nynate17 + identity   35

Tribal Identity | Pechanga.net
A news site for all issues related to North American Native peoples.
2810  tribal  identity  status  federal  recognition  tribes  political  issues  news  native  american  Canada  First  Nations 
march 2015 by nynate17
Native Americans today : a biographical dictionary
Author Johansen, Bruce E. (Bruce Elliott), 1950- Publisher:Greenwood Press,Pub date:c2010.Pages:xxiv, 315 p. :ISBN:9780313355547 Item info: 1 copy available at Redwood Campus Library.
january 2014 by nynate17
Blood Quantum — High Country News
Blood QuantumA complicated system that determines tribal membership threatens the future of American Indians
teaching  public  school  nativeamerican  bloodquantum  blood  quantum  reservation  tribal  rolls  identity  endangered  politics  English  2810  English  2810  Native  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
august 2011 by nynate17
Jack D. Forbes - Blood Quantum: A Relic Of Racism And Termination
"Many Native People have gotten so used to the idea of "blood quantum" (degree of "blood") that sometimes the origin of this racist concept is forgotten. It's use started in 1705 when the colony of Virginia adopted a series of laws which denied civil rights to any "negro, mulatto, or Indian" and which defined the above terms by stating that "the child of an Indian, and the child, grandchild, or great grandchild of a negro shall be deemed accounted, held, and taken to be a mulatto." Thus both a person of American race and a person of half-American race (a "half-blood" in other words) were treated as legally inferior persons." And, "The Federal government began to also use "degree of blood" in the latter part of the nineteenth-century, especially in relation to the enrollment of persons before the Dawes allotment commission. The use of "full," "one-half" etc. at that time was both an extension of the previous racist system and also a step in terminating Native Americans.
blood  quantum  Forbes  racism  tribal  identity  federal  law  2810  English  2810  Native  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
march 2011 by nynate17
Mary Rivers - Dancing at Halftime: Sports and the Controversy over American Indian Mascots (review) - American Indian Quarterly 26:2
Book Review by Rivers on Carol Spindel. Dancing at Halftime: 20th Century imagery in the form of a mascot. "I ask: Just how did we get here, allegedly paying homage to men and women we all but exterminated, despite protests against the usurpation of Native culture? It is a question that Carol Spindel wrestles with in her book Dancing at Halftime: Sports and the Controversy over American Indian Mascots. Spindel, who teaches creative nonfiction at the University of Illinois, is a major player in the continuing debate over the questionably legitimate use of Native American images in sports. She tells us that her book is an attempt to understand what each group sees when Chief Illiniwek slips out of the marching band and begins to dance. It's an inquiry into why we non-Indian Americans are so attached to the fictional Indians who live in an imaginary past and a mythological present, an attachment that tells us very little about Indian people, but a great deal about ourselves."
nativeamerican  identity  images  mascot  sports  college  book  review  cultural  appropriation  dancing 
march 2011 by nynate17
Chief Illiniwek performs last dance amid continued controversy
2007 article. More on the controversy at www.uillinois.edu/chief/

From the article: "Eighty years of tradition and 17 years of controversy came to an end, or at least to a major milepost, on Feb. 21, when Chief Illiniwek danced for the final time at a UI sporting event.
The scene was halftime at the final men’s home basketball game of the season, attended by a sold-out, largely orange-clad crowd of more than 16,000 in the Assembly Hall.
The timing was determined five days before, on Feb. 16, when the university announced it would end the long tradition.
The university also will discontinue any use of the Chief Illiniwek name, as well as any related Native American imagery in connection with UI athletics. No final action was announced regarding what the university will do with its trademark rights to the name, logo or portrayal."
nativeamerican  identity  mascots  Illinois 
february 2011 by nynate17
The Chief Illiniwek Dialogue Report
From the Illinois Trustees report on: Chief Illiniwek has been hailed as a symbol of University spirit since 1926. But while thousands have cheered his acrobatic gyrations during halftime, others look upon him with disgust.
"Chief Illiniwek is a mockery not only of Indian customs but also of white people's culture," said Bonnie Fultz, Citizens for the American Indian Movement (AIM) executive board member. According to Fultz, the continued use of Indian history as entertainment degrades the Indian and disgraces the white race by revealing an ignorance of tribal cultures.
