nhaliday + stamina   30

An updated meta-analysis of the ego depletion effect | SpringerLink
The results suggest that attention video should be an ineffective depleting task, whereas emotion video should be the most effective one. Future studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of each depletion task revealed by the current meta-analysis.
study  psychology  cog-psych  replication  meta-analysis  intervention  hmm  attention  emotion  the-monster  stamina  ego-depletion  discipline  self-control  evidence-based  solid-study 
april 2017 by nhaliday
Whole Health Source: The Glycemic Index: A Critical Evaluation
Overall, these studies do not support the idea that lowering the glycemic index of carbohydrate foods is useful for weight loss, insulin or glucose control, or anything else besides complicating your life. I'll keep my finger on the pulse of this research as it expands, but for the time being I don't see the glycemic index per se as a significant way to combat fat gain or metabolic disease.
critique  concept  diet  nutrition  stamina  embodied-cognition  embodied  health  taubes-guyenet  org:health  contrarianism  fitsci  obesity  metrics 
march 2017 by nhaliday
Hyperbolic discounting - Wikipedia
Individuals using hyperbolic discounting reveal a strong tendency to make choices that are inconsistent over time – they make choices today that their future self would prefer not to have made, despite using the same reasoning. This dynamic inconsistency happens because the value of future rewards is much lower under hyperbolic discounting than under exponential discounting.
psychology  cog-psych  behavioral-econ  values  time-preference  wiki  reference  concept  models  distribution  time  uncertainty  decision-theory  decision-making  sequential  stamina  neurons  akrasia  contradiction  self-control  patience  article  formal-values  microfoundations  constraint-satisfaction  additive  long-short-run 
january 2017 by nhaliday
Genetically Capitalist? The Malthusian Era, Institutions and the Formation of Modern Preferences.
The highly capitalistic nature of English society by 1800 – individualism, low time preference rates, long work hours, high levels of human capital – may thus stem from the nature of the Darwinian struggle in a very stable agrarian society in the long run up to the Industrial Revolution. The triumph of capitalism in the modern world thus may lie as much in our genes as in ideology or rationality.


key figure:
Figure 8 Surviving Children by Testator’s Assets in £


on foragers and farmers:
When we consider forager societies the evidence on rates of return becomes much more indirect, because there is no explicit capital market, or lending may be subject to substantial default risks given the lack of fixed assets with which to secure loans. Anthropologists, however, have devised other ways to measure people’s rate of time preference rates. They can, for example, look at the relative rewards of activities whose benefits occur at different times in the future: digging up wild tubers or fishing with an immediate reward, as opposed to trapping with a reward delayed by days, as opposed to clearing and planting with a reward months in the future, as opposed to animal rearing with a reward years in the future.

A recent study of Mikea forager-farmers in Madagascar found, for example, that the typical Mikea household planted less than half as much land as was needed to feed themselves. Yet the returns from shifting cultivation of maize were enormous. A typical yielded was a minimum of 74,000 kcal. per hour of work. Foraging for tubers, in comparison, yielded an average return of 1,800 kcal. per hour. Despite this the Mikea rely on foraging for a large share of their food, consequently spending most time foraging. This implies extraordinarily high time preference rates.39 James Woodburn claimed that Hadza of Tanzania showed a similar disinterest in distant benefits, “In harvesting berries, entire branches are often cut from the trees to ease the present problems of picking without regard to future loss of yield.”40 Even the near future mattered little. The Pirahã of Brazil are even more indifferent to future benefits. A brief overview of their culture included the summary,
"Most important in understanding Pirahã material culture is their lack of concern with the non-immediate or the abstraction of present action for future benefit, e. g. ‘saving for a rainy day.’" (Everett, 2005, Appendix 5).


The real rate of return, r, can be thought of as composed of three elements: a rate of pure time preference, ρ, a default risk premium, d, and a premium that reflects the growth of overall expected incomes year to year, θgy. Thus
r ≈ ρ + d + θgy.

People as economic agents display a basic set of preferences – between consumption now and future consumption, between consumption of leisure or goods – that modern economics has taken as primitives. Time preference is simply the idea that, everything else being equal, people prefer to consume now rather than later. The rate of time preference measures how strong that preference is.

