waring's eloquent dissent, and his phrase, "Segregation is per se inequality" set the stage for 1954 Brown v. Board.
race  politics  history  inequalities  War  NPR 
february 2019 by oripsolob
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