"The Illiniwek exhibition is tantamount to someone putting on a parody of a Catholic Mass," Norma Linton, Citizens for AIM member and visiting anthropology lecturer at the University said. She continued by saying that Chief Illiniwek is an inaccurate composite.
nativeamerican  identity  indian  mascots  2001  report 
february 2011 by nynate17
Reel Injun
REEL INJUN to play at their Film Festival, March 1–5. For more info, visit the Fargo Film Festival website here: www.fargofilmfestival.org.

Reel Injun Honoured at GeminisThree awards and two runners-up
“Reel Injun is an entertaining and insightful look at the Hollywood Indian, exploring the portrayal of North American Natives through a century of cinema. Travelling through the heartland of America and into the Canadian North, Cree filmmaker Neil Diamond looks at how the myth of “the Injun” has influenced the world’s understanding – and misunderstanding – of Natives. With clips from hundreds of classic and recent films, and candid interviews with celebrated Native and non-Native directors, writers, actors, and activists including Clint Eastwood, Robbie Robertson, Graham Greene, Adam Beach, and Zacharias Kunuk, Reel Injun traces the evolution of cinema’s depiction of Native people from the silent film era to present day.”
Amazon.com  Netflix  DVD  nativeamerican  Neal  Diamond  Reel  Injun  2810  film  native  movie  history  culture  identity  media  americanindian  documentary 
february 2011 by nynate17
Earthdivers : Tribal Narratives on Mixed Descent
This is an eBrary (electronic libary) book accessible via SLCC'S LIBRARY portal.  If you're not on SLCC campus, you'll have to login to the Elie (slcc library) site with S# and pin.
Gerald  Vizenor  native  author  writing  2810  identity  English  2810  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
Lisa Blee - The 1925 Fort Union Indian Congress: Divergent Narratives, One Event - The American Indian Quarterly 31:4
In 1898 organizers of the Omaha Trans-Mississippi Exposition included what they called an "ethnologic exhibit" or an "Indian Congress" on several acres of the fairgrounds.  the Omaha Indian Congress was planned to show exhibition visitors a glimpse of "an assemblage of the 'red skins' of all tribes, to exhibit their past and present conditions, their customs and accomplishments, in brief all that should indicate their degrees of savagery and civilization, then and now." The authorities in charge of the exhibit anticipated that their audience wanted to view the Indian in "his wild state, in his blanket and aboriginal tepee," and the planners thus "endeavored to meet these ideas." "The commissioner of Indian Affairs suggested that the "encampment should be as thoroughly aboriginal in every respect as practicable, and the primitive traits and characteristics of the several tribes should be distinctly set forth."
native  Indian  identity  white  construct  primitive  savage  2810  images  stereotypes  English  2810  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
Cynthia Carsten - Writing the Cross Culture: Native Fiction on the White Man's Religion (review) - Wicazo Sa Review 22:1
Zitkala-Sa's "The Soft-Hearted Sioux," and E. Pauline Johnson's "As It Was in the Beginning" were both originally published in the first two decades of the twentieth century. Among the earliest Native Americans to write fiction for a Euro-American readership, both authors are highly critical of the bigotries and racism of early Christian missionaries who sought to convert American Indians on the one hand, yet rejected them as fully equal human beings on the other. Given the literary expectations of publishers and readers of the time, it is not surprising  that both stories are nuanced versions of the savage versus civilization theme, but I am not sure that the general reader uneducated in Euro-American literary history would grasp fully the ethnocentrism associated with the stereotype of the American Indian as noble savage
native  identity  noble  savage  2810  English  2810  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
Melissa Nelson - Ravens, Storms, and the Ecological Indian at the National Museum of the American Indian - Wicazo Sa Review 21:2
a visit to the National Museum of the American Indian and seeing signs of the mythical Noble Savage. Wicazo Sa Review 21.2 (2006) 41-60
native  identity  Indian  myth  noble  savages  NMAI  2810  English  2810  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
James V. Fenelon and Mary Louise Defender-Wilson - Voyage of Domination, "Purchase" as Conquest, Sakakawea for Savagery: Distorted Icons from Misrepresentations of the Lewis and Clark Expedition - Wicazo Sa Review 19:1
Sakakawea for Savagery
Distorted Icons from Misrepresentations of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
First, we will review the historical underpinnings and ideological uses of the word "discovery" as they extend from the early Columbian penetration of the Western Hemisphere. Implied in the term are European representations of non-Europeans as "savage," heathenistic, incapable of reason, and consequently unsuited for self-government. Such [End Page 85] constructions undergird the genocidal expansion by the United States from its inception through Thomas Jefferson's thrust up the Missouri River, legitimating conquest and domination well into the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. In this respect, the mythos and ideological constructions of the Lewis and Clark expedition contribute to the continuing distortion of who native peoples were and are, especially in the western United States.