The existence of time preference in consumption cannot be derived from consideration of rational action. Indeed it has been considered by some economists to represent a systematic deviation of human psychology from rational action, where there should be no absolute time preference. Economists have thought of time preference rates as being hard-wired into peoples’ psyches, and as having stemmed from some very early evolutionary process.41


on china:
Figure 17 Male total fertility rate for the Qing Imperial

In China and Japan also, while richer groups had more
reproductive success in the pre-industrial era, that advantage was
more muted than in England. Figure 17, for example, shows the
total fertility rate for the Qing imperial lineage in China in 1644-1840. This is the number of births per man living to age 45. The royal lineage, which had access to imperial subsidies and allowances that made them wealthy, was more successful reproductively than the average Chinese man. But in most decades the advantage was modest – not anything like as dramatic as in preindustrial England.

But these advantages cumulated in China over millennia perhaps explain why it is no real surprise that China, despite nearly a generation of extreme forms of Communism between 1949 and 1978, emerged unchanged as a society individualist and capitalist to its core. The effects of the thousands of years of operation of a society under the selective pressures of the Malthusian regime could not be uprooted by utopian dreamers.

Review by Allen: http://faculty.econ.ucdavis.edu/faculty/gclark/Farewell%20to%20Alms/Allen_JEL_Review.pdf
The empirical support for these claims is examined, and all are questionable.

Review by Bowles: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1126/science.1149498

The Domestication of Man: The Social Implications of Darwin: http://gredos.usal.es/jspui/bitstream/10366/72715/1/The_Domestication_of_Man_The_Social_Impl.pdf

hmm: https://growthecon.com/blog/Constraints/
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november 2016 by nhaliday
The Influence of Glycemic Index on Cognitive Functioning: A Systematic Review of the Evidence
The primary outcome measure was the effect on cognitive function (CF) after the consumption of meals varying in GI. Eleven eligible studies were identified. The age range of the participants varied from 6 to 82 y old. Overall, the findings were inconsistent, with some studies showing benefits toward either the high-GI or the low-GI meal, others not finding any differences between the 2 meals, and other studies showing a positive or negative effect on performance on only some cognitive domain or domains after consumption of 1 of the 2 meals. A number of methodologic and confounding factors were identified that could explain these inconsistencies.
study  meta-analysis  food  health  neuro  intelligence  productivity  akrasia  evidence-based  embodied-cognition  confounding  stamina  neuro-nitgrit  replication  ego-depletion  psychology  cog-psych  discipline  solid-study 
july 2016 by nhaliday
A Meta-Analysis of Blood Glucose Effects on Human Decision Making
mixed evidence for ego-depletion:
We did not find a uniform influence of blood glucose on decision making. Instead, we found that low levels of blood glucose increase the willingness to pay and willingness to work when a situation is food related, but decrease willingness to pay and work in all other situations. Low levels of blood glucose increase the future discount rate for food; that is, decision makers become more impatient, and to a lesser extent increase the future discount rate for money. Low levels of blood glucose also increase the tendency to make more intuitive rather than deliberate decisions. However, this effect was only observed in situations unrelated to food.
psychology  productivity  regularizer  study  meta-analysis  pdf  cog-psych  field-study  c:***  time-preference  discipline  values  decision-making  stamina  embodied-cognition  neuro-nitgrit  replication  null-result  ego-depletion  neuro  food  self-control  solid-study  multi  street-fighting  critique  scitariat 
july 2016 by nhaliday
Work hard | What's new
Similarly, to be a “professional” mathematician, you need to not only work on your research problem(s), but you should also constantly be working on learning new proofs and techniques, going over important proofs and papers time and again until you’ve mastered them. Don’t stay in your mathematical comfort zone, but expand your horizon by also reading (relevant) papers that are not at the heart of your own field. You should go to seminars to stay current and to challenge yourself to understand math in real time. And so on. All of these elements have to find their way into your daily work routine, because if you neglect any of them it will ultimately affect your research output negatively.
- from the comments
advice  academia  math  reflection  career  expert  gowers  long-term  🎓  aphorism  grad-school  phd  scholar  mathtariat  discipline  curiosity  🦉  nibble  org:bleg  the-trenches  meta:research  gtd  stamina  vitality  s:**  info-dynamics  expert-experience 
april 2016 by nhaliday

bundles : disciplineembodiedfrontiergrowth

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