nhaliday + entropy-like   48

Ultimate fate of the universe - Wikipedia
The fate of the universe is determined by its density. The preponderance of evidence to date, based on measurements of the rate of expansion and the mass density, favors a universe that will continue to expand indefinitely, resulting in the "Big Freeze" scenario below.[8] However, observations are not conclusive, and alternative models are still possible.[9]

Big Freeze or heat death
Main articles: Future of an expanding universe and Heat death of the universe
The Big Freeze is a scenario under which continued expansion results in a universe that asymptotically approaches absolute zero temperature.[10] This scenario, in combination with the Big Rip scenario, is currently gaining ground as the most important hypothesis.[11] It could, in the absence of dark energy, occur only under a flat or hyperbolic geometry. With a positive cosmological constant, it could also occur in a closed universe. In this scenario, stars are expected to form normally for 1012 to 1014 (1–100 trillion) years, but eventually the supply of gas needed for star formation will be exhausted. As existing stars run out of fuel and cease to shine, the universe will slowly and inexorably grow darker. Eventually black holes will dominate the universe, which themselves will disappear over time as they emit Hawking radiation.[12] Over infinite time, there would be a spontaneous entropy decrease by the Poincaré recurrence theorem, thermal fluctuations,[13][14] and the fluctuation theorem.[15][16]

A related scenario is heat death, which states that the universe goes to a state of maximum entropy in which everything is evenly distributed and there are no gradients—which are needed to sustain information processing, one form of which is life. The heat death scenario is compatible with any of the three spatial models, but requires that the universe reach an eventual temperature minimum.[17]
physics  big-picture  world  space  long-short-run  futurism  singularity  wiki  reference  article  nibble  thermo  temperature  entropy-like  order-disorder  death  nihil  bio  complex-systems  cybernetics  increase-decrease  trends  computation  local-global  prediction  time  spatial  spreading  density  distribution  manifolds  geometry  janus 
april 2018 by nhaliday
Antinomia Imediata – experiments in a reaction from the left
So, what is the Left Reaction? First of all, it’s reaction: opposition to the modern rationalist establishment, the Cathedral. It opposes the universalist Jacobin program of global government, favoring a fractured geopolitics organized through long-evolved complex systems. It’s profoundly anti-socialist and anti-communist, favoring market economy and individualism. It abhors tribalism and seeks a realistic plan for dismantling it (primarily informed by HBD and HBE). It looks at modernity as a degenerative ratchet, whose only way out is intensification (hence clinging to crypto-marxist market-driven acceleration).

How come can any of this still be in the *Left*? It defends equality of power, i.e. freedom. This radical understanding of liberty is deeply rooted in leftist tradition and has been consistently abhored by the Right. LRx is not democrat, is not socialist, is not progressist and is not even liberal (in its current, American use). But it defends equality of power. It’s utopia is individual sovereignty. It’s method is paleo-agorism. The anti-hierarchy of hunter-gatherer nomads is its understanding of the only realistic objective of equality.


In more cosmic terms, it seeks only to fulfill the Revolution’s side in the left-right intelligence pump: mutation or creation of paths. Proudhon’s antinomy is essentially about this: the collective force of the socius, evinced in moral standards and social organization vs the creative force of the individuals, that constantly revolutionize and disrupt the social body. The interplay of these forces create reality (it’s a metaphysics indeed): the Absolute (socius) builds so that the (individualistic) Revolution can destroy so that the Absolute may adapt, and then repeat. The good old formula of ‘solve et coagula’.

Ultimately, if the Neoreaction promises eternal hell, the LRx sneers “but Satan is with us”.

Liberty is to be understood as the ability and right of all sentient beings to dispose of their persons and the fruits of their labor, and nothing else, as they see fit. This stems from their self-awareness and their ability to control and choose the content of their actions.


Equality is to be understood as the state of no imbalance of power, that is, of no subjection to another sentient being. This stems from their universal ability for empathy, and from their equal ability for reason.