Sakakawea  for  Savagery  Distorted  Icons  from  Misrepresentations  of  the  Lewis  and  Clark  Expedition  Native  identity  noble  savage  2810  English  2810  Native  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
Gary Totten - Zitkala-Sa and the Problem of Regionalism: Nations, Narratives, and Critical Traditions - The American Indian Quarterly 29:1&2
Zitkala-Ša clearly recognizes the connection between a positive future for American Indians and their ability to take control of how they are represented in popular culture. Sometimes couched within popular stereotypes, these ideas serve as further examples of her ability to, as Carden notes, "rewrite narratives of assimilation" (64). In "Indian Gifts to Civilized Man" (1918), she notes that American Indian soldiers, "[b]eing . . . so much at home in the out-of-doors, . . . may be an invaluable guide to our boys born and bred indoors" (116), a perspective which seems to coincide with the nineteenth-century ideology of the noble savage.
native  identity  noble  savage  2810  English  2810  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
Laura L. Mielke - "native to the question": William Apess, Black Hawk, and the Sentimental Context of Early Native American Autobiography - American Indian Quarterly 26:2
A review of William Apess's 1831 revised edition of A Son of the Forestin the American Monthly Reviewexpresses frustration over an "error" Apess commits in describing his ancestry. Apess, a Pequot Indian, claims his grandmother was the granddaughter of King Philip, the (in)famous Wampanoag leader, and in doing so he misidentifies Philip as a Pequot. 1 The reviewer concludes by voicing a concern that Apess's future attempts to write Native American history will be inaccurate: He must enlarge the boundaries of his knowledge of Indian history, and not allow himself to be carried away by every slight and imperfect tradition. 2Through the word "tradition," a term associated at this time with the oral transmission of facts, beliefs, or social codes, the reviewer strongly implies that Apess's attempt to write his personal and tribal history is tainted by Indian sources. "It does not appear that there is any authority for this statement, other than the tradition of the natives themselves."
native  identity  William  Apess  savage 
february 2011 by nynate17
Ottis Murray - Ishi's Brain: In Search of America's Last "Wild" Indian (review) - The American Indian Quarterly 29.3 & 4
These views are juxtaposed in a unique justification in the current quest for knowledge about American Indians, perhaps seeking its fulfillment as some new type of "manifest destiny" now going by the label of "science." Though anthropologists Kroeber and Waterman befriended Ishi, cared for him, and obviously developed a close personal attachment, in the final analysis one might also conclude that they were less than pure in their motivations. Not only did they profit personally and professionally from their association with Ishi, in the final analysis, they betrayed his final wish by permitting his body to be autopsied, and his dissection was minimized and excused as a "compromise between science and sentiment," with the idea being that although the autopsy was performed, at least the body was cremated according to Yahi custom.

Starn's investigation and eventual discovery of Ishi's brain in the Smithsonian's Natural Museum of Natural History was anticlimactic.
Ishi  last  Indian  Yahi  nativeamerican  identity  2810  English  2810  Native  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
David J. Carlson - "Indian for a While": Charles Eastman's Indian Boyhood and the Discourse of Allotment - American Indian Quarterly 25:4
Conflicts earlier that year with Pine Ridge's military agent over irregularities in remunerations paid to the Wounded Knee massacre survivors had precipitated Eastman's temporary resignation from the Indian Bureau. In his first entry into a dispute with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA, an agency whose goals he had heretofore supported), Eastman found himself marginalized by erstwhile supporters and frustrated by an inability to protect his brethren from graft and government corruption.  he commenced writing a series of autobiographical sketches, addressed to a predominantly white audience. 3 In all, six articles were serialized in St. Nicholas: An Illustrated Magazine for Young Folksbetween December1893 and May1894. 4 These pieces later became incorporated into the text of Indian Boyhoodwhen it was published in 1902 (by which time Eastman was again working for the BIA as the agency physician at the Crow Creek Reservation)
native  identity  Charles  Eastman  2810  English  2810  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
Shamoon Zamir - Native Agency and the Making of The North American Indian: Alexander B. Upshaw and Edward S. Curtis - The American Indian Quarterly 31:4
The twenty volumes of ethnographic text and pictorial photography and the twenty portfolios of large, finely printed photogravures that together comprise The North American Indian were the product of an extraordinary labor by Edward S. Curtis and an extensive and shifting team of co-workers. Although it is Curtis's name that appears on the title page of each volume, from the first published in 1907 to the last in 1930, the work is best understood as a collaborative effort; a variety of ethnographers, research assistants, academic advisors and editors, photographic technicians, and printers all contributed to making the project.1 In addition, hundreds (if not more) of Native Americans participated in the construction of the project, not only as photographic subjects but also as translators, informants, and cultural brokers. sulted in over 40,000 photographs, approximately 2,500 of which were actually included in the published volumes and portfolios
2007  nativeamerican  identity  Edward  Curtis  photos  ethnographic  study  pictorials  Indians 
february 2011 by nynate17
Project MUSE - The American Indian Quarterly - The Flemish Bastard and the Former Indians: Métis and Identity in Seventeenth-Century New York
In 1709 the English Board of Trade recommended the settlement of three thousand Palatine migrants on the Hudson and Mohawk rivers in New York. The officials expressed confidence that these colonists would not only produce naval stores for the fleet but also intermarry with the Indians "as the French do" and lay the foundation for an expanding fur trade. They knew well that French Canadians had long mingled with Indians and produced children of mixed ancestry, or métis. What they perhaps did not know was that New York had long had métis of its own. This paper examines the lives of three children of Dutch men and Mohawk women: the Mohawk leader Smits Jan and the siblings Jacques van Slyck and Hilletie van Olinda of the Dutch village of Schenectady. In recent years several historians have examined how cross-cultural settings enabled people to reshape their identities.
native  identity  metis  New  York  Mohawk  Dutch  adoption  religion  Christianity  americanindian 
february 2011 by nynate17
Christopher Bilodeau - "They honor our Lord among themselves in their own way": Colonial Christianity and the Illinois Indians - American Indian Quarterly 25:3
In 1666 when the Jesuit missionary Claude Allouez first met Illinois Indians at his mission of Saint Esprit on Chequamegon Bay, he could scarcely believe their enthusiasm for Christianity. Though he barely understood their Algonquian dialect, Allouez discovered that they lived "sixty leagues hence toward the South," and that "[t]hey used to be a populous nation, divided into ten large Villages; but now they are reduced to two, continual wars with the Nadouessi [Sioux] on one side and the Iroquois on the other having well-nigh exterminated them." But most important, Allouez wrote, they "worship one who is preëminent above the others . . . because he is the maker of all things," and they all longed to "see" this powerful manitou, or spirit, which "greatly facilitates their conversion" to Christianity. He thought that he only needed to replace this single manitou with the Christian God, tell the Illinois how to worship him, and they would convert
Native  christian  convert  religion  conversion  identity  nativeamerican  Jesuit  Catholic  Christianity 
february 2011 by nynate17
Angela Cavender Wilson - Decolonizing the 1862 Death Marches - The American Indian Quarterly 28:1&2
Early scholarship on the topic of 1862 revealed a hatred for Dakota people and a clear sense of white superiority. Rampant throughout these narratives is terminology reflective of this perspective. Typical of colonial interlopers on Indigenous lands, writers from the era regularly used words such as "massacre," "slaughter," and "atrocity" to describe Dakota actions upon "innocent," "pure," "brave," white settlers. The Dakota, on the other hand, were depicted as "savages," "red devils," "blood-thirsty [End Page 191] demons," "wretches," "beasts," "fiendish perpetrators," and even "government-pampered" Indians, as Minnesota's first schoolteacher Harriet Bishop McConkey described us.12 McConkey's work is representative of many early Wasicu accounts of the war as well as the views held by many of those early Euroamerican settlers.