It is important to notice that, contrary to usual statements of these two principles, my standpoint is that Liberty and Equality here are not merely compatible, meaning they could coexist in some possible universe, but rather they are two sides of the same coin, complementary and interdependent. There can be NO Liberty where there is no Equality, for the imbalance of power, the state of subjection, will render sentient beings unable to dispose of their persons and the fruits of their labor[1], and it will limit their ability to choose over their rightful jurisdiction. Likewise, there can be NO Equality without Liberty, for restraining sentient beings’ ability to choose and dispose of their persons and fruits of labor will render some more powerful than the rest, and establish a state of subjection.

equality is the founding principle (and ultimately indistinguishable from) freedom. of course, it’s only in one specific sense of “equality” that this sentence is true.

to try and eliminate the bullshit, let’s turn to networks again:

any nodes’ degrees of freedom is the number of nodes they are connected to in a network. freedom is maximum when the network is symmetrically connected, i. e., when all nodes are connected to each other and thus there is no topographical hierarchy (middlemen) – in other words, flatness.

in this understanding, the maximization of freedom is the maximization of entropy production, that is, of intelligence. As Land puts it:

gnon  blog  stream  politics  polisci  ideology  philosophy  land  accelerationism  left-wing  right-wing  paradox  egalitarianism-hierarchy  civil-liberty  power  hmm  revolution  analytical-holistic  mutation  selection  individualism-collectivism  tribalism  us-them  modernity  multi  tradeoffs  network-structure  complex-systems  cybernetics  randy-ayndy  insight  contrarianism  metameta  metabuch  characterization  cooperate-defect  n-factor  altruism  list  coordination  graphs  visual-understanding  cartoons  intelligence  entropy-like  thermo  information-theory  order-disorder  decentralized  distribution  degrees-of-freedom  analogy  graph-theory  extrema  evolution  interdisciplinary  bio  differential  geometry  anglosphere  optimate  nascent-state  deep-materialism  new-religion  cool  mystic  the-classics  self-interest  interests  reason  volo-avolo  flux-stasis  invariance  government  markets  paying-rent  cost-benefit  peace-violence  frontier  exit-voice  nl-and-so-can-you  war  track-record  usa  history  mostly-modern  world-war  military  justice  protestant-cathol 
march 2018 by nhaliday
Culture, Ethnicity, and Diversity - American Economic Association
We investigate the empirical relationship between ethnicity and culture, defined as a vector of traits reflecting norms, values, and attitudes. Using survey data for 76 countries, we find that ethnic identity is a significant predictor of cultural values, yet that within-group variation in culture trumps between-group variation. Thus, in contrast to a commonly held view, ethnic and cultural diversity are unrelated. Although only a small portion of a country’s overall cultural heterogeneity occurs between groups, we find that various political economy outcomes (such as civil conflict and public goods provision) worsen when there is greater overlap between ethnicity and culture. (JEL D74, H41, J15, O15, O17, Z13)

definition of chi-squared index, etc., under:
II. Measuring Heterogeneity

Table 5—Incidence of Civil Conflict and Diversity
Table 6—Public Goods Provision and Diversity

χ2 diversity: raising the risk of civil war. Desmet, Ortuño-Ortín, Wacziarg, in the American Economic Review (1/N)

What predicts higher χ2 diversity? The authors tell us that, too. Here are all of the variables that have a correlation > 0.4: (7/N)

one of them is UK legal origin...