native  identity  white  view  school  education  Dakota  2810  English  2810  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
Frederick White - Life along the Margins - The American Indian Quarterly 27:1&2
"Are we Indians?" "Yes, of course you are!" She exclaimed and then laughed at me so hard tears came to her eyes. My universe began collapsing. I went to my bed and began crying, but it was not in joy like my mother; I was despondent. I did not want to be an Indian! All that I had seen on tv, in the movies, and in my life told me that being an Indian was a terrible thing. Books, comic books, and posters I had read or seen presented Indians as beasts, devils, or both. I must have cried for at least ten minutes before I accepted the state of my being. I was aware that I was Haida, but I had never associated being Haida with being an Indian. Being Haida was not a problem; being an Indian was
native  Indian  identity  2810  English  2810  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
George E. Tinker - Walking in the Shadow of Greatness: Vine Deloria Jr. in Retrospect - Wicazo Sa Review 21:2
Deloria left this world and crossed over to join his ancestors on November 13, 2005. It is important that all Indian people and all those who are impacted by or participate in this hybrid phenomenon of modern higher education called "Indian studies" mark Deloria's passing by remembering his towering intellect and the ways in which he has indelibly impacted what we, Indians and non-Indians, do as scholars in the field. Time once reported Deloria as one of the most influential religious thinkers of the time (1978).1 Certainly he was the key American Indian intellectual figure of the twentieth century, not only in terms of religious thought but in legal theory, history, and indigenous philosophy, and in terms of an indigenous critique of euro-western scientific thought, and in indigenous social thought.
Vine  Deloria  Jr  2810  native  scholar  identity  history  writer  tribute  English  2810  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
Edward Charles Valandra - The "Indian Handshake" between Generations - Wicazo Sa Review 21:2
"Am I, or do I want to be, a ‘good' Indian?" Although we may not reactively twitch anymore, the question remains valid.Replies to this good-Indian question came to Native Country in a multitude of ways. One was Vine's memorable Native reply in Custer Died for Your Sins. Not only did he debunk the white colonial spin, but, in doing so, he, along with other Native patriots, also laid the intellectual foundations for Native studies, a discipline whose main goal is decolonization. Indeed, as the discipline of Native studies developed, Vine never let us forget who the discipline's primary constituents are: Native people.
Vine  Deloria  tribute  native  identity  nativeamerican  2810  scholar  English  2810  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
David E. Wilkins - Vine Deloria Jr. and Indigenous America - Wicazo Sa Review 21:2
Vine Deloria Jr., a Standing Rock Sioux citizen, widely considered the leading indigenous intellectual of the past century, walked on in November 2005. Deloria spent most of his adult life in an unrelenting, prodigious, and largely successful effort to provide those most grounded of Native individuals and their governments with the intellectual, theoretical, philosophical, and substantive arguments necessary to support their inherent personal and national sovereignty. Importantly, however, his voluminous work also sought to improve the nation-to-nation and intergovernmental relationships of and between First Nations, and between First Nations and non-Native governments at all levels.
Vine  Deloria  Jr  2810  writer  identity  nativeamerican  Native  scholar  tribal  self-determination  sovereignty  indigenous  sacred  space  English  2810  Native  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
Elizabeth Cook-Lynn - Comments for Vine Deloria Jr. upon his Early and Untimely Death, 2005 - Wicazo Sa Review 21:2
Early in the twentieth century, a tribal warrior named Vine Victor Deloria emerged from the Sioux homelands to study and write in defense of his people and to teach the rest of us how to think analytically about the deeply disturbing experience of American Indians everywhere. He became the most fearsome warrior on the academic battlefields of this country.
Until Vine Deloria came along, genocide or massacre were words that rarely appeared in the history books of this country. Historians talked of "Manifest Destiny," white anthropologists, with their obvious colonial structures, apologia, and misinformation, talked of "a clash of cultures," and sociologists talked of "cultural pluralism." In 1969, Deloria stunned them all with his Custer Died for Your Sins, and the intellectual world concerning Indians changed forever.
Vine  Deloria  Jr  writer  nativeamerican  scholar  2810  identity  20thCentury  2006  English  2810  Native  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
Cynthia Carsten - Storyteller: Leslie Marmon Silko's Reappropriation of Native American History and Identity - Wicazo Sa Review 21:2
Carsten writes: "Leslie Marmon Silko is one of the prominent contemporary Native American authors who reconfigures the structural boundaries of Euro-American literary genres in her work. She experiments with multiple genres—fiction, poetry, historical narrative, and memoir—within a single work. In addition, Silko subverts the Euro-American aesthetic expectations of temporal continuity and chronology of plot. These features of her work are aimed at more than a mere demonstration of her artistic literary skill. These techniques draw upon the narrative patterns of her indigenous Laguna Pueblo oral tradition, which she artfully interweaves with her original poems and fictional narratives. Her unique style results in narratives that more faithfully capture the experiential qualities of her community's oral tradition and its reflection of Pueblo orientation in time and place."  In Storyteller, Silko also positions her identity firmly in Laguna Pueblo history, tradition, and landscape.
Leslie  Marmon  Silko  reappropriation  fiction  style  native  literature  2810  Americanindian  writer  2006  identity  English  2810  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
Lloyd Lee - Navajo Cultural Identity: What Can the Navajo Nation Bring to the American Indian Identity Discussion Table? - Wicazo Sa Review 21:2
American Indian identity in the twenty-first century has become an engaging topic. Recently, discussions on Ward Churchill's racial background became a "hotbed" issue on the national scene. A few Native nations, such as the Pechanga and Isleta Pueblo, have disenrolled members. Scholars such as Circe Strum, in Blood Politics: Race, Culture, and Identity in the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, and Eva Marie Garroutte, in Real Indians: Identity and Survival of Native America, have examined American Indian identity. More attention is being devoted to understanding the implications of racial identity in Native nations. What have we learned from these studies? We have learned that an imposed enrollment system has impacted Native nations. We understand that Native nations have the inherent right to determine membership. Meanwhile, the United States government controls and manipulates funds for all Native nations and interferes with each Native nation's applications of its own laws
Navajo  cultural  identity  Native  2810  creation  worldview  origin  tribal  rolls  blood  quantum  English  2810  Native  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
Darren J. Ranco - Toward a Native Anthropology: Hermeneutics, Hunting Stories, and Theorizing from Within - Wicazo Sa Review 21:2
As a Native person doing anthropological research within and for American Indian nations, I am not able to sidestep the many theoretical and ethical concerns that non-Native researchers face in doing similar research. I have had to defend the potential biases of my research, whether it is applied or action oriented, whereas my non-Native colleagues do not. Indeed, if anthropology is, as Thomas Biolsi and Larry Zimmerman state, "a quintessentially Western project" that "Westerners ask about themselves and their encounter with peoples they have colonized and liquidated,"1 what use could I possibly find in the techniques offered by such a set of questions? In what follows, I want to examine why and how Native and non-Native researchers choose the research questions they do, and how this relates to the colonial context in which they find themselves. To do this, I treat research itself, not just anthropology, as part of the historical and colonial context of contemporary indigenous people
Native  anthropology  2810  history  identity  americanindian  theOther  Other  English  2810  Native  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
Steve Talbot - Spiritual Genocide: The Denial of American Indian Religious Freedom, from Conquest to 1934 - Wicazo Sa Review 21:2
The resulting outpouring of sanctimonious criticism and superpatriotic zeal to "put God back" into the Pledge of Allegiance is tragically ironic if one reflects on the more than two hundred years of religious oppression that the indigenous peoples and nations of the United States have endured while white America scarcely raised an objection.
Until 1935, the traditional (non-Christian) religions of the American Indians were banned outright on the reservations, and Indian people practicing their religious beliefs could be fined and sent to prison. The Sweat Lodge purification ritual and the Sun Dance religion were outlawed, and  other spiritual practices driven underground. At the same time, Christianity was forced on the Native Peoples by the missionaries. [I]t took a special act of Congress, the 1978 American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA), to affirm religious freedom for the Native nations. The law lacked "teeth," as contained no civil or criminal penalties to implement it.
americanindian  history  religion  freedom  identity  Indian  law  government  civil  rights  On  June  26  2002  the  Ninth  Circuit  Court  of  Appeals  in  San  Francisco  ruled  that  words 
february 2011 by nynate17
Darryl Robes Kipp - Images of Native People As Seen by the Eye of the Blackbird - wicazo sa review: A Journal of Native American Studies 16:2
The author writes, "Images of Native people in the media is not a new subject. In 1987, I taught a course at Salish Kootenai College on it, and once became so nauseated I shut down Stay Away Joe, starring Elvis Presley, to go outside for fresh air. I couldn't accept the damage done to Elvis and Native people, but it was indicative of the pollution created in the name of art (and money). Afterward, I became more interested in the people responsible for bastardizing the images of Native people. The subject has yet to move away from the images to the producers whose distortions burn the eye and heart." Darrell Robes Kipp lives on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation in Montana by a lake. He founded Piegan Institute and the Real Speak Schools. A graduate of Harvard University and Goddard College's M.F.A. program, Kipp designs programs to revitalize his tribal language.