online appendix (with maps, Figures B1-3): http://www.anderson.ucla.edu/faculty_pages/romain.wacziarg/downloads/2017_culture_appendix.pdf
study  economics  growth-econ  broad-econ  world  developing-world  race  diversity  putnam-like  culture  cultural-dynamics  entropy-like  metrics  within-group  anthropology  microfoundations  political-econ  🎩  🌞  pdf  piracy  public-goodish  general-survey  cohesion  ethnocentrism  tribalism  behavioral-econ  sociology  cooperate-defect  homo-hetero  revolution  war  stylized-facts  econometrics  group-level  variance-components  multi  twitter  social  commentary  spearhead  econotariat  garett-jones  backup  summary  maps  data  visualization  correlation  values  poll  composition-decomposition  concept  conceptual-vocab  definition  intricacy  nonlinearity  anglosphere  regression  law  roots  within-without 
september 2017 by nhaliday
A cross-country empirical test of cognitive abilities and innovation nexus - Munich Personal RePEc Archive
In this study we analyze the relationship between national cognitive abilities and innovational output using data from 124 countries of the world. By employing cross-country IQ scores traditionally used by psychological literature to represent national intelligence, and Economic Complexity Index as a novel measure of innovation, our study shows that there is a positive connection between them. We use a variety of tests to check the robustness of the nexus. Overall, our findings indicate that more intelligent nations export more sophisticated and diverse products to the world market and thus are more innovative. Therefore, developing countries should consider investing in human capital and related institutions if they are to boost innovative capabilities and move up the technology ladder in producing and exporting sophisticated and varied lines of products. This should bring them greater economic diversity which could be a right lever in mitigating negative external shocks.
study  economics  broad-econ  psychology  cog-psych  growth-econ  wealth-of-nations  innovation  pop-diff  rindermann-thompson  diversity  human-capital  hive-mind  iq  correlation  entropy-like  wealth  the-world-is-just-atoms  🎩  econ-metrics  econometrics  world  group-level  spearhead  macro  stylized-facts  behavioral-econ  biophysical-econ  microfoundations  🌞  hari-seldon 
september 2017 by nhaliday
Controversial New Theory Suggests Life Wasn't a Fluke of Biology—It Was Physics | WIRED
First Support for a Physics Theory of Life: https://www.quantamagazine.org/first-support-for-a-physics-theory-of-life-20170726/
Take chemistry, add energy, get life. The first tests of Jeremy England’s provocative origin-of-life hypothesis are in, and they appear to show how order can arise from nothing.
news  org:mag  profile  popsci  bio  xenobio  deep-materialism  roots  eden  physics  interdisciplinary  applications  ideas  thermo  complex-systems  cybernetics  entropy-like  order-disorder  arrows  phys-energy  emergent  empirical  org:sci  org:inst  nibble  chemistry  fixed-point  wild-ideas 
august 2017 by nhaliday
Stages of Diversification
This paper studies the evolution of sectoral concentration in relation to the level of per capita income. We show that various measures of sectoral concentration follow a U-shaped pattern across a wide variety of data sources: countries first diversify, in the sense that economic activity is spread more equally across sectors, but there exists, relatively late in the development process, a point at which they start specializing again. We discuss this finding in light of existing theories of trade and growth, which generally predict a monotonic relationship between income and diversification. (JEL F43, F15, O40)

seems unhealthy to me (complacency)
pdf  study  economics  growth-econ  stylized-facts  correlation  curvature  wealth  wealth-of-nations  distribution  trade  heavy-industry  🎩  group-level  regional-scatter-plots  longitudinal  the-world-is-just-atoms  econ-metrics  econometrics  broad-econ  diversity  entropy-like  nonlinearity  convexity-curvature 
june 2017 by nhaliday
Henry Adams and the gift of pessimism
When a conservative fails at politics, his temptation is to become a Declinist. All that is left is cataloging human folly, and sighing wistfully at the civilization that is moldering around him. Rather than making his interpretation of history parallel to the theory of biological evolution — where everywhere there is adaptation and higher forms — the Declinist is haunted by the physical law of entropy. All dissipates before him.
news  org:mag  politics  polisci  right-wing  regularizer  history  people  usa  northeast  early-modern  mostly-modern  douthatish  org:anglo  ideology  entropy-like  order-disorder  analogy  pre-ww2 
february 2017 by nhaliday
Information Geometry (Part 16) | Azimuth
While preparing this talk, I discovered a cool fact. I doubt it’s new, but I haven’t exactly seen it elsewhere. I came up with it while trying to give a precise and general statement of ‘Fisher’s fundamental theorem of natural selection’. I won’t start by explaining that theorem, since my version looks rather different than Fisher’s, and I came up with mine precisely because I had trouble understanding his. I’ll say a bit more about this at the end.