Native  identity  film  media  2810  americanindian  English  2810  Native  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
John Mihelich - Smoke or Signals? American Popular Culture and the Challenge to Hegemonic Images of American Indians in Native American Film - wicazo sa review: A Journal of Native American Studies 16:2
Author writes, "I asked students in two sociology classes to list the stereotypes that they or others hold concerning American Indians. The lists included a dichotomous range of all-too-familiar American Indian stereotypes. The students listed the negative stereotypes: "savage," "uneducated," "poor," "drunken," "angry," "aggressive," "stupid," "inferior," and "lazy," among others. The more positive stereotypes included "proud," "noble," "spiritual," "deeply religious," "wise," "nature-loving," "tradition," and others. None of the stereotypes gave any indication of perceptions of Indians as "ordinary" Americans, although a few students argued in the commentary that, despite these stereotypes, many Indians are "ordinary" Americans. Clearly, Indians are understood by this predominantly white and non-Indian student population as something "other" than themselves--except, of course, those Indians whom they know personally."
Nativeamerican  sovereignty  film  Smokesignals  Sherman  Alexie  2810  identity  americanindian  stereotypes  English  2810  Native  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
Sam Pack - The Best of Both Worlds: Otherness, Appropriation, and Identity in Thunderheart - wicazo sa review: A Journal of Native American Studies 16:2
Pack, Sam.The Best of Both Worlds: Otherness, Appropriation, and Identity in Thunderheart[Access article in HTML] [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:TriStar Pictures. Thunderheart [film]Indians in motion pictures.Indians of North America -- Public opinion.
Native  identity  2810  film  AmericanIndian  American  Wicazo  Sa  Review  English  2810  Native  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
T. V. (Thomas Vernon) Reed - Old Cowboys, New Indians: Hollywood Frames the American Indian - wicazo sa review: A Journal of Native American Studies 16:2
[In] the late 1960s and early 1970s. This was the era when the most famous and infamous Red Power warriors, the American Indian Movement (AIM), had its heyday. These putatively "new" Indians challenged five hundred years of colonial domination by fighting for a return to full sovereign status for Native nations, restoration of lands guaranteed by treaty, just compensation for the minerals exploited from reservations, and a renaissance of Native cultures. But it is important to say at the outset that, despite its name, AIM was not the Indian movement, but rather only one organization among many groups that formed a larger movement. Many other important Indian resistance groups preceded AIM by many years, ran parallel to AIM, and continued after AIM's rise and fall. AIM was far from universally loved in Indian country. Specifically, I want to examine how Hollywood has framed the American Indian Movement in a series of fiction films.
Native  identity  films  fiction  2810  English  AIM  English  2810  Native  American  Lit  &  Experience  link 
february 2011 by nynate17
Project MUSE - The American Indian Quarterly - Indigenous Identity: What Is It and Who Really Has It?
Indigenousidentityisatrulycomplexandsomewhatcontroversialtopic.There is little agreement on precisely what constitutes an indigenous identity, how to measure it, and who truly has it. Indeed, there is not even a consensus on appropriate terms. Are we talking about Indians, American Indians, Natives, Native Americans, indigenous people, or First Nations people? Are we talking about Sioux or Lakota? Navajo or Dine? Chippewa, Ojibway, or Anishnabe? Once we get that sorted out, are we talking about race, ethnicity, cultural identity, tribal identity, acculturation, enculturation, bicultural identity, multicultural identity, or some other form of identity? This article provides background information on three facets of identity: self-identification, community identification, and external identification how  oppression/colonization is related to identity. The terms Native and indigenous are used interchangeably to refer to the descendants of the original inhabitants of North America.
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february 2011 by nynate17

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