Here’s my version:
The square of the rate at which a population learns information is the variance of its fitness.
baez  mathtariat  evolution  bio  genetics  population-genetics  bits  interdisciplinary  models  exposition  math.DS  giants  information-theory  entropy-like  org:bleg  nibble  fisher  EGT  dynamical 
february 2017 by nhaliday
Shtetl-Optimized » Blog Archive » Why I Am Not An Integrated Information Theorist (or, The Unconscious Expander)
In my opinion, how to construct a theory that tells us which physical systems are conscious and which aren’t—giving answers that agree with “common sense” whenever the latter renders a verdict—is one of the deepest, most fascinating problems in all of science. Since I don’t know a standard name for the problem, I hereby call it the Pretty-Hard Problem of Consciousness. Unlike with the Hard Hard Problem, I don’t know of any philosophical reason why the Pretty-Hard Problem should be inherently unsolvable; but on the other hand, humans seem nowhere close to solving it (if we had solved it, then we could reduce the abortion, animal rights, and strong AI debates to “gentlemen, let us calculate!”).

Now, I regard IIT as a serious, honorable attempt to grapple with the Pretty-Hard Problem of Consciousness: something concrete enough to move the discussion forward. But I also regard IIT as a failed attempt on the problem. And I wish people would recognize its failure, learn from it, and move on.

In my view, IIT fails to solve the Pretty-Hard Problem because it unavoidably predicts vast amounts of consciousness in physical systems that no sane person would regard as particularly “conscious” at all: indeed, systems that do nothing but apply a low-density parity-check code, or other simple transformations of their input data. Moreover, IIT predicts not merely that these systems are “slightly” conscious (which would be fine), but that they can be unboundedly more conscious than humans are.

To justify that claim, I first need to define Φ. Strikingly, despite the large literature about Φ, I had a hard time finding a clear mathematical definition of it—one that not only listed formulas but fully defined the structures that the formulas were talking about. Complicating matters further, there are several competing definitions of Φ in the literature, including ΦDM (discrete memoryless), ΦE (empirical), and ΦAR (autoregressive), which apply in different contexts (e.g., some take time evolution into account and others don’t). Nevertheless, I think I can define Φ in a way that will make sense to theoretical computer scientists. And crucially, the broad point I want to make about Φ won’t depend much on the details of its formalization anyway.

We consider a discrete system in a state x=(x1,…,xn)∈Sn, where S is a finite alphabet (the simplest case is S={0,1}). We imagine that the system evolves via an “updating function” f:Sn→Sn. Then the question that interests us is whether the xi‘s can be partitioned into two sets A and B, of roughly comparable size, such that the updates to the variables in A don’t depend very much on the variables in B and vice versa. If such a partition exists, then we say that the computation of f does not involve “global integration of information,” which on Tononi’s theory is a defining aspect of consciousness.
aaronson  tcstariat  philosophy  dennett  interdisciplinary  critique  nibble  org:bleg  within-without  the-self  neuro  psychology  cog-psych  metrics  nitty-gritty  composition-decomposition  complex-systems  cybernetics  bits  information-theory  entropy-like  forms-instances  empirical  walls  arrows  math.DS  structure  causation  quantitative-qualitative  number  extrema  optimization  abstraction  explanation  summary  degrees-of-freedom  whole-partial-many  network-structure  systematic-ad-hoc  tcs  complexity  hardness  no-go  computation  measurement  intricacy  examples  counterexample  coding-theory  linear-algebra  fields  graphs  graph-theory  expanders  math  math.CO  properties  local-global  intuition  error  definition 
january 2017 by nhaliday
Epistasis and Entropy
Epistasis is a key concept in the theory of adaptation. Indicators of epistasis are of interest for large systems where systematic fitness measurements may not be possible. Some recent approaches depend on information theory. We show that considering shared entropy for pairs of loci can be misleading. The reason is that shared entropy does not imply epistasis for the pair. This observation holds true also in the absence of higher order epistasis. We discuss a method for reducing the number of false positives. However, our main conclusion is that entropy-based approaches have serious limitations in this context.
study  methodology  genetics  population-genetics  information-theory  nonlinearity  bio  gotchas  genomics  QTL  entropy-like 
december 2016 by nhaliday
Overcoming Bias : Beware General Visible Prey
So, bottom line, the future great filter scenario that most concerns me is one where our solar-system-bound descendants have killed most of nature, can’t yet colonize other stars, are general predators and prey of each other, and have fallen into a short-term-predatory-focus equilibrium where predators can easily see and travel to most all prey. Yes there are about a hundred billion comets way out there circling the sun, but even that seems a small enough number for predators to careful map and track all of them.
hanson  risk  prediction  futurism  speculation  pessimism  war  ratty  space  big-picture  fermi  threat-modeling  equilibrium  slippery-slope  anthropic  chart  deep-materialism  new-religion  ideas  bio  nature  plots  expansionism  malthus  marginal  convexity-curvature  humanity  farmers-and-foragers  diversity  entropy-like  homo-hetero  existence  volo-avolo  technology  frontier  intel  travel  time-preference  communication  civilization  egalitarianism-hierarchy  peace-violence  ecology  cooperate-defect  dimensionality  whole-partial-many  temperance  patience  thinking  long-short-run  prepping  offense-defense 
october 2016 by nhaliday
CS229T/STATS231: Statistical Learning Theory
Course by Percy Liang covers a mix of statistics, computational learning theory, and some online learning. Also surveys the state-of-the-art in theoretical understanding of deep learning (not much to cover unfortunately).
yoga  stanford  course  machine-learning  stats  👳  lecture-notes  acm  kernels  learning-theory  deep-learning  frontier  init  ground-up  unit  dimensionality  vc-dimension  entropy-like  extrema  moments  online-learning  bandits  p:***  explore-exploit 
june 2016 by nhaliday
Kullback–Leibler divergence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kullback%E2%80%93Leibler_divergence#Motivation especially

Kullback-Leibler divergence has an enormous number of interpretations and uses: psychological, epistemic, thermodynamic, statistical, computational, geometrical... I am pretty sure I could teach an entire graduate seminar on it.
information-theory  math  wiki  probability  concept  reference  acm  hmm  atoms  operational  characterization  metrics  bits  entropy-like  nibble  properties  multi  twitter  social  discussion  backup 
may 2016 by nhaliday

bundles : abstractacmmath

related tags

aaronson  abstraction  academia  accelerationism  accretion  acm  acmtariat  additive  additive-combo  algebra  algebraic-complexity  algorithms  altruism  analogy  analysis  analytical-holistic  anglosphere  anthropic  anthropology  apollonian-dionysian  applications  approximation  arrows  article  asia  atoms  average-case  aversion  axioms  backup  baez  bandits  bayesian  behavioral-econ  benevolence  better-explained  big-peeps  big-picture  binomial  bio  biophysical-econ  bits  blog  boltzmann  boolean-analysis  bostrom  broad-econ  brunn-minkowski  calculation  carcinisation  cartoons  causation  characterization  chart  checklists  chemistry  china  christianity  circuits  civil-liberty  civilization  classic  clever-rats  coarse-fine  cocktail  coding-theory  cog-psych  cohesion  commentary  communication  communication-complexity  commutativity  comparison  complex-systems  complexity  composition-decomposition  computation  concentration-of-measure  concept  conceptual-vocab  concurrency  confluence  confusion  contrarianism  convexity-curvature  cool  cooperate-defect  coordination  correlation  cost-benefit  counter-revolution  counterexample  course  creative  critique  cultural-dynamics  culture  curvature  cybernetics  cycles  cynicism-idealism  data  data-science  data-structures  death  decentralized  decision-making  decision-theory  deep-learning  deep-materialism  definition  degrees-of-freedom  dennett  density  developing-world  differential  dimensionality  dirty-hands  discrete  discussion  distribution  diversity  douthatish  duality  dumb-ML  duty  dynamic  dynamical  early-modern  ecology  econ-metrics  econometrics  economics  econotariat  eden  eden-heaven  efficiency  egalitarianism-hierarchy  EGT  electromag  emergent  empirical  ems  ends-means  enhancement  entropy-like  equilibrium  error  essay  estimate  ethics  ethnocentrism  evolution  examples  existence  exit-voice  expanders  expansionism  expert  expert-experience  explanation  explore-exploit  exposition  externalities  extrema  farmers-and-foragers  features  fermi  feynman  fiction  fields  finiteness  fisher  fixed-point  fluid  flux-stasis  formal-values  forms-instances  fourier  frequency  frontier  futurism  game-theory  garett-jones  gavisti  gedanken  general-survey  genetics  genomics  geometry  giants  gnon  good-evil  gotchas  government  gowers  graph-theory  graphical-models  graphs  gravity  ground-up  group-level  growth-econ  hanson  hard-tech  hardness  hardware  hari-seldon  harvard  hashing  heavy-industry  heterodox  hi-order-bits  high-dimension  history  hive-mind  hmm  homo-hetero  homogeneity  human-capital  humanity  ideas  identity  ideology  idk  iidness  illusion  impact  increase-decrease  individualism-collectivism  information-theory  init  innovation  insight  instinct  integral  intel  intelligence  interdisciplinary  interests  internet  intricacy  intuition  invariance  iq  iteration-recursion  janus  justice  kernels  knowledge  land  language  latent-variables  law  learning-theory  lecture-notes  left-wing  legibility  len:long  lens  letters  levers  limits  linear-algebra  linearity  links  list  local-global  long-short-run  longitudinal  lower-bounds  machine-learning  macro  madhu-sudan  magnitude  malthus  manifolds  maps  marginal  markets  markov  martingale  math  math.CA  math.CO  math.CV  math.DS  math.FA  math.GN  math.GR  math.MG  mathtariat  measure  measurement  mechanics  mediterranean  meta:math  metabuch  metameta  methodology  metrics  microfoundations  mihai  military  minimalism  mit  mixing  model-class  models  modernity  moments  morality  mostly-modern  motivation  multi  mutation  mystic  myth  n-factor  nascent-state  nature  network-structure  neuro  neurons  new-religion  news  nibble  nietzschean  nihil  nitty-gritty  nl-and-so-can-you  nlp  no-go  nonlinearity  northeast  number  occam  oceans  offense-defense  oly  online-learning  operational  optimate  optimization  order-disorder  org:anglo  org:bleg  org:edu  org:inst  org:junk  org:mag  org:mat  org:sci  oscillation  outcome-risk  overflow  p:*  p:***  p:someday  p:whenever  paganism  papers  paradox  parallax  path-dependence  patience  paying-rent  pdf  peace-violence  people  pessimism  philosophy  phys-energy  physics  pigeonhole-markov  piracy  plots  polisci  political-econ  politics  poll  pop-diff  popsci  population  population-genetics  postrat  potential  power  pragmatic  pre-2013  pre-ww2  prediction  prepping  preprint  princeton  prioritizing  priors-posteriors  pro-rata  probabilistic-method  probability  problem-solving  prof  profile  proof-systems  proofs  properties  protestant-catholic  pseudorandomness  psychology  public-goodish  putnam-like  puzzles  q-n-a  QTL  quantifiers-sums  quantitative-qualitative  quantum  quantum-info  quixotic  quotes  race  randy-ayndy  ratty  realness  reason  reference  regional-scatter-plots  regression  regularizer  relativity  religion  responsibility  retention  revolution  rhetoric  right-wing  rindermann-thompson  risk  roadmap  roots  s:*  s:***  scale  scholar-pack  scifi-fantasy  scitariat  SDP  selection  self-interest  series  shalizi  signal-noise  simplex  simulation  singularity  skeleton  skunkworks  sky  slippery-slope  smoothness  social  social-capital  social-norms  sociality  sociology  soft-question  software  space  space-complexity  spatial  spearhead  spectral  speculation  speed  spreading  stanford  stat-mech  stats  stirling  stochastic-processes  stream  structure  study  studying  stylized-facts  sublinear  summary  survey  symmetry  synthesis  systematic-ad-hoc  tcs  tcstariat  technology  telos-atelos  temperance  temperature  tensors  the-classics  the-self  the-world-is-just-atoms  theory-of-mind  theos  thermo  thesis  thiel  things  thinking  threat-modeling  tidbits  tightness  time  time-preference  toolkit  top-n  topics  topology  track-record  trade  tradeoffs  travel  trends  tribalism  tricki  trivia  tutorial  twitter  unit  unsupervised  us-them  usa  values  variance-components  vc-dimension  vgr  visual-understanding  visualization  volo-avolo  walls  war  washington  waves  wealth  wealth-of-nations  web  whole-partial-many  wiki  wild-ideas  within-group  within-without  world  world-war  wormholes  xenobio  yoga  🌞  🎓  🎩  👳 

Copy this bookmark: