murilo + the_optimist   493

You’ve had what we call a cosmic orgasm': the rise of conscious breathing
Now take a big breath, then expel all the air from your lungs and hold it. Relax, you’ll be fine. (As long as you’re not doing this in a swimming pool.) That slight feeling of panic? It’s nothing to worry about. You might be surprised how long you can push it before you have to take a huge gasp.

After three attempts, I managed three minutes 23 seconds of not breathing. The person who formulated this exercise, Dutch endurance specialist and multiple world record holder Wim Hof, 59, has trained himself to go up to six or seven minutes. He claims that by performing this exercise daily (along with a regimen of cold showers and meditation), we can help treat a whole suite of conditions and diseases, from depression to arthritis.

In her 2017 book Breathe, she asks further questions: do you sit in front of a computer all day? Did you experience trauma, fear or anxiety as a child? She thinks 95% of us are breathing in a way that is “biomechanically unsound”, which is to say, we’re breathing “vertically” (short, shallow, stressed-out breaths up in our chests) as opposed to “horizontally” (long, expansive, restful breaths that make full use of our lower lung capacity).

She tells a respiratory version of The Fall; humans used to breathe correctly. When a three-year-old breathes, their tummy goes in and out. Same with animals. But at a certain point we started breathing “vertically”. That’s how we’re designed to breathe when we face genuinely stressful situations – but not, say, when our phone pings 150 times a day. The way she describes it, we have been hit by a “perfect storm”; not only are we much more sedentary, we’re also constantly responding to digital technology, a respiratory disaster. “When you’re looking at these screens, your breathing changes. You’re like an animal in stalking mode. And, if you notice, you’re spending all day taking incredibly small breaths. The only time you’re really breathing is when you take a big, expansive sigh.” Breathing properly, she maintains, is the single most important intervention you can make for your own health. Cheap, too.

The autonomic nervous system! The endocrine system! The lymphatic system! The immune system! The vascular system!” he declaims when I Skype him in Holland. “According to science, humans couldn’t actively influence any of these. But we have shown that you can tap into them.” Just by breathing? “Yes! That’s why we made a T-shirt that says: ‘BREATHE MOTHERFUCKER!’” He bursts out laughing. “It’s so good, because it’s so simple!”

All chronic pain, suffering, and disease are caused by a lack of oxygen at the cell level,” wrote Dr Arthur C Guyton in his Textbook Of Medical Physiology in 1956, one of the world’s most widely used medical primers. “Proper breathing nourishes the cells of the body with oxygen and optimises the functioning of the body on all levels.” Studies have shown that conscious breathing exercises such as the 4-7-8 (breathe in for four, hold for seven, out for eight) are beneficial for a wide variety of conditions. Conscious breathing activates the body’s relaxation response, which in turn reduces blood pressure, which in turn lowers the risk of stroke and improves cardiovascular health. It’s also good for digestion and general immunity, both of which are impaired by stress.
The_Optimist  TM-FREE 
6 days ago by murilo
Your next shirt could be made from fruit and vegetable scraps
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Living Sustainable Fashion
Your next shirt could be made from fruit and vegetable scraps
Katherine Martinko
Katherine Martinko feistyredhair
July 5, 2018
fabric from food waste
© Circular Systems (used with permission)
Circular Systems' innovative technology promises to transform food waste fibers into wearable fabric.

The fashion industry is said to be the second most polluting industry on Earth after oil and gas. It requires enormous quantities of resources, including water, land, and fossil fuels, to make fabric. The production process is often harmful to the environment, relying on harsh chemical dyes and finishes.

Fortunately, more people are becoming aware of these problems, thanks to eye-opening documentaries like "The True Cost," sustainable fashion advocates like actress Emma Watson and activist Livia Firth, and high-profile reports like the one recently published by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation. Headlines warning of plastic microfibre pollution have helped to push the issue into the spotlight, and there is growing backlash against 'disposable' fast fashion.
The_Optimist 
5 weeks ago by murilo
Everything You Need To Know About Ashwagandha, The Wellness World's Favorite Adaptogen
1. It can reduce stress.
Ashwagandha can help regulate your body’s stress hormone, cortisol, which can make you feel more calm and potentially soothe adrenal fatigue—a condition that causes extreme fatigue, body aches, and muscle pain—by supporting the brain-adrenal (HPA) axis, too.

4. It may help calm anxiety.
One study showed that people who took just two months of ashwangandha supplementation had reductions in anxiety of up to 44 percent.

5. It enhances brain health.
Ashwagandha was found to have a neuroprotective effect for people with conditions such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. It has also been shown to promote the formation of dendrites, which are essential to brain health.

6. It helps regulate blood sugar levels.
In some cases, ashwagandha has been shown to help manage symptoms of diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity as well as lowering blood glucose levels.

7. It's a powerful antioxidant.
A regular dose of ashwagandha can help give you a youthful glow thanks to its next-level antioxidants. It also increases levels of glutathione and superoxide dismutase, which fight off the free radicals that contribute to signs of aging.

8. It may inhibit the spread of cancer.
Ashwagandha has been shown in multiple studies to significantly fight the growth of various types of cancer. Specifically, ashwagandha was able to inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells and slow cell division in breast tumors. It was also linked to melanoma cell death in cases of skin cancer. It has also been shown to stimulate the production of immune-supporting white blood cells that are often depleted during chemotherapy.

The side effects of ashwagandha.
Ashwagandha in its recommended dose is generally safe for pretty much everyone, but there are a few side effects to consider.

1. It can cause gut problems.
Yes, there can be too much of a good thing! Large doses of ashwagandha have been shown to cause diarrhea and stomach pain.
The_Optimist  Health 
6 weeks ago by murilo
Ashwagandha Benefits: Ease Stress and Anxiety by 44 Percent
such as the nervous system and the adrenals.

In the latest cutting-edge ashwagandha study to be published, this tonic fulfilled its time-tested reputation as an effective remedy for stress. Potential ashwagandha benefits were studied in 64 adults with a history of chronic stress in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Researchers gave half the participants a placebo and half 300 mg of ashwagandha extract twice a day for 60 days.

Ashwagandha Uses: Significantly Lowers the Stress Hormone Cortisol
The results, published in the Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine showed that ashwagandha benefits just about every measure of stress. Compared to those who got the placebo, those taking ashwagandha had 28% lower levels of cortisol, the so-called “stress hormone.”

Benefits of Ashwagandha: Improves Stress, Anxiety, Depression, Insomnia, and More
The ashwagandha benefits didn’t stop with cortisol. Participants who took ashwagandha extract also scored better on each of three different psychological tests measuring stress, anxiety, and overall well-being. On all three tests, the higher the score, the more stressed-out you are. The ashwagandha benefits included a dramatic 72% drop in scores on two of the tests—the General Health Questionnaire-28 and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. And scores for the third test— the Perceived Stress Scale fell significantly by an average of 44% in the group taking the ashwagandha tonic.

Those taking ashwagandha didn’t just feel less stressed. In addition to feeling more relaxed and mentally calm, their test scores also demonstrated significant reductions in depression, anxiety, social dysfunction, physical symptoms, and insomnia. The ashwagandha benefits also included increased productivity. Overall, quality of life improved tremendously compared to those taking the placebo.

Many of the ashwagandha benefits observed in this and other studies are thought to come from the extract’s ability to lower the stress hormone, cortisol.
Health  The_Optimist 
6 weeks ago by murilo
How Aristotle is the perfect happiness guru
Aristotle approves of food, drink and sex (all in moderation – he’s big on moderation); he believes leisure is more important than work; that we all have innate talents and that we don’t peak until we’re 49. What’s not to like? But by far his most significant claim is that happiness is achievable by almost everyone – you just have to “decide to become happier”. Simple, huh! “Happiness is not a state as far as Aristotle is concerned, it’s an activity,” Hall explains. “You have to do it. It means every encounter and every day of your life and every decision you take, trying to do it in a measured and deliberated way until it becomes habitual.”

Number three? “Think about your death. Look to the end,” Hall says emphatically. “Because it makes you get on with things. It’s about thinking of your life like a biographer while you are doing it, that your life is an art.”
The_Optimist 
7 weeks ago by murilo
Probiotics, prebiotics, and placebos: which is more effective?
As more studies link a healthy gut with a decreased risk of depression, there's a strong chance that number will grow even higher. But are they effective? Well, yes and no. According to Scientific American, if you're already healthy, they'll do very little. But to many (self-included!) they do seem to help you keep regular and keep you happier. Never thought I'd be admitting that out into the internet ether, but there you go.

In a study by the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 110 depressed patients were given either a probiotic (Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum), a prebiotic (galactooligosaccharide), or a placebo to take for 8 weeks. Here's what they found:

A total of 81 subjects (aged 36.5 ± 8.03 y; mean (95% CI), 2.27 (1.76-2.93) y of depression duration) completed the trial (28 in the probiotic group, 27 in the prebiotic group, and 26 in the placebo group). From baseline to 8 weeks, probiotic supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in BDI score (17.39-9.1) compared to the placebo (18.18-15.55) and prebiotic (19.72-14.14) supplementation (p = 0.042). Inter-group comparison indicated no significant differences among the groups in terms of serum kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and tryptophan/BCAAs ratio. However, the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio decreased significantly in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group after adjusting for serum isoleucine (p = 0.048). In addition, the tryptophan/isoleucine ratio increased significantly in the probiotic group when compared to the placebo group (p = 0.023).

If you're having trouble deciphering that: researchers found that probiotics actually do work, while prebiotics were only a little more effective than the placebo.

Granted, prebiotics are really supposed to be taken with probiotics, as they enhance their effect. But on their own, they do very little. You could probably save a lot of money by just eating more asparagus, bananas, leeks, or onions, which are loaded with natural prebiotics.
The_Optimist  Health  Bigthink 
7 weeks ago by murilo
How to break the stress reaction cycle
As hard as it may sound to pull out of this stress reaction cycle, it is possible. The first step in creating any positive change is always raising your awareness of what the cycle is, how you participate in it, and what pains the cycle creates.

Why? Because you can’t change a habit you don’t know you have. And if you don’t recognize the pain the habit is creating, you won’t have the motivation you need to make new choices and break out of the cycle that has become familiar despite the fact that it is destructive.

The practice of mindfulness is an incredibly powerful tool to help you find that awareness. Mindfulness teaches us to pay attention, non-judgmentally, to what is happening in the moment.
Mindfulness not only counteracts stress, but also prevents it from happening in the first place, because when you practice mindfulness you can begin to observe your patterns and make new choices instead of compulsively acting them out over and over. Mindfulness helps you break the cycle. It also sets the stage for your parasympathetic nervous system to take over and to create the conditions your body needs in order to heal itself. Start to check in with yourself when you feel that old familiar feeling of stress creep in and try to observe the thoughts you have and actions you take in response to it.

A foundational piece of mindfulness is to be non-judgmental about the thoughts and feelings you pay attention to.

Another Thing to Become Aware of: Your Inherited Patterns
Whether you realize it or not, you were born into a family with its own unique patterns of maladaptive coping mechanisms. Just as you inherit eye color, height, and talent from your parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents, you can also inherit an addictive personality, or a tendency to reach for sweets, or a quick temper.

In your attempt to deal with the stresses that life has thrown your way, you have been repeating patterns that began even before you were born. Recognizing what those patterns are and how they have shown up in your own choices is such a relief. It’s empowering to know the truth so that you don’t have to blame yourself and feel shame for obstacles that you inherited

Just as your body has physiological mechanisms that help you respond to stressors, it has an equally powerful system that helps you relax. This is ruled by the parasympathetic nervous system.

Heal the Body with Conscious Relaxation
Now it’s time for a deeper dive into the pool of relaxation. Conscious relaxation is exactly what it sounds like — using your mental awareness to produce a relaxed state that is profound.

Body Scan

Time 20-40 minutes

If you can, practice this three to five days a week for six to eight weeks, as research suggests people reap more benefits from this practice when they keep at it.

How to practice:

A body scan can be performed lying down or sitting. You can close your eyes if that feels comfortable for you.
Once you are comfortable, begin by taking a few deep breath in through your nose and out through your mouth.
Start noticing your body, feeling the weight of your body on the chair or on the floor. Notice where your body is in contact with the floor or chair, and where it isn’t.
Now place your attention on your feet. Notice the sensations of your feet touching the floor—the weight, pressure, vibration, and temperature.
Next, notice your legs against the floor — is there pressure, pulsing, heaviness, lightness?
Move on to your back and see what sensations you can feel there.
Now bring your attention into your stomach area. If your stomach is tense or tight, let it go and relax. Take a breath.
Notice your hands. Are they tense or tight? See if you can allow them to let go and relax.
Now pay attention to your arms. Feel any sensations happening there. Let your shoulders drop and let go of tension and tightness.
Notice your neck and throat. Let go of tension and tightness. Relax.
Relax your jaw. Let your face and facial muscles soften. Let go of any tension and tightness that may be there.
Then expand your awareness to take in your whole body, feeling how it feels to be in your body in this moment.
Take a breath.
Be aware of your whole body as best you can. Take a breath.
Bring your hands together rubbing them together to generate heat in your hands and place your hands over your eyes. Slowly open your eyes and come back to the room.
Notice how you feel.
Thank yourself for providing the space to connect to your mind, body, and spirit.
Give yourself a gift of love and dedicate a space to practice this technique regularly.
The_Optimist 
7 weeks ago by murilo
These foods will help you reset your gut in just 3 days
1. Broccoli and artichoke
The broccoli and artichoke are essential for the gut, and while you can substitute other cruciferous vegetables, these are the ones I recommend often for plant-based fiber. The type of fibers in these foods actually act as food for the good gut bacteria. Keep in mind that people who are not used to large amounts of vegetables will need to start out slowly, eating small amounts at a time spread out over the course of the day. Otherwise, the gut bacteria can get overwhelmed.

2. Healthy fats
Healthy fats like avocado have also been shown to be beneficial for the gut both for their fiber content and fatty acid profile.

3. Fermented foods
Fermented foods are a huge part of this three-day reset, which is why miso, sauerkraut, and pickles are all great foods to include. Study after study has shown that food-based probiotic bacteria is hardy and does not get degraded by the time it gets to the colon. So add as many fermented foods as you can tolerate in those three days.

4. Leafy greens
Leafy greens like spinach, Swiss chard, or arugula contain fiber, and they are easily digestible by the gut.

5. Spices
Certain spices like turmeric, cumin, cinnamon, and even saffron have been shown to be anti-inflammatory and great for gut health.

Since we're trying to reset the gut and activate autophagy—a process where the cells clean house, getting rid of old and damaged materials in order to look and feel younger—it's a great idea to fast for at least 16 hours one of these three days. Intermittent fasting can give the gut a rest and improve hormone and bacterial balance.

By Amy Shah, M.D.
Integrative Medicine Doctor
The_Optimist  Health 
8 weeks ago by murilo
A new immunotherapy treatment cured a patient with late-stage breast cancer
Doctors who cared for the woman at the US National Cancer Institute in Maryland said Perkins’s response had been “remarkable”: the therapy wiped out cancer cells so effectively that she has now been free of the disease for two years.
The_Optimist  Health 
9 weeks ago by murilo
Michelin is reincarnating used tires into new ones
Ever since tires were invented, humans have been looking for good ways of recycling them with little to no avail. But in recent years a technology company, which has been acquired by French tire giant Michelin, has figured out how to reincarnate end-of-life tires into a specialty material called micronized rubber powder (MRP), which can be used to make new tires. The tire industry is still highly wasteful and energy-intensive, but the invention of MRP could help transform the industry into a closed-loop system. Thus far, MRP has been used in more than 500 million new tires.
The_Optimist 
10 weeks ago by murilo
100 million Americans have chronic pain, very few use this tool to treat it
Chronic pain often has no physical cause. Psychotherapy can reduce the suffering.

Like many patients with chronic pain, Golson never got a concrete diagnosis. For a decade, the 38-year-old Californian went from doctor to doctor, trying all the standard treatments: opioids, hand splints, cortisone injections, epidural injections, exercises, even elective surgery.

Golson’s pain was not caused by anything physically wrong with him. But it wasn’t imagined. It was real.

After weaning himself off the opioid Vicodin and feeling like he had exhausted every medical option, Golson turned to a book that described how pain could be purely psychological in origin. That ultimately took a pain psychologist, a therapist who specializes in pain — not a physician — to treat the true source: his fearful thoughts. Realizing that psychological therapy could help “was one of the most profoundly surprising experiences of my life,” Golson says. No doctor he ever saw “even hinted my pain might be psychogenic,” meaning pain that’s psychological in origin.

It’s not that their pain is “in their heads.” The truth is much more nuanced: All pain can have both physical and psychological components. But the psychological component is often dismissed or never acknowledged.

Pain can be manufactured in your head and in your body
We’re taught, by evolution and by our experience, that the sensation of pain means there’s something physically wrong with our bodies. This is adaptive. But sometimes, a one-time injury or illness — or perhaps nothing at all — triggers years of chronic pain.

Doctors have long known that pain can exist in the absence of any physical harm. There’s a famous case study that describes a construction worker who came into the emergency room with a 6-inch nail in his boot. It was so painful, the report says, that the patient had to be sedated with powerful opioids. When the shoe was removed, it turned out the nail had passed clean between the toes. There was no injury.

Likewise, doctors have known that pain can be suppressed without any real medical intervention. Fake surgeries will often produce the same pain-relieving effects as real surgeries. The placebo effect can account for much of a medicine’s pain-relieving power.

Likewise, doctors have known that pain can be suppressed without any real medical intervention. Fake surgeries will often produce the same pain-relieving effects as real surgeries. The placebo effect can account for much of a medicine’s pain-relieving power.

Our thoughts, personalities, and learned behaviors can also influence whether our pain alarms get tripped. So do our emotions. “If you get an on-the-job injury and you hate your job, you’re much more likely to become disabled by the pain,” says Roger Chou, a professor of medicine at Oregon Health & Science University who has studied chronic pain.

Physical problems in the body don’t always create pain in our minds, for reasons scientists don’t quite understand. Many people with herniated spinal discs (a common explanation for lower back pain) often have no pain at all. “It’s not that the biological, anatomic reasons are not important, but they’re just one part of the picture,” Chou says. Similarly, around 85 percent of people with lower back pain have nothing diagnosably wrong with them

Overall, the takeaway is that “pain isn’t just something that happens to us,” says Beth Darnall, a professor of anesthesiology at Stanford University. “We are participating with pain by how much attention we give to it, by the contents of our thoughts, and our appraisal. How awful and negative is it? How helpless and hopeless do you feel about it? Do you feel [like] a victim; do you feel at the mercy of your pain?”

Overall, the takeaway is that “pain isn’t just something that happens to us,” says Beth Darnall, a professor of anesthesiology at Stanford University. “We are participating with pain by how much attention we give to it, by the contents of our thoughts, and our appraisal. How awful and negative is it? How helpless and hopeless do you feel about it? Do you feel [like] a victim; do you feel at the mercy of your pain?”

Overall, the takeaway is that “pain isn’t just something that happens to us,” says Beth Darnall, a professor of anesthesiology at Stanford University. “We are participating with pain by how much attention we give to it, by the contents of our thoughts, and our appraisal. How awful and negative is it? How helpless and hopeless do you feel about it? Do you feel [like] a victim; do you feel at the mercy of your pain?”

Golson had received a therapy called pain reprocessing therapy, which is currently being tested with a clinical trial. It’s a psychological therapy that uses a technique called somatic tracking, where patients just take time to notice the feelings and sensations going on in their body while assessing those sensations and determining whether or not they should fear them. (This exercise is also common in mindfulness meditation.)

“Pain is a danger signal that also can warn of us tissue damage, but sometimes these danger signals can be activated in the absence of real danger,” says Alan Gordon, the director of the Los Angeles Pain Psychology Center, where Golson was treated. “It’s almost like a kinesthetic hallucination. It’s hard to not buy into these messages that your brain and your body are giving you.”
The goal of the therapy is to get the patients to reinterpret the sensations they feel as non-dangerous.

“And when you are able to attend to a sensation without fear, assuming the pain is nonstructural in nature, the pain will decrease,” Gordon says. In a sense, they’re treating pain similarly to how they would treat an anxiety disorder. This idea draws a bit on the approach of the late Dr. John Sarno, who believed most pain was stress-related, but with fewer Freudian overtones and more academic rigor.

You might be thinking: Isn’t this all a placebo response? Well, maybe. But don’t dismiss placebos’ healing power. Even powerful painkillers like morphine are much less effective when people don’t know they’ve taken them.

The best evidence base is for cognitive behavioral therapy
The most common psychological treatment for pain, and the most well-studied, is cognitive behavioral therapy, or CBT. Overall, it’s one of the most rigorously tested and effective tools psychology has to offer. More typically, it’s used to treat anxiety, phobias, and mood disorders like depression. But it can also help some people manage their pain.
Like the somatic tracking exercises described above, the goal of CBT is to come to a new understanding about pain. That it isn’t something that’s physically harmful and that certain thoughts and behaviors can make pain worse.

Let’s say a patient has trouble sitting in one place for a long time because of their pain. That can make them fearful to go out, spend time on public transportation, or take trips on planes. CBT tries to test the patient’s assumptions about how long they can sit and how dangerous they think their pain is.

“We take the [longest time] they feel they can sit for manageably and then put breaks in between, and gradually get them to sit longer,” says Amanda Williams, the University College London clinical psychologist who completed a huge meta-review on studies of CBT for pain.
CBT “helps people change ways of processing their beliefs and their experiences when they are overly negative,” she says.

Shelley Latin, a 64-year-old lawyer in Oregon, has had debilitating sharp stomach pain since 2011. A year after it began, doctors found she had a bacterial infection. But even after the infection was treated, the pain persisted. Latin was frustrated, caught in the typical cycle of going from doctor to doctor and in so much pain she couldn’t work or watch television. “It stops you,” she says of pain. “That’s what it’s for — it gets all your attention, all your energy.”

A combination of medications, including opioids, helped Latin get back to work, but the pain was still there. No medical professional could find an underlying physical reason why. Latin now understands that her pain is caused by central sensitization, or the “broken pain system.”

After CBT, the pain doesn’t seem to have lessened, “like on a 1-to-10 scale,” she says, “but the amount of suffering that goes along with it is less.” She can work again. She can concentrate on watching The Borgias, her favorite show, on Netflix. Her sense of humor returned. She stopped worrying so much about the future. Though the pain is still there, she pays it less mind.
Health  The_Optimist 
12 weeks ago by murilo
How to beat anxiety, without the need for medication
Most people experience anxiety at some point, but if anxiety starts interfering with your life, sleep, ability to form relationships, or productivity at work or school, you might have an anxiety disorder. Research shows that if it’s left untreated, anxiety can lead to depression, early death, and suicide.

Anxiety can present as fear, restlessness, an inability to focus at work or school, finding it hard to fall or stay asleep at night, or getting easily irritated. In social situations, it can make it hard to talk to others; you might feel like you’re constantly being judged, or have symptoms such as stuttering, sweating, blushing or an upset stomach.

It can appear out of the blue as a panic attack, when sudden spikes of anxiety make you feel like you’re about to have a heart attack, go mad or lose control. Or it can be present all the time, as in generalised anxiety disorder, when pervasive worry consumes you and you look to the future with dread.

Here are some of the top coping skills that have emerged from our study at the University of Cambridge, which will be presented at the 30th European Congress of Neuropsychopharmacology in Paris, and other scientific research.

This may sound strange, but the writer and poet GK Chesterton said that: “Anything worth doing is worth doing badly.” And he had a point. The reason this works so well is that it speeds up your decision-making process and catapults you straight into action. Otherwise, you could spend hours deciding how you should do something or what you should do, which can be very time-consuming and stressful.

Using “do it badly” as a motto gives you the courage to try new things, adds a little fun to everything, and stops you worrying too much about the outcome. It’s about doing it badly today and improving as you go. Ultimately, it’s about liberation.

Forgive yourself and ‘wait to worry’
Are you particularly critical of yourself and the blunders you make? Well, imagine if you had a friend who constantly pointed out everything that was wrong with you and your life. You’d probably want to get rid of them right away.

But people with anxiety often do this to themselves so frequently that they don’t even realise it anymore. They’re just not kind to themselves.
So perhaps it’s time to change and start forgiving ourselves for the mistakes we make.

Find purpose in life by helping others
It’s also worth considering how much of your day is spent with someone else in mind? If it’s very little or none at all, then you’re at a high risk of poor mental health. Regardless of how much we work or the amount of money we make, we can’t be truly happy until we know that someone else needs us and depends on our productivity or love.
The_Optimist  Mente 
april 2018 by murilo
Scientists accidentally create mutant enzyme that eats plastic bottles
Scientists have created a mutant enzyme that breaks down plastic drinks bottles – by accident. The breakthrough could help solve the global plastic pollution crisis by enabling for the first time the full recycling of bottles.

The new research was spurred by the discovery in 2016 of the first bacterium that had naturally evolved to eat plastic, at a waste dump in Japan. Scientists have now revealed the detailed structure of the crucial enzyme produced by the bug.

The international team then tweaked the enzyme to see how it had evolved, but tests showed they had inadvertently made the molecule even better at breaking down the PET (polyethylene terephthalate) plastic used for soft drink bottles. “What actually turned out was we improved the enzyme, which was a bit of a shock,” said Prof John McGeehan, at the University of Portsmouth, UK, who led the research. “It’s great and a real finding.”

The mutant enzyme takes a few days to start breaking down the plastic – far faster than the centuries it takes in the oceans. But the researchers are optimistic this can be speeded up even further and become a viable large-scale process.
The_Optimist 
april 2018 by murilo
Can this four-minute brain hack turn you into an optimist?
Everyone has that friend who’s so cheerful it’s almost annoying. But while some people just happen to be more positive than others, optimism isn’t strictly a personality trait–it’s a learnable skill.

The positive psychologist Martin Seligman coined the term “learned optimism” in the ’90s; it’s the idea that with a little conscious practice, we can strategically tamp down our brains’ “negativity bias

HOW TO TRAIN YOUR BRAIN TO THINK POSITIVELY
Shifting some of the brain activity away from your aversion network and toward your approach network starts with just becoming aware of your negativity bias. This quick exercise can help you do that–and it only takes five minutes. Here’s how it works:

For one minute: Identify a negative thought pattern you’re caught in the middle of: “Now I’m worrying” or “I’m going over this same fear in my head all morning.” That’s your brain cue that you may be entering into pessimism mode–and maybe for good reason! Don’t miss potential threats; write them all down to get them out of your head (a quick SWOT analysis can help, where you jot down the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of a given situation).

For the next three minutes: Now that you’ve quarantined and catalogued those possibly legitimate risks, it’s time to shift your brain activity toward your approach network (this routine also works before heading into big decisions even when you aren’t caught in a pessimistic mind-set to begin with):

Calm the mind. Close your eyes, and focus on where you feel the air moving into your lungs. When your mind wanders, bring your attention back to your breathing.

Tune in. After you’ve focused on your breathing for a minute, take a moment to watch your thoughts. Zero in on any self-defeating or pessimistic beliefs that pop into your head (they’ll likely be the same ones that cued you to start this exercise in the first place). Don’t worry about why those negative thoughts are there–just observe them.

Visualize. Envision the best possible outcome in as great a detail as possible: Where is this scene? Who is present? What emotions are you feeling? What are you saying and doing? What are other people’s responses, right on down to their facial expressions or the actions they take?The more you practice the three-minute routine whenever pessimism strikes, the faster your brain will learn to revert toward optimistic thought patterns–and, hopefully, the better decisions you’ll make.
The_Optimist  Mente 
april 2018 by murilo
How to avoid making poor decisions
In the most comprehensive study to date on expert predictions, Professor at the University of Pennsylvania, Phillip Tetlock, gathered a large group of experts to analyze their ability to predict future events. [1]

During this study, Tetlock asked the experts to predict the probability of various events occurring i.e. Would the dotcom bubble burst? And then, he would analyze how their thought processes came to these conclusions.

After 20 years of collecting and studying 82,361 forecasts from experts, Tetlock came to a comical conclusion. According to Tetlock, the average expert …

“Is not much better at predicting the future than a dart-throwing chimpanzee.”

Tetlock suggested that most of these experts would have made better predictions if they had made random guesses.

Fortunately, there were a few experts who made good predictions.These experts had a different approach to decision-making, thinking and solving problems.

Instead of falling prey to a ‘know it all’ attitude, they made modest predictions. But, only after analyzing a wide range of external data and information.

They were comfortable with uncertainty and complexity. They were open to reviewing ideas that challenged their beliefs and assumptions.

In contrast, the experts who had the most knowledge in this study were on average, the least reliable. Even after reviewing the results, they struggled to admit they were wrong.

There are several mental errors that affect our decision-making, but by far the most powerful is “confirmation bias.”

Confirmation bias refers to our tendency to look for and favor evidence that confirms our pre-existing beliefs, whilst simultaneously ignoring or devaluing information that contradicts our beliefs.

There’s a reason for this. We experience discomfort whenever we face ideas or information in conflict with our current beliefs.

To relieve this tension and discomfort, we seek to re-confirm our existing beliefs — even if they may still be wrong.

Confirmation bias restricts the information we choose in making our decisions. It leads to a bias in interpreting this information and distorts our memory. This is why smart people make stupid decisions.

The more knowledge you have, the more confirmation bias you will struggle with and the more likely you’ll reject ideas that differ from your own.

Now that we’ve discussed this, how can you best combat your confirmation biases and avoid making bad decisions?

Disprove yourself
“Great doubts, deep wisdom. Small doubts, little wisdom.” — Chinese proverb

Step 1: Practice Self-Awareness.
Step 2: Disprove yourself.

It takes courage to admit you’re wrong after the fact. It takes even more courage to disprove and challenge your own assumptions before the decision.

Next time you’re faced with a problem or challenge, seek out all possible ideas that may contradict your current beliefs.

This will prepare you to make a well-rounded good decision, instead of an irrational bad decision based solely on your beliefs and emotions.

Overconfidence kills
Smart people make stupid decisions because they struggle with the same challenge that we all do — overconfidence.

Next time you feel absolutely certain about a decision, remember that you may be wrong.

Stay open-minded to the possibility that there is a lot more information that you don’t know yet.

After all, the wisest person in a room listens more than the others because they know there’s still more knowledge to learn.
The_Optimist  Mente  Carreira 
april 2018 by murilo
Researchers have developed a treatment that heals cavities without fillings
Everyone who’s been through a session of cavity fillings at the dentist office knows how unbearable it can be. That’s why it’s a relief to hear that researchers have developed a treatment that can help tooth cavities heal without any fillings. The treatment, which is made of peptides, helps remineralize tooth enamel, encouraging it to grow back on its own. The researchers believe their product could be sold as part of a preventative everyday tooth care routine, in the form of a toothpaste or gel, to help reduce the number of expensive trips to the dentist for shallower cavities.
The_Optimist 
april 2018 by murilo
Harvard researchers study how mindfulness changes brain in depressed patients
In 2015, 16.1 million Americans reported experiencing major depression during the previous year, often struggling to function while grappling with crippling darkness and despair.

“Many people don’t respond to the frontline interventions,” said Benjamin Shapero, an instructor in psychiatry at Harvard Medical School (HMS) and a psychologist at Massachusetts General Hospital’s (MGH) Depression Clinical and Research Program. “Individual cognitive behavioral therapy is helpful for many people; antidepressant medications help many people. But it’s also the case that many people don’t benefit from them as well. There’s a great need for alternative approaches.”

Studies have shown benefits against an array of conditions both physical and mental, including irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, psoriasis, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. But some of those findings have been called into question because studies had small sample sizes or problematic experimental designs. Still, there are a handful of key areas — including depression, chronic pain, and anxiety — in which well-designed, well-run studies have shown benefits for patients engaging in a mindfulness meditation program, with effects similar to other existing treatments.

Desbordes’ research uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which not only takes pictures of the brain, as a regular MRI does, but also records brain activity occurring during the scan. In 2012, she demonstrated that changes in brain activity in subjects who have learned to meditate hold steady even when they’re not meditating. Desbordes took before-and-after scans of subjects who learned to meditate over the course of two months. She scanned them not while they were meditating, but while they were performing everyday tasks. The scans still detected changes in the subjects’ brain activation patterns from the beginning to the end of the study, the first time such a change — in a part of the brain called the amygdala — had been detected.

Functional MRI (left) showing activation in the amygdala when participants were watching images with emotional content before learning meditation. After eight weeks of training in mindful attention meditation (right) note the amygdala is less activated after the meditation training.

Among the challenges researchers face is defining mindfulness itself. The word has come to describe a meditation-based practice whose aim is to increase one’s sense of being in the present, but it has also been used to describe a nonmeditative state in which subjects set aside their mental distractions to pay greater attention to the here and now, as in the work of Harvard psychologist Ellen Langer.

Another challenge involves sorting through the many variations of meditative practice.

Recent scientific exploration has largely focused on the secular practice of mindful meditation, but meditation is also a component of several ancient religious traditions, with variations.
The_Optimist  Health  Mente 
april 2018 by murilo
How to tame your anxious mind
On the continuum, individuals who are anxious are more apt to have “chattier” minds. They tend to be flooded with anticipatory anxiety (before), anxiety in the moment (during) and postpartum anxiety (after). The cycle appears with “____ will happen”, “what ifs” and “I should/could haves.” Ask yourself whether you tend to have a chatty mind and if you are flooded with anxiety before, during or after events?

Don’t believe everything you think. I have a sign with these words on my office door. Be cautious at accepting your thoughts as facts. Observe your thoughts, be curious about them, notice your judgments and ask how else can things or circumstances be considered? If it’s just a thought, try challenging it. If it’s a fact, then notice it, accept it, problem solve through it, while compassionately being with the thoughts and feelings that surface. Ask yourself whether you instantaneously accept thoughts as facts and whether you’re open to assessing and working through them no matter what the circumstances?

We are taught to be happy (“happily ever after”), “fix things that are broken”, “get rid of bad feelings and hold on to only the good ones”, and “what we think or feel is reflective of who we are.” With all of this, it makes it difficult for us to “BE OKAY” because rarely all of this falls into place. Part of our intrinsic humanness is acceptance of all that we are and are presented with, including the more comfortable and less comfortable thoughts and feelings.

We all strive to be accepted and sought after and want to believe that we’re not the cause of someone else’s pain or discomfort. Because of this we are sometimes hypervigilant because of the fear that we are.
The_Optimist  Mente 
april 2018 by murilo
27 businesses you can start up with less than $1,000
1. Tutor: If you have a skill, teach it. The median wage of a tutor is $17.64 per hour, according to PayScale.

2. Dog walker: Love pets and getting some exercise? Dog walking is an easy business to start. Pet business insurance will make up the majority of your expenses, which usually cost $200 to 400 a month, according to one pet business insurance provider. Dog walkers typically make $8 to $20 an hour, with a median wage of $13.23.

5. Translator: Multilingual entrepreneurs, this business is for you. Whether you want to take up projects people post online, approach companies or start-ups that do a lot of international business or check local job postings, there are multiple ways to start building your own translation business. Translators make a median income of $19.88 per hour.
The_Optimist 
april 2018 by murilo
Cognitive Aging and Long-Term Maintenance of Attentional Improvements Following Meditation Training
In a recent and notable study, “Cognitive Aging and Long-Term Maintenance of Attentional Improvements Following Meditation Training” published in the Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, researchers found more evidence to suggest that meditating has the potential to prevent age-related mental decline and increase one’s attention span. The study is the most extensive longitudinal study to date, according to researchers, and examines how meditation increases a person’s ability to focus--especially later in life, so as long as the meditation practice continues. (https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s41465-018-0068-1)
TM-FREE  The_Optimist 
april 2018 by murilo
Brain never stops growing: elderly have same number of new neurons as teens
For the research, scientists looked at the hippocampus in 28 previously healthy individuals aged between 14 and 79, who had died suddenly. None were cognitively impaired or suffered depression, which can impact brain cell development

Dr Maura Boldrini, associate professor of neurobiology at Columbia University, in New York, said: “We found that older people have similar ability to make thousands of hippocampal new neurons from progenitor cells as younger people do.

“We also found equivalent volumes of the hippocampus, a brain structure used for emotion and cognition across ages.

“Nevertheless, older individuals had less vascularization (blood vessel formation) and maybe less ability of new neurons to make connections.”
The_Optimist 
april 2018 by murilo
New theory suggests that after death consciousness moves to another universe
The theory implies that death of consciousness simply does not exist. It only exists as a thought because people identify themselves with their body. They believe that the body is going to perish, sooner or later, thinking their consciousness will disappear too. If the body generates consciousness, then consciousness dies when the body dies. But if the body receives consciousness in the same way that a cable box receives satellite signals, then of course consciousness does not end at the death of the physical vehicle. In fact, consciousness exists outside of constraints of time and space. It is able to be anywhere: in the human body and outside of it. In other words, it is non-local in the same sense that quantum objects are non-local.

According to Dr. Stuart Hameroff, a near-death experience happens when the quantum information that inhabits the nervous system leaves the body and dissipates into the universe. Contrary to materialistic accounts of consciousness, Dr. Hameroff offers an alternative explanation of consciousness that can perhaps appeal to both the rational scientific mind and personal intuitions.

Consciousness resides, according to Stuart and British physicist Sir Roger Penrose, in the microtubules of the brain cells, which are the primary sites of quantum processing. Upon death, this information is released from your body, meaning that your consciousness goes with it. They have argued that our experience of consciousness is the result of quantum gravity effects in these microtubules, a theory which they dubbed orchestrated objective reduction (Orch-OR).

If the patient is resuscitated, revived, this quantum information can go back into the microtubules and the patient says “I had a near death experience”‘

He adds: “If they’re not revived, and the patient dies, it’s possible that this quantum information can exist outside the body, perhaps indefinitely, as a soul.”

This account of quantum consciousness explains things like near-death experiences, astral projection, out of body experiences, and even reincarnation without needing to appeal to religious ideology. The energy of your consciousness potentially gets recycled back into a different body at some point, and in the mean time it exists outside of the physical body on some other level of reality, and possibly in another universe.
The_Optimist  Mente 
april 2018 by murilo
Bernie Sanders: Let’s wrench power back from the billionaires
Difficult as it is to comprehend, the fact is that the six richest people on Earth now own more wealth than the bottom half of the world’s population – 3.7 billion people.
The Sultan of Brunei owns some 500 Rolls-Royces and lives in one of the world’s largest palaces, a building with 1,788 rooms once valued at $350m. In the Middle East, which boasts five of the world’s 10 richest monarchs, young royals jet-set around the globe while the region suffers from the highest youth unemployment rate in the world, and at least 29 million children are living in poverty without access to decent housing, safe water or nutritious food. Moreover, while hundreds of millions of people live in abysmal conditions, the arms merchants of the world grow increasingly rich as governments spend trillions of dollars on weapons.

In the United States, Jeff Bezos – founder of Amazon, and currently the world’s wealthiest person – has a net worth of more than $100bn. He owns at least four mansions, together worth many tens of millions of dollars. As if that weren’t enough, he is spending $42m on the construction of a clock inside a mountain in Texas that will supposedly run for 10,000 years. But, in Amazon warehouses across the country, his employees often work long, gruelling hours and earn wages so low they rely on Medicaid, food stamps and public housing paid for by US taxpayers.

Here is just one example of what we have to do. Just a few years ago, the Tax Justice Network estimated that the wealthiest people and largest corporations throughout the world have been stashing at least $21tn-$32tn in offshore tax havens in order to avoid paying their fair share of taxes. If we work together to eliminate offshore tax abuse, the new revenue that would be generated could put an end to global hunger, create hundreds of millions of new jobs, and substantially reduce extreme income and wealth inequality. It could be used to move us aggressively toward sustainable agriculture and to accelerate the transformation of our energy system away from fossil fuels and towards renewable sources of power.
The_Optimist 
march 2018 by murilo
Become the CEO of your own brain in six easy steps
STEP 1: LISTEN AND ACKNOWLEDGE
Like all good leaders, you’re going to have to listen to your disgruntled employee, and acknowledge that you’re taking its message seriously. Minds, like people, can relax and let go when they feel heard and understood. Practice gratitude and thank your mind for its contribution. “Thank you, mind, for reminding me that if I don’t succeed in making more sales, I might get fired.” “Thank you for telling me that I may always be alone and never find love and have a family.” “

STEP 2: MAKE PEACE WITH YOUR MIND
You may not like what your mind does or the way it conducts itself. In fact, all that negativity can be downright irritating sometimes. But the fact is, you’re stuck with it and you can’t (or wouldn’t want to) just lobotomize it away.
Accepting that negative thoughts and feelings will be there -that you can’t control them, can allow you to focus on your actions in the present moment, so you can move ahead with your most important goals without getting all fouled up. You don’t necessarily have to like the thoughts or agree with them – you just have to let them be there in the background of your mind, while you go out and get things done.

STEP 3: REALIZE YOUR THOUGHTS ARE JUST THOUGHTS

STEP 4: OBSERVE YOUR OWN MIND
Time spent observing your mind is as important as time spent exercising.
Mindfulness involves not only noticing where your mind goes when it wanders, but also gently bringing it back to the focus on breath, eating, walking, loving, or working. When you do this repeatedly over months or years, you begin to retrain your runaway amygdala.

STEP 5: RETRAIN YOUR MIND TO REWIRE YOUR BRAIN
There is an old and rather wise saying, “We are what we repeatedly do.” To this, I would add “We become what we repeatedly think.” Over long periods, our patterns of thinking become etched into the billions of neurons in our brains, connecting them together in unique, entrenched patterns.

Autopilot is great for driving a car, but no so great for emotional functioning. For example, you may have deep-seated fears of getting close to people because you were mistreated as a child. To learn to love, you need to become aware of the whole negative sequence and how it’s biasing your perceptions, label these reactions as belonging to the past, and refocus your mind on present-moment experience. Over time, you can begin to change the wiring of your brain so your prefrontal cortex (the executive center, responsible for setting goals, planning and executing them), is more able to influence and shut off your rapidly firing, fear-based amygdala (emotion control center). And, this is exactly what brain imaging studies on effects of mindfulness therapy have shown.

STEP 6: PRACTICE SELF-COMPASSION
The_Optimist  Mente 
march 2018 by murilo
Self-compassion is vital to your well-being. Here’s how to cultivate it
For many people, the concept of self-love might conjure images of tree-hugging hippies or cheesy self-help books. But, as many psychology studies attest, self-love and -compassion are key for mental health and well-being, keeping depression and anxiety at bay.
The_Optimist  Mente 
march 2018 by murilo
Sound meditation and the insight of impermanence
One specific method for practicing mindfulness of body sensations is to focus your attention on sounds. Sounds, like everything else, arise and pass away. Just by listening, you can experience the insight of impermanence, an understanding the Buddha taught as crucial for the development of wisdom.

“Deep hearing, then, is not just an auditory sensation, involving the ear, but a matter of the whole . ‘Deep hearing of the Dharma’ means embodying the Buddha Dharma, an experiential awakening of the total self, conscious and unconscious, mind and body.”

—Rev. Taitetsu Unno
The_Optimist  TM-FREE  Tricycle 
march 2018 by murilo
The more we know, the more mystery there is
For example, claims that we understand the big bang, the event that marked the origin of the universe. We most certainly do not, and I go further to claim that we cannot, given the way science depends on a conceptual framework to operate. Science can give at most an incomplete answer to the question of the origin of everything, one that depends on notions such as space, time, energy, laws of nature… Another one is the claim that we “live in a multiverse.” We have no clue if a multiverse exists or not, and, worse, we wouldn’t be able to know either way. Science popularizers often get carried away and present ideas that are grounded on speculation as a done deal.

There is no doubt that there are many reasonable scientific questions that we cannot answer. I gave two examples above; another is knowing how life originated on Earth. Unless we can prove a theorem that there is only one or very few biochemical pathways from nonlife to life, we can’t be certain of what happened here some 4 billion years ago. To appreciate the beauty of science, it is essential to understand how science operates and why it has limits. It is a human creation, after all. We measure natural phenomena with instruments of all sorts, and they all have precision limits and ranges. We can’t see what’s beyond, and even if we improve their precision constantly, there is always a little more to go.

As with the origin of the universe, the nature of human consciousness may be the kind of question that we may not be well-equipped to answer fully through a scientific approach, even if we are able to artificially create some kind of limited consciousness through AI.

Do you believe in God?

Gleiser: I position myself as an agnostic. I don’t see evidence for any kind of supernatural being or intervention, but also understand that we are partially blind to what’s out there and hence should show some humility. I see atheism as being inconsistent with the scientific method, as it is, essentially, belief in nonbelief. It does not offer any proof of nonexistence as that would be literally impossible through science. Atheism elevates belief to a rational argument that is very ill-founded epistemologically. You may not believe in God, but to affirm its nonexistence with certainty is not scientifically consistent. If you are nonbeliever, the only position consistent with science is agnosticism.
(Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.)
The_Optimist 
february 2018 by murilo
You can teach yourself to read an entire book in a single day
Sir Francis Bacon once said, “Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested: that is, some books are to be read only in parts, others to be read, but not curiously, and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention.”

Enjoying books is no different than enjoying a TV show or a movie. If you don’t like a show, you won’t waste your time starting it in the first place. If you want to give it a chance, you will try watching the first episode. If you don’t really like a book, you will stop reading it and start read something else.
The_Optimist 
february 2018 by murilo
This Harvard psychologist is proving that the world is better than ever before
His latest book, Enlightenment Now, doubles down on this argument. Pinker zooms back and examines the “big picture of human progress” since the late 18th century, right around the time the Enlightenment Age kicked off. This is basically the period in which the spirit of science — reason, evidence-based thinking, and the belief that knowledge can be used to improve the human condition — exploded in the Western world.

Human welfare has improved dramatically, and it’s improved by almost any measure you like — longevity, health, prosperity, education, literacy, leisure time, and on and on.
The_Optimist 
february 2018 by murilo
Every crisis is also an opportunity
When you look at successful people, you need to realize that they are the ones who struggled as well. They just struggled better. That’s the perspective I want to change: You can’t be human without struggling. The better your struggle, the more successful you can be.

Recently, I listened to an interview with the mother of our local Olympic ski champion, Ted Ligety. She said that the boys beat Ted in school. The girls beat him, too. Then he became an Olympic gold medalist.

The point is that things go wrong. And then life starts. It’s not what happens to you. It’s what you do with what happens to you. It’s so easy to stop when things go wrong—and many of us do

Imperfection is our reality. The big problem is that we strive for perfection and security and we get disappointed and depressed because it’s impossible to achieve these states permanently. We want to be secure and we want to be successful. We want to grow and not get old. But our lives are not just about pleasure. We cannot avoid the struggle. Struggling is part of who we are. And life becomes easier when you accept that. If you assume that change is going to happen, it becomes much easier to deal with it. And every change helps you to better figure out who you are. There’s nothing to be afraid about that. But you need to continuously remind yourself. I have a little index card on the mirror that says: run towards your fear.

The paradox is that you feel more powerful, more secure when you don’t hide your imperfections anymore and express your vulnerability. I remember my worst moment on Mount Kilimanjaro. I had to ask for help. I had to get lifted and I thought I had failed. But, in reality, it was the finest moment of my life. It allowed me to divest myself from the image of my own perfection where I couldn’t show any weakness.
The_Optimist 
february 2018 by murilo
Listening to this song for 15 seconds will instantly make you more creative
Researchers at Radboud University split subjects into five groups, with each group randomly assigned to listen to one of four pieces of music -- or sit in silence -- before and during creativity tasks.

The music pieces were chosen for their "mood and arousal" levels:

The Swan by Saint-Saens was considered to be positive in mood but low in arousal level; in short, it's "calming."
The Planets: Mars, The Bringer of War by Gustav Holst was considered to be negative and arousing. Think "anxious." (Also consider it "hard to listen to," at least to me.)
Adagio for Strings by Samuel Barber was considered to be sad and slow. (Correctly so.)
The Four Seasons: Spring by Vivaldi was considered to be upbeat and happy.

So which group produced the most -- and the best -- answers to the creativity test?

Those who listened to Vivaldi, the upbeat, happy music. It inspired higher levels of "fluency and flexibility," a mindset that lays the perfect foundation for those moments when we need to come up with unique ideas.

Try it. Next time you need to come up with new ideas, listen to this Vivaldi piece for 15 or 20 seconds. Or leave it on in the background.

You may climb right out of that creative rut.
The_Optimist  Mente  TM-FREE 
january 2018 by murilo
Beyond the bitcoin bubble
Many cryptocurrencies are first made available to the public through a process known as an initial coin offering, or I.C.O.
The_Optimist  Cryptocurrency 
january 2018 by murilo
22 Years Ago, Steve Jobs Said 1 Thing Separates People Who Achieve From Those Who Only Dream
Granted, it's often not easy to ask for help. Asking can make you feel insecure. Asking can make you feel vulnerable.

But oddly enough, that's a good thing.

When you ask for help, without adding qualifiers or image enhancers, when you just say, "Can you help me?" several powerful things happen, especially for the other person.

You show respect. Without actually saying it, you've said, "You know more than I do." You've said, "You can do what I can't." You've said, "You have experience [or talents or something] that I don't have." You've said, "I respect you."

You show trust. You show vulnerability, you admit to weakness, and you implicitly show that you trust the other person with that knowledge.

You show you're willing to listen. You've said, "You don't have to tell me what you think I want to hear; tell me what you think I should do."
The_Optimist 
january 2018 by murilo
These are the supplements that scientists use
Supplements are a multi-billion dollar industry.

Turmeric, vitamind, probiotics, prebiotics,omega3
The_Optimist  Health 
january 2018 by murilo
These 9 Beliefs Block Your Path to Inner Peace
3. “Finding Inner Peace Is Difficult.”
This is another myth that gets in the way. Many of us feel that we are far from inner peace, and we idolize those who seem to have found it. Because of this, we unconsciously believe that it’s a long way away from where we are in our lives, and we need to go on a long journey to find it.

Maybe we’ve read books that suggest that fundamental change in how we feel or act takes years of difficult training or some sort of pilgrimage. But often it is letting go of the belief that what we want is so far away, and understanding that when you stop striving so aggressively you will start to see the calm you’re looking for. It is this process of turning your beliefs upside down that becomes the journey in itself.
The_Optimist 
january 2018 by murilo
Love Your Lungs With Tomatoes and Apples
Lead study author Vanessa Garcia-Larsen, an assistant professor in the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health’s department of international health, noted that a diet rich in fruits can slow the natural aging process of your lungs even if you’ve never smoked, and might even help repair damage caused by smoking. Their research was part of the Ageing Lungs in European Cohorts (ALEC) Study, funded by the European Commission and led by Imperial College London.

In 2002, Garcia-Larsen and her colleagues examined the lung function and diet of more than 650 adults from Britain, Norway and Germany, using questionnaires as well as spirometry to measure forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity (aka the capacity of the lungs to take in oxygen), then tested the lung function of the same individuals a decade later. According to Vanguard:

“The researchers found a more striking diet-lung-function among former smokers, who had around 80 ml slower decline over the 10-year period because their diets were highly rich in tomatoes and fruits. Such a result suggests that the nutrients in their diets are beneficial to repairing the lung damage done by smoking.”

Plenty of studies show how healthy fruit is for you, and apples are no exception. One study5 noted the peel in particular as capable of benefiting endothelial function, blood pressure and atherosclerosis and reducing your risk of cardiovascular disease.

In the realm of lung function alone, the research shows that the valuable compounds in apples may help prevent and treat lung cancer,6 asthma and respiratory diseases, bronchial hyperactivity and persistent allergic rhinitis, not to mention Type 2 diabetes, asthma7 and several other types of cancer. But while it’s true that apples are a healthy food, moderation is key. As the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)8 notes, the amounts of fruit you should eat per day vary depending on certain factors:

Children under 8 — 1 to 1 1/2 cups per day
Children and teens — 1 1/2 to 2 cups of fruit per day
Women age 19 to 30 — 2 cups per day, while women older than 30 — 1 1/2 cups per day
Men of any age — 2 cups of fruit per day
What they don’t note, however, is that while fruits offer many vitamins, enzymes and minerals, they should be eaten in moderation due to fructose content, especially if you’re insulin resistant. And please understand that drinking fruit juices does not provide the same benefit as consuming whole fruits.
The_Optimist  Health 
january 2018 by murilo
UK bans microbeads in beauty products in bid to cut plastic in oceans
Microbeads are tiny bits of plastic found in exfoliating body washes and facial scrubs. Since their introduction in 1972, they have made their way into more than 100 personal care products sold by companies such as Procter & Gamble, Unilever, and L'Oréal.

A UK-wide ban on manufacturers making products containing microbeads has come into force, in an attempt to cut down on plastics in our oceans. The beads are used in hundreds of different cosmetic products such as face washes and shower gels.

They are then ingested by marine life and even end up entering our food chain.

Environment minister Therese Coffey told Sky News that the ban is part of a wider plan to cut down on plastic pollution.

She said: "We know that any plastic in the marine environment is not good and we know that animals consume this.

"They can be ingested directly into the fish and while we're still looking for extra evidence on the impact on human health, the point is that they don't need to be there and that's why we've taken the steps to have this ban."
The_Optimist 
january 2018 by murilo
Study: Artery hardness can be reduced rapidly with high doses of vitamin D
Hardening of the arteries—one of the signs of heart disease—can be improved in just four months by taking high doses of vitamin D, a new study has discovered.

Atherosclerosis happens when the artery walls start to narrow and harden, eventually leading to a heart attack or stroke—and medicine's standard response is cholesterol-lowering statin drugs, or bypass or angioplasty surgery.

But researchers have discovered that very high doses of vitamin D—six times more than the recommended daily allowance—is "significantly and rapidly reducing (arterial) stiffness," says Anas Raed, lead researcher on the project from the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University.

The 4,000 international units (IUs) dose achieved a 10 per cent reduction in arterial hardness in just four months when it was tested on a group of 70 African-Americans aged between 13 and 45, who were also overweight or obese. Vitamin D levels of black people tend to be lower because darker skin absorbs less sunlight, a precursor of vitamin D.

In their experiment, the researchers tested a variety of different doses of the vitamin for 16 weeks before assessing the stiffness of arteries with the pulse wave velocity technique. Some of the volunteers were also given a placebo, or dummy dose of vitamin.
The_Optimist  Health 
january 2018 by murilo
4 delicious ways to add turmeric to your lifestyle
On frosty nights in India, people sip a glass of hot milk into which has been whisked a heaping teaspoon of turmeric. In Ayurvedic medicine, the drink — called haldi doodh — is considered a panacea for everything from the flu to inflammation. Proponents says regular turmeric consumption may also be one reason India has relatively low rates of Alzheimer's and dementia.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center says turmeric has also "demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities in lab studies." Those findings along with turmeric's anti-bacterial properties is why Dr. Taz Bhatia, an Atlanta-based physician and author of "Super Woman RX," touts its benefits. There is one downside, she said.

"It is not always the most palatable, so when combined with other spices … it is delicious." (Bhatia's homemade version includes ginger and honey.)

Known more commonly outside India as "golden milk" — the "golden" comes from the rich yellow of the turmeric — the fortifying drink is now increasingly found in alternative formulations such as a breakfast bowl, bottled drink and an easy-to-prep mix.
The_Optimist  Health 
january 2018 by murilo
'The happiest man in the world': you can learn to meditate in 5 minutes at a time
There are many different kinds of meditation, and each is like any other skill in that it takes practice. Still, we asked Ricard for his most fundamental advice for someone interested in the general practice of meditation, before they're ready to learn nuances of various techniques.

Start with compassion meditation, Ricard said. "There's nothing mysterious," he said. "You don't need to be sitting trying to empty your mind with incense around you under the mango tree."

First, sit comfortably with your eyes closed or unfocused and breathe in and exhale slowly, focusing on your breath. As thoughts race through your mind, don't actively try to ignore them, but rather let them float by, without attaching to any particular one. If you find yourself distracted, bring your focus to your breathing.

When you are sufficiently relaxed, think of someone who makes you happy. Focus on your altruistic love for them.

"We all have unconditional love for a child or someone dear," he said. Such moments of love usually "last 10, 15 seconds, one minute, then we'd do something else, we go to about our work. But suppose you take that as a beautiful strong warm feeling and instead of letting it disappear for 15 seconds you cultivate it for five, 10 minutes, by reviving it. Coming back if you are distracted, keeping the clarity, the vividity, the vividness of that."

And that's it. After practicing that simple meditation exercise, you can begin to spread that compassionate feeling to other specific people, or strangers around you, or a particular part of the world.

As the many studies Ricard has participated in have proven, the mind reacts to this type of meditation, and the brain actually develops a stronger capability for emotional control.
The_Optimist  TM-FREE 
january 2018 by murilo
You need to get ready for digital money
There’s something else: The current exponential growth is not just related to one new phenomenon, Bitcoin. The trend involves many different cryptocurrencies. One of them, Ethereum, even challenges the crown of Bitcoin as the early pioneer. That broad development adds credibility to the perspective that we are not just talking about some, one-time, rare new thing but about a major adjustment in the economy.

And it doesn’t end there: bitcoin may be the most famous, or infamous, digital currency, but it’s certainly not the only one. There are Ethereum, Ripple, Auroracoin, Litecoin, BlackCoin, DigiByte, BitBay, BanxShares, Unobtanium, Pangea Poker and hundreds of others. The floodgates are open.
These currencies are experiments. Some will fail; others will succeed. That’s how it goes in the laboratories of innovation. But the successful ones will have an impact. They’ll usher in improvements, new innovations and Bitcoin 2.0. That’s the way change happens.
The_Optimist  Cryptocurrency 
january 2018 by murilo
The gut’s microbiome changes rapidly with diet
You are what you eat, and so are the bacteria that live in your gut.

Microbiologists have known for some time that different diets create different gut flora, but previous research has focused on mice instead of humans, leaving the actual relationship between our food and our stomach bacteria unclear. A new study, published Wednesday in Nature, indicates that these changes can happen incredibly fast in the human gut—within three or four days of a big shift in what you eat. “We found that the bacteria that lives in peoples’ guts is surprisingly responsive to change in diet,” Lawrence David, assistant professor at the Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy and one of the study’s authors, says. “Within days we saw not just a variation in the abundance of different kinds of bacteria, but in the kinds of genes they were expressing.” (Scientific American is part of Nature Publishing Group.)

For modern humans, the rapid shift could be less adaptive. The 10 participants in the study switched to either a plant- or animal-based diet, with the former avoiding animal products and the latter eating milk, cheese and meat. In the subjects eating animal products the researchers saw a significant uptick in Bilophila wadsworthia, a bacteria known to contribute to colitis, a variety of inflammatory bowel disease, in mice. But the link hasn’t been studied in humans, so David does not think that cheese-lovers are necessarily eating themselves sick. “We’re anticipating that people will try to draw conclusions about which diet is better from this,” David says, “and we want to address that it’s very difficult to come to any health-related judgment based on this study.” Without measurements of host health during the study, like inflammation in the gut or immune system responses, David says, such a connection is impossible to make.

Chang, who has worked on the connection between B. wadsworthia and colitis in mice, agrees that the new study does nothing to prove the same for humans. But he thinks there may be something there. “This study shows how sensitive the body is to dietary change,” he says. “For the lay public, it underscores the importance of diet in health and disease. People should pay more attention to what they eat. But it rests on scientists to recognize that dietary discipline has these varied effects, and to understand what each component does so we can design healthier diets.” Dramatic changes in our diet, he says, could very well be the cause of “Western disorders” such as inflammatory bowel disease and obesity. Still, David says, his study was not meant to change the way we eat.
The_Optimist  Health 
january 2018 by murilo
Why breathing is the key to getting a better workout
Twice a week, often between video calls or meetings, Andrew Lowenthal takes a break from work to open an app on his phone that helps him focus on his breathing.

The payoff? Better stress management, clearer thinking at work and — to Mr. Lowenthal’s surprise — more strength and power in the gym. “It’s such a fundamental part of being human but not something that we think about often,” Mr. Lowenthal said about his breathwork.

As the executive director of Out in Tech, a Manhattan-based nonprofit, Mr. Lowenthal, 33, typically spends three to 10 minutes on an app created by Inscape, a New York meditation studio. He inhales, holding and exhaling his breath for various lengths of time according to prompts. Mr. Lowenthal said that he now exercises more regularly and takes care of himself better because of his breathing exercises. “It definitely helps me with my endurance,” he said.

Long a key part of meditation and some kinds of yoga, breathwork is now becoming a discipline in its own right, with proponents offering classes, one-on-one sessions and apps dedicated to the practice. And whereas the focus has predominantly been on the mental and psychological benefits of breathwork, fitness industry professionals are increasingly saying that it can also enhance athletic performance or speed muscular recovery after a workout

It has been long recognized that deep, controlled breathing can calm someone having an anxiety attack or help anyone in need of a little more stress-relief and mental clarity. Hillary Clinton, for example, has talked about using alternate side nostril breathing to help her relax while on the 2016 presidential campaign trail. But what’s new is that scientists have found a physical link between breathing and what they call “emotionality.”

A study published last March in Science showed a direct anatomical link between the parts of the brain that control voluntary breathing and the parts that control emotionality. Altering the activity of this connection changed how aroused, alert or calm mice were. “It’s an important finding because it shows that there is a causality between the two,” said Andrew D. Huberman, a professor of Neurobiology and Ophthalmology at Stanford University.

“Breathwork can be thought of as exercise in that, if done correctly, has immediate benefits — physical, emotional and cognitive — but breathwork also has longer-term benefits if you do it regularly,” Dr. Huberman said. “The idea is that people can alter and strengthen the neural pathways that link breathing with emotion regulation centers in the brain, which can help them feel calmer and more alert, and sleep better, depending on the protocols they use.”

It can also make you a better athlete. Mr. MacKenzie, who is the co-author of three sports-related books including “Unbreakable Runner,” teaches his clients how to use nasal breathing to optimize their athletic performance and be more “metabolically efficient.” Breathing through the nose activates the parasympathetic nervous system, which helps people remain calm and alert, improves their peripheral vision and encourages them to maintain better posture and mechanics, which results in fewer injuries, Mr. Mackenzie said.

All of these findings are not lost on Equinox, the chain of high-end gyms. Instructors started getting basic training in breathwork about two years ago when the company introduced a class called HeadStrong, which blends a high-intensity workout with so-called mindful movement and concludes with breathing. “I do see breathwork becoming as ubiquitous for recovery as foam rolling or stretching,” said Michael Gervais, Equinox’s senior manager of group fitness talent. He mentioned one study that shows a link between parasympathetic nervous activity, which is activated by breathwork, and recovery status after an intense workout.

Khajak Keledjian, founder and former C.E.O. of Intermix and the founder of Inscape, credits meditation, which he does twice daily, for reducing stress and improving his sleep and energy levels. He’s also noticed that he has an easier time breathing when he goes on challenging hikes. “According to heart-rate standards,” he said, “my endurance and stamina is at the level of an athlete.”

All of these findings are not lost on Equinox, the chain of high-end gyms. Instructors started getting basic training in breathwork about two years ago when the company introduced a class called HeadStrong, which blends a high-intensity workout with so-called mindful movement and concludes with breathing. “I do see breathwork becoming as ubiquitous for recovery as foam rolling or stretching,” said Michael Gervais, Equinox’s senior manager of group fitness talent. He mentioned one study that shows a link between parasympathetic nervous activity, which is activated by breathwork, and recovery status after an intense workout.
The_Optimist  Health  TM-FREE 
january 2018 by murilo
Cell-cultured vegan chicken could be in supermarkets sooner than you think
Cell-cultured “clean” meat is grown by extracting cells from an animal and then growing those cells in a bioreactor filled with a high-tech nutrient-dense liquid. The cells feed on the liquid and proliferate, producing chicken meat that’s molecularly identical to conventional meat without having ever slaughtered an animal. Some early research has shown that, theoretically, clean meat operations could release 98% less greenhouse gas than conventional farming. They would also use 99% less land and 96% less water.

There a lot of benefits that could come if we were to adopt cell-cultured vegan “meat.” Early research has shown that clean meat options could release 98 percent less greenhouse gas than conventional farming, and would use 99 percent less land and 96 percent less water. That's why it was so extraordinary when one of Europe’s largest poultry producers recently decided to team up with an Israeli clean meat company to get cell-cultured chicken to the market within three years. The partnership between the two companies is the latest sign that global meat industry players are willing to step over to cleaner options in the future.
The_Optimist 
january 2018 by murilo
TOP 20 NEUROSCIENCE NEWS STORIES OF 2017
1 – If You Get the Chills From Music, You May Have a Unique Brain

In February, USC researchers released a report that explains why some people experience more intense emotions while listening to music.

The study revealed people who report experiencing a physical response, such as getting the chills, after listening to specific peices of music may have structural differences in the brain. The researchers discovered higher volume of connective fibers between the auditory cortex and areas associated with emotional processing in those who reported physical response to music.

This story received a great deal of attention on Reddit and was subsequently picked up by numerous major news outlets. Currently, the story is number 1 on the Independent’s Indie 100 list.

4 – After 15 Years in a Vegetative State, Nerve Stimulation Restores Consciousness

A groundbreaking study from September revealed researchers used vagus nerve stimulation to help restore consciousness to a 35 year old man who has been in a vegetative state for 15 years.

Researchers reported one month of VNS helped to improve the patient’s movement, attention and brain activity. The treatment allowed the patient to respond to simple orders, such as turning his head on request, which he has been unable to do for almost a decade.

The researchers noted the dramatic outcome challenges the conventional belief that disorders of consciousness that last for longer than 12 months are irreversible

6 – Research Suggests Association Between Gut Bacteria and Emotion

2017 has brought about some major insight into the role gut bacteria plays in psychological and neurological health. In June, we reported UCLA researchers discovered microbiota appears to have a direct effect on behavior and emotion.

Using MRI technology and fecal sampling, researchers discovered women whose gut bacterial composition contained higher levels of bacteriodes had greater gray matter thickness in the frontal cortex, insula and hippocampus; areas of the brain associated with information processing and memory. Those with higher levels of Prevotella had greater connectivity between brain areas associated with emotion and attention, and lower hippocampal volume.

Women with higher Prevotella levels expressed more negative emotions, such as anxiety and distress, when looking at less positive images than the women with greater bacteriod levels

10 – Living Near a Forest Keeps Your Amygdala Healthier

In October, Max Planck Institute researchers reported living close to nature makes people better able to deal with stressful situations.

The researchers conducted a neuroimaging study of city dwellers who lived closer to forests. They discovered this group were more likely to have a healthier amygdala structure than those who lived in more urban areas. This, the researchers concluded, made people better able to deal with stressful situations

12 – New Light on Link Between Gut Bacteria and Anxiety

In August, we reported researchers discovered a possible way in which gut bacteria could influence anxiety and depression.

A study released in the journal Microbiome revealed gut microbes may influence microRNA in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, two brain areas associated with depression and anxiety disorders.

14 – Eye Contact With Your Baby Helps Synchronize Brainwaves

In November, University of Cambridge researchers released a report on the positive neurodevelopmental implications of making eye contact when interacting with infants.

Using EEG technology, researchers discovered eye contact causes brainwave synchronization between a child and the person communicating with them. The researchers believe the synchronization can help to boost learning and communication skills in infants

15 – Your Mood Depends on the Food You Eat, and What You Should Eat Changes as You Age

Throughout the year, we reported frequently about the impact diet can have on neurological and psychological health.

In December, we revealed Binghampton researchers found new evidence to suggest the foods we eat can affect our mental wellbeing. Additionally, the researchers reported, our dietary needs change as we age to keep us mentally healthy.

Researchers found younger people are more dependent on foods that increase the availability of neurotransmitter precursors and concentrations in the brain, such as meats and other high protein foods. For those of us over 30, we may be more reliant on fruits and other foods that increase the availability of antioxidants
The_Optimist  Health 
january 2018 by murilo
20 “science-based“ reasons to inspire you to stay physically active
1. Got Inflammation? 20 Minutes of Exercise Could Be a Remedy: 20-minute bouts of moderate-intensity physical activity trigger an anti-inflammatory cellular response

2. Physical Fitness Keeps Your Brain in Good Shape: Cardiorespiratory fitness boosts brain activity and improves memory performance.

3. 30 Minutes of Daily Activity May Help Slow Chromosomal Aging: Even if you sit 10 hours a day, 30 minutes of activity can protect your telomeres from premature aging.

5. Low-Intensity Aerobic Exercise Has Surprising Brain Benefits: Light physical activity (such as walking) stimulates the visual cortex and sensitizes human vision.

6. Regular Aerobic Exercise in Midlife Protects the Aging Brain: Aerobic exercise in middle age boosts collateral circulation as the brain ages.

7. Physical Activity May Be a Drug-Free Elixir for Chronic Pain: Staying physically active improves pain modulation in older adults.
The_Optimist  Health 
january 2018 by murilo
From Plato to the Christian mystics: Western philosophy is rooted in psychedelics
Despite the potential benefits, Sjöstedt-H does not believe that everyone should take psychedelics. Nor does he insist, as was common in the ‘60s, that doing so would lead to world peace. When I told Sjöstedt-H that I was too afraid of my own mind to risk exploring its suppressed depths, he agreed that was a valid concern. Bad trips are a serious risk, and more troubling for some than others. Those who are religious (and so would be more profoundly affected by visions of devils, for example), are especially anxious, or have suffered serious traumas, could well find psychedelics to be harmful rather than enlightening.
The_Optimist 
december 2017 by murilo
British supermarkets: return scheme for plastic bottles in bid to cut pollution
A deposit return scheme involves consumers paying a small deposit that is refunded when they return empty plastic bottles and is common in many parts of the world including Denmark, Germany and Australia.

“We hope that other supermarkets will see the way the wind is blowing on this issue ... and follow Iceland and the Co-op in recognising that our oceans should not be our rubbish bin,” said Tisha Brown of Greenpeace UK.

France has banned plastic shopping bags, adding disposable plastic cups and plates from 2020 while Kenya will soon bring in a ban on household and commercial plastic packaging after a successful grassroots social media campaign.

Scotland has already committed to introducing a deposit return scheme.
The_Optimist 
december 2017 by murilo
Scientists have discovered a protein that helps direct our T-cells to fight tumors
Immunotherapy is the new revolution in cancer treatment. As scientists discover new ways to adapt, or amplify, the body's natural defenses it opens the door to the development of better weapons to destroy tumors and kill cancers.

One way scientists are manipulating the body's natural defenses is called adoptive cell transfer, which involves extracting a patient's own T-cells, genetically modifying them to target the specific proteins that mark cancer cells, and then injecting them back into the patient. While this kind of therapy is proving effective against some cancers, it’s not as effective targeting cancers with solid tumors. That could soon change thanks to the discovery of a new protein that helps direct our cancer-fighting T-cells to go attack tumors.
The_Optimist 
december 2017 by murilo
Macron is spending millions to move American scientists to France
In an effort to counter Donald Trump on the climate change front, Emmanuel Macron has awarded millions of euros to 18 American scientists so that they can relocate to France. The “Make Our Planet Great Again” grants are part of the French President’s plan to replace US financing of climate research. The research of the winning recipients will focus on pollution, hurricanes, and clouds.
The_Optimist 
december 2017 by murilo
Study: Poor lifestyle causes half of all cancers
Smoking is by far and away the single major cause of cancer, but being obese, drinking too much alcohol, having a poor diet and being physically inactive combined are the second major cause. Overall, 42 percent of the 659,640 new cancer cases reported in the US every year were directly caused by poor lifestyle, as were half the 265,000 annual cancer deaths, say researchers from the American Cancer Society.
The_Optimist  Health 
december 2017 by murilo
Mitochondria shown to trigger cell ageing
An international team of scientists has for the first time shown that mitochondria, the batteries of the cells, are essential for ageing.
In a study, published today in the EMBO Journal and led by Dr João Passos at Newcastle University, they found that when mitochondria were eliminated from ageing cells they became much more similar to younger cells. This experiment was able for the first time to conclusively prove that mitochondria are major triggers of cell ageing.

This brings scientists a step closer to developing therapies to counteract the ageing of cells, by targeting mitochondria.

The team carried out a series of genetic experiments involving human cells grown in the laboratory and succeeded in eliminating the majority, if not all, the mitochondria from ageing cells. Cells can normally eliminate mitochondria which are faulty by a process called mitophagy. The scientists were able to “trick” the cells into inducing this process in a grand scale, until all the mitochondria within the cells were physically removed.

To their surprise, they observed that the ageing cells, after losing their mitochondria, showed characteristics similar to younger cells, that is they became rejuvenated. The levels of inflammatory molecules, oxygen free radicals and expression of genes which are among the makers of cellular ageing dropped to the level that would be expected in younger cells.
The_Optimist  Health 
november 2017 by murilo
Fasting from time to time can increase your lifespan
A new study from Harvard researchers has now shown how fasting can increase lifespan, slow aging and improve health by altering the activity of mitochondrial networks inside our cells.
"Although previous work has shown how intermittent fasting can slow aging, we are only beginning to understand the underlying biology," says William Mair, senior author on the study.

Mitochondria are a little like tiny power plants inside our cells. Last year a team of researchers led by Newcastle University successfully showed how mitochondria are fundamental to the aging of cells. The new research from Harvard shows how the changing shapes of mitochondrial networks can affect longevity and lifespan, but more importantly the study illustrates how fasting manipulates those mitochondrial networks to keep them in a "youthful" state.
"Although previous work has shown how intermittent fasting can slow aging, we are only beginning to understand the underlying biology," says William Mair, senior author on the study.

Mitochondria are a little like tiny power plants inside our cells. Last year a team of researchers led by Newcastle University successfully showed how mitochondria are fundamental to the aging of cells. The new research from Harvard shows how the changing shapes of mitochondrial networks can affect longevity and lifespan, but more importantly the study illustrates how fasting manipulates those mitochondrial networks to keep them in a "youthful" state.
"Although previous work has shown how intermittent fasting can slow aging, we are only beginning to understand the underlying biology," says William Mair, senior author on the study.

Mitochondria are a little like tiny power plants inside our cells. Last year a team of researchers led by Newcastle University successfully showed how mitochondria are fundamental to the aging of cells. The new research from Harvard shows how the changing shapes of mitochondrial networks can affect longevity and lifespan, but more importantly the study illustrates how fasting manipulates those mitochondrial networks to keep them in a "youthful" state.
Inside cells mitochondrial networks generally alternate between two states: fused and fragmented. Using nematode worms, an organism useful for studying longevity as it only lives for two weeks, the study found that restricted diets promotes homeostasis in mitochondrial networks allowing for a healthy plasticity between these fused and fragmented states.

"Our work shows how crucial the plasticity of mitochondria networks is for the benefits of fasting. If we lock mitochondria in one state, we completely block the effects of fasting or dietary restriction on longevity," says Mair.

The study also found that fasting enhances mitochondrial coordination with peroxisomes, a type of organelle that can increase fatty acid oxidation, a fundamental fat metabolism process. In the study's experiments, the lifespan of the worm was increased by simply preserving mitochondrial network homeostasis through dietary intervention. These results help shed light on how fasting can increase longevity and promote healthy aging.

"Low-energy conditions such as dietary restriction and intermittent fasting have previously been shown to promote healthy aging. Understanding why this is the case is a crucial step toward being able to harness the benefits therapeutically," explains Heather Weir, lead author of the study.

"Our findings open up new avenues in the search for therapeutic strategies that will reduce our likelihood of developing age-related diseases as we get older."
The_Optimist  Health 
november 2017 by murilo
In two years, Scotland will run only on renewable energy
Countries looking to transition to clean energy as quickly as possible should use Scotland as a model nation to follow. Over the past fifteen years, Scotland has gone from garnering 10 percent of its electricity from renewables to 60 percent. Now its on track to supply 100 percent of its electricity using clean sources by 2020.
The_Optimist 
november 2017 by murilo
How to keep your brain sharp, even if you aren’t a ‘super-ager’
Scientists are fascinated by a rare group of people known as super-agers — people over age 80 who retain certain cognitive abilities that are similar to people in their 50s.
Previous research on super-agers found differences in the sizes of certain areas of their brains.
A new study found that super-agers also differ in their social networks.

Several months ago, researchers discovered at least one physical basis for these differences that has to do with the thickness of the outer layer of the super-agers' brains.

But in a small study published in October in the journal PLOS One, researchers took a look at whether there was a social side to these differences as well. Sure enough, after studying 31 super-agers over age 80 as well as 19 cognitively average people of the same age, the scientists found that the super-agers tended to have significantly more satisfying, high-quality relationships than their normal peers.
The_Optimist  Mente  Health 
november 2017 by murilo
Education for all: free courses offered by 200 universities around the world
Massive Open Online Courses, also known as MOOCs, are on the rise. In the past six years or so, close to 800 universities have created more than 8,000 MOOCs. In just the past three months, over 200 universities have announced 600 of such free online courses, teaching a wealth of different subjects from computer science to personal development. For a full list of these completely self-paced, cost-free MOOCs, go here.
The_Optimist 
november 2017 by murilo
This self-talk strategy will optimize your success
Participants who wanted to have healthier eating habits were asked to say "I don't eat X" (i.e. "I don't eat cake") or "I can't eat X" when faced with an "unhealthy option such as a chocolate bar or opportunity to miss a workout." Those who used the phrase "I don't" before refusing temptation were found to choose healthier alternatives far more than those who used the phrase "I can't."

Another study by researchers showed that 20 women who were working toward fitness goals used "I don't" or "I can't" language when they were tempted to skip the gym or eat unhealthily. By the end of the study, 80% of the women using "I don't" instead of "I can't" were still pursuing their fitness goals without having strayed, while 90% of those who used "I can't" failed to last the entirety of the study, having lapsed back into unhealthy habits.

Yes, this difference in language seems arbitrary and inconsequential. But in truth, when you use "I don't" instead of "I can't," you will experience increased feelings of empowerment and strong levels of determination. These differences in language have incredible effects on what we think and how we act, as these two small phrases result in very different psychological effects.
The_Optimist  Mente 
november 2017 by murilo
A basic income for everyone? Yes, Finland shows it really can work
Simply put, the idea of Universal Basic Income (UBI) is to literally give people money for nothing no matter what their economic standing is. It’s an idea that lights up the brains of both radical leftists like Bernie Sanders and Silicon Valley plutocrats such as Elon Musk. Finland is currently experimenting with UBI, and so far, trials suggest it can liberate jobless people from a life of humiliation. Could UBI be the way forward in the future?
The_Optimist 
november 2017 by murilo
These hungry snails are guarding coastal ecosystems against climate change
Her study, recently published in the journal Science Advances, found during the summer, when it was the hottest, starfish, anemones, mussels, barnacles and seaweed in the rocky intertidal fared well in the heat, but only if limpets were present. All must cope with huge variations in temperature every day as the tide moves in and out. “When limpets were part of the community, the effects of warming were less harsh,” Kordas said. “When these herbivores weren’t around, the ecosystem did much worse.”

In Yellowstone National Park, for example, “when wolves were reintroduced to the park, the entire ecosystem changed,” said Kordas, a research fellow at Imperial College, London, who conducted her experiments while she was a doctoral student in zoology at the University of British Columbia. “Even the path of the rivers through the landscape changed.” Returning wolves helped manage the elk population. Elk were gobbling up plants near rivers, leaving riverbanks vulnerable to erosion. In another example, the presence of sea otters helped control sea urchins who munch on kelp. Kelp forests guard coastlines against storms and they soak up carbon just like tropical rainforests.

“One main difference with the otter and wolf examples compared to [the limpets] is that they involve a top predator that eats an herbivore — deer or urchins — and the herbivore eats plants or algae. When the top predator is removed, the herbivore populations get huge and decimate the plant populations. When the predator is around, they keep the voracious herbivores in check,” she said.
The_Optimist 
november 2017 by murilo
Samsung is looking for new uses for your old Galaxy phones
Samsung has created a new program called Galaxy Upcycling that will provide ideas and resources for how to reuse an old phone. Some early examples include a permanent display for a connected fish tank, a miniature tablet-powered arcade cabinet, and–if you somehow have a few dozen phones to spare–a bitcoin mining station. A website where users can share instructions is expected to go live soon.
The_Optimist 
november 2017 by murilo
8 ways to heal your gut
Dane Johnson was utterly terrified when he looked down and saw the toilet bowl red with blood at the age of 19. He kept quiet for years about his bouts of bloody bowel movements, but eventually it could not be ignored.

Twenty-three years old, working an IT job 60 hours a week, sleeping at his desk and eating on the run, Johnson was also isolated, lonely and chronically stressed. He'd given up his lifestyle as a personal trainer in his college town to "make it" in the corporate world—and it had hit him, hard.

Johnson was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis-an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that is thought to be the result of an immune system gone awry and turning to attack the "self"—a classic autoimmune disease.1 Inflammatory bowel diseases including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease affect more than 2.5 million Europeans (300,000 in the UK),2 over 1.4 million Americans and millions more across the globe.3 As the name implies, these diseases are the result of inflammation in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract, and they result in excruciating intestinal ulcers, chronic diarrhea, fevers and impaired absorption of nutrients, which leads to fatigue, leaky gut and weight loss. The diagnosis is not clear-cut: there is overlap between colitis and Crohn's conditions, and up to 15 percent of cases are difficult to distinguish. Another roughly 15 percent have a diagnosis that changes over time.4

The secret life of sufferers

Steroids and anti-inflammatory drugs put Johnson's first colitis "flare" in check, and he quit his high-stress job to seek sun, surfing and the good life in Santa Monica, California, as a remedy. Blessed with good looks and a six-foot-two physique, he started getting lucrative modeling gigs for local clothing lines, and before long, he was swooped up by the prestigious New York-based Ford Models agency.

By age 24, in 2011, Johnson was living in a co-ed models' house in Miami ("with some of the most gorgeous women I've ever seen in my life"), partying hard in Kate Moss style and earning tens of thousands of dollars on photo shoots for clothing lines like Gap and Tommy Hilfiger.

"I thought I was the coolest cat in town and no one could stop me from rising to the top," he says. Except, of course, that "I could hardly stand and I was experiencing uncontrollable bloody bowel movements."

Although he was trying to ignore the reality of his diagnosis and enjoy his fairy-tale life, the disease wouldn't let him. Johnson's medicine wasn't working. His gut pain was wrenching, he was running to the toilet 25 to 30 times a day, he had developed cystic acne as a side-effect, and he was losing weight fast.

Although IBD sufferers are thought to have some genetic susceptibility to the disease, genes don't explain the whole picture. Since the disease was not described until the industrial revolution, and Crohn's disease was not defined until 1932, new environmental triggers are thought to underlie the disease process. A wide range of these have been identified, from smoking, formula feeding as a baby and infections7 to the use of prescription drugs like oral contraceptives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and antibiotics8 and even vaccines, especially those containing aluminum adjuvants.9

What all of these factors have in common is their ability to shift the composition of the microbes living in the gut. It's thought that this underlying "dysbiosis"—or imbalance in the gut microflora—is what allows the immune system to run amok and the disease-related inflammation to take hold.

Only recently have doctors seriously begun looking at dietary factors including fiber10 and fat intake11 as underlying drivers of the disease—or as factors with the potential to shift the microbiome toward healing.

Let food be thy medicine

After having spent nearly $30,000 trying to get himself well, Johnson found the answers in the study of holistic nutrition and books such as The Maker's Diet by Jordan Rubin, who healed himself of Crohn's disease; Breaking the Vicious Cycle by biochemist Elaine Gottschall; and Self-Healing Colitis and Crohn's by vegan fruitarian David Klein, another self-healer of IBD.

All three authors suggested eliminating processed food and refined sugars as well as most grains, and all included healthy oils from seeds like flax and pumpkin and coconut oil. Johnson started following their advice and regaining his health and his weight. He got off his medication, and soon he felt like he could live normally again.

After returning to modeling with its party lifestyle, it wasn't long before Johnson "flared" again, and this time he found himself in the hospital after convulsing at a fashion show. More than a month later, after being treated with a cocktail of drugs including antibiotics and steroids, he checked himself out of the hospital, thin and weak, down more than 50 pounds and in a wheelchair. Although doctors said he would need surgery, Dane said he "knew it was up to me to heal myself because the doctors couldn't do anything for me."

"I started praying," he says, starting each day with the commitment to doing everything in his power to heal himself and finishing each day with gratitude for having done so. He meditated, visualized his healing, exercised, fasted and started keeping a journal to track the diet changes, supplements and herbs that worked for him. By this time, he had already enrolled in a nutrition program, and he threw himself into his studies.

It wasn't just the food, the prayer or the supplements alone that helped him heal, he says now; it was all of those things combined. "The main core thing was letting go of control, having faith," he says. "It's about creating belief—faith plus hard work equals belief!"

Today, Johnson weighs a healthy 180 pounds and is free of all medications and symptoms of his disease. He's eager to spread the word to others about how natural medicine can reverse symptoms of Crohn's and other autoimmune diseases. "I feel I have a purpose in life to help educate others about this disease and the options they have," he says.

Johnson co-founded the Crohn's & Colitis Nutrition Foundation. He has a book forthcoming called Going with your Gut and is producing a reality show on natural healing. Now a certified holistic nutritionist, he offers counseling and one-on-one online health coaching to other IBD sufferers around the world (see www.crohnscolitislifestyle.com).

Here are some of Johnson's lifestyle recommendations for his clients.

1) Cut carbs

Many people experience big improvements in their symptoms when they eliminate things like gluten from their diets. This is usually because they are also cutting grains like wheat, rye and barley, thereby reducing carbohydrates significantly overall. Carbohydrates, especially those in starchy and sugary foods, ferment and putrefy in the gut when they can't be properly digested. When there are bleeding wounds in the gut, as there are in IBD, the toxins and undigested particles leak into the bloodstream and wreak havoc on the body.

Complex carbohydrates also feed bad bacteria and yeasts, allowing them to overgrow.

2) Cut lectins

Johnson noticed a difference when he reduced his consumption of foods high in lectins, which are proteins found in many plant foods, especially grains. They bind to carbohydrate molecules within the gut, which can damage the cell membranes and irritate the gut lining. Most people have developed mechanisms to protect against lectins, but for people with IBD whose protective lining of the gut is damaged, foods high in lectins can aggravate bowel ulceration.

Johnson advises cutting out nightshade plants that are high in lectins, including raw tomatoes and peppers, along with cashews, quinoa, many beans and lentils, and dairy from cows fed corn and soy.

3) Avoid coffee

Johnson recommends IBD sufferers avoid coffee because it can be hard on the digestive tract and deplete nutrients.

4) Choose your fats

According to research, a high intake of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet is linked to a reduced risk of ulcerative colitis, while diets high in trans fats are associated with an increased risk of inflammatory disease.11

Trans fats are fats that have been hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated through processing or cooking, and are added to foods as emulsifiers—one possible reason why emulsifiers have been linked to the rise of Crohn's and other digestive diseases.12 Steer clear of anything that lists mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids as ingredients.

Omega-3 fats are found in walnuts, sunflower and flax seeds, and in fish including salmon, mackerel, herring and trout.

Don't ignore the good saturated fats, which have helped to heal many Crohn's and colitis sufferers. Coconut oil is a plant-based saturated fat rich in medium-chain fatty acids, lauric acid and decanoic acid (also called capric acid), which have been shown to have antiviral, antibacterial and particularly anti-fungal effects, helping to control Candida yeast infections.

In animal studies (which of course may not apply to humans), Case Western Reserve University researchers found that mice with Crohn's disease fed coconut oil and cocoa butter had a measurable shift in the composition of their microbiomes. Levels of bacteria associated with the disease dropped by as much as 30 percent in the mice, and their disease symptoms were alleviated as well. Even mice fed low concentrations of coconut oil or cocoa butter had improvement in their small intestine inflammation.13

"The finding is remarkable because it means that a Crohn's patient could have a beneficial effect on their gut bacteria and inflammation only by switching the type of fat in their diet. Patients would only need to replace a 'bad' fat with a 'good' fat, and eat normal amounts," lead researcher Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios said.

Essential fatty acids have potent anti-inflammatory effects, and they are critical for the function of the nervous and endocrine systems … [more]
The_Optimist  Health 
november 2017 by murilo
Adding magnesium to your diet helps your body function at its best
Magnesium is supposedly the fourth most-commonly found mineral in the human body, yet studies show most people are deficient in it. The mystery culprit? The same phenomenon behind anxiety, depression, and lack of sleep: stress. Stress causes all kinds of negative effects on the body, and your brain compensates for it by using up all of the magnesium naturally found in cells, responsible for regulating hundreds of bodily chemical reactions. Magnesium supports the transformation of food into energy, formulating new proteins, repairing DNA, supporting muscle movement, and regulating the nervous system among many other critical functions. Magnesium also helps protect the body from minor health complications like migraines and insomnia to major health issues like type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

“If there’s one supplement that is absolutely essential, it’s magnesium,” Dr. Dennis Goodman, Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine at New York University, Board Certified Cardiologist, and the Director of Integrative Medicine at New York Medical Associates, told Observer. “In my practice, 80 percent of people are deficient in it.”

In his book, Magnificent Magnesium: Your Essential Key to a Healthy Heart and More, Dr. Goodman explores magnesium’s ability to remedy many cardiovascular conditions, arguing the case for the naturally-occurring mineral over pharmaceutical drugs to lower blood pressure and even prevent heart attacks. He also highly recommends supplementing your diet with magnesium, an easy way to avoid fatigue, insomnia, migraines, anxiety, muscle cramps, and even depression. Dr. Goodman is consistently named one of New York’s top doctors by The New York Times and New York Magazine, thanks to his integrative approach to overall optimal health; rather than resorting immediately to pharmaceuticals, he addresses his patients with a combined approach that is equal parts mind and body.
The_Optimist  Health 
october 2017 by murilo
Living near this linked to healthier brain structure
Living near a forest keeps the brain healthier, new research finds.

Even city dwellers who lived closer to a forest had a healthier amygdala, an area of the brain where emotion and stress are processed.

This suggests a link between living near trees and being able to cope with stress.
The_Optimist  Health 
october 2017 by murilo
Why we must relearn the art of dialogue
Isn’t it strange that we’ve come to a point in time where people are more comfortable being talked at through a screen rather than face-to-face? Fred Dust, the director of design firm Ideo, thinks so. He believes we’ve lost our ability to communicate and listen to each other, which is why he’s on a mission to design new ways for us to talk with each other so that we can solve problems. Take a look here what Dust has to say about relearning the art of dialogue.
The_Optimist 
october 2017 by murilo
New Zealand’s next prime minister wants to plant 100 million trees yearly
New Zealand's next prime minister Jacinda Ardern has set ambitious environmental policies to confront a warming planet.

"I do anticipate that we will be a government, as I said during the campaign, that will be absolutely focused on the challenge of climate change," said Ardern, whose Labour party has signed a coalition agreement with the New Zealand First party.

Other green initiatives include transitioning the country's power grid to 100 percent renewable energy, a significant investment in regional rail, and a goal to plant 100 million trees a year through the "Billion Trees Planting Programme."

According to the Associated Press, Arden said the goal of doubling the amount of trees the country plants each year is "absolutely achievable" by using land that was marginal for farming animals.

The Green Party will support the incoming government with a confidence and supply agreement, which includes a major goal of net zero carbon emissions by 2050.

"All three parties share an absolute commitment to addressing climate change," Ardern said.

As Climate Change News noted, New Zealand's 2050 net zero target puts it in the same hat as Sweden, which wants net zero by 2045, and Norway, which is aiming for 2030. Other developed nations such as the U.S, Canada, Mexico, the U.K., France and Germany have committed to cutting emissions but none to net zero.
The_Optimist 
october 2017 by murilo
This super simple household item gets pesticides off apples, study says
In a new study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, researchers applied high concentrations of two common pesticides—a fungicide called thiabendazole and an insecticide called phosmet—to organic Gala apples. After the chemicals sat for 24 hours, the researchers tried three different washing methods: tap water, a 1% baking soda and water mixture and a Clorox bleach solution similar to that used by commercial fruit producers.

They monitored the pesticide levels on the surface and inside of the fruit after washing with each method. The baking soda and water solution beat out both bleach and tap water after two minutes of cleaning, and again after eight minutes. After 12 to 15 minutes of washing, the formula had removed virtually all external pesticides, as well as some that had begun to seep below the fruit's surface. The very lengthy washing wiped out 80% of the thiabendazole and 96% of the phosmet.
The_Optimist  Health 
october 2017 by murilo
Bill Gates and Steve Jobs raised their kids tech-free—here’s why you should too
Interviews with Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, and other tech elites consistently reveal that Silicon Valley parents are strict about technology use.

Psychologists are quickly learning how dangerous smartphones can be for teenage brains.

Research has found that an eighth-grader's risk for depression jumps 27% when he or she frequently uses social media. Kids who use their phones for at least three hours a day are much more likely to be suicidal. And recent research has found the teen suicide rate in the US now eclipses the homicide rate, with smartphones as the driving force.
The_Optimist  Leonardo 
october 2017 by murilo
Sea turtles appear to be bouncing back around the world
On this planet, so many plants and animals are disappearing that scientists worry we're experiencing a sixth mass extinction. Many of these organisms are taking hits from a variety of angles -- habitat loss, climate change and more -- that it's hard to get a grasp on how to stop their declines. Conservation success stories are rare. But sea turtles may be an exception, according to an comprehensive analysis of global sea turtle abundance published Wednesday in Science Advances. Antonios Mazaris, an ecologist at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in Greece and a team of international researchers found that globally, most populations of sea turtles are bouncing back after historical declines.
The_Optimist 
october 2017 by murilo
7 TED talks to help you give thanks
These TED Talks will help you conjure up massive amounts of gratitude. TED Talks are free thanks to support.
The_Optimist 
october 2017 by murilo
This device can collect 20,000 plastic bottles from the ocean each year
UK waterways are about to get a lot cleaner with the launch of the world’s first production Seabin in Portsmouth harbor. The device, which was developed by a pair of Australian surfers, works by sucking in various kinds of pollution (including oil) and spitting out clean water. The Seabin can collect approximately 1.5 kg of waste each day and has a capacity of 12 kg — and in a given year, a single bin can collect 20,000 plastic bottles or 83,000 plastic bags.

The Seabin was first unveiled in December 2015. To fund the invention, founders Andrew Turton and Pete Ceglinski created an IndieGoGo campaign. With little time to spare, the campaign exceeded its goal.

Equipped with $250,000, Turton and Ceglinski are now prepared to follow through with their plan, which entails cleaning up marinas with the natural fiber garbage bin and an automated, above-the-water pump. The device was designed with marine safety in mind – only debris and chemical pollution on the surface of the water is collected; fish and other aquatic creatures are left alone.

The Times reports that the Seabin was installed near the base of the Land Rover Ben Ainslie Racing (BAR) team in the Portsmouth harbor. The group is passionate about environmental efforts – not only have members pledged to give up meat every Monday, they only consume sustainable seafood. Now, they’ve agreed to oversee the Seabin, which will improve the quality of water while protecting the cage of over 1,000 oysters near the pontoon.
The_Optimist 
october 2017 by murilo
Probiotics could be the key to reversing colon cancer
Colon cancer could be reversed just with probiotics that change the gut's bacteria—and the disease can be prevented in the first place by eating whole grains, such as brown rice and whole-wheat bread, every day, two new research studies have found.

In a breakthrough study that could herald in a new drugs-free approach to treating colon cancer, researchers have discovered that sufferers lack certain enzymes known as metabolites, simple 'building-block' compounds, in their gut, and this can cause inflammation and cancer.

But using probiotics to reintroduce the enzymes into the gut prevents the disease and could even reverse it, say researchers from the Texas Children's Hospital.

Colon cancer sufferers are especially deficient in HDC, an enzyme that is needed to convert histidine to histamine, which can help protect against inflammation. The probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri 6475 is rich in HDC, and can reduce tumours within 15 weeks, the researchers have discovered in tests on laboratory mice.

In a separate study, researchers have concluded that eating whole grains every day reduces the risk of colorectal cancer, while consuming hot dogs, bacon and other processed meats most days increases the risk.

Three factors increase the risk: eating more than 500 g of red meat every week, being overweight or obese, or drinking two or more alcoholic drinks every day, say researchers from the American Institute for Cancer Research, who took another look at 99 studies that tracked more than 29 million people.

But eating three servings, around 90 grams, of whole grains every day reduces the risk by around 17 per cent.
The_Optimist  Health 
september 2017 by murilo
The analogy between climbing and uplifting my thought suddenly became very clear to me as I neared the top. My ascent up Huayna Picchu paralleled the ascension of my thought. As I came closer and closer to the precipice (and the hike became more difficult
Cancer's Newest Miracle Cure
When Kaitlyn's cancer wasn't controlled after three years and round after round of chemotherapy drugs, her doctors had little else to offer. "In a calculated gamble, her doctors suggested a radical new option: becoming a test subject in a trial of an experimental therapy that would, for the first time, use gene therapy to train a patient's immune system to recognize and destroy their cancer in the same way it dispatches bacteria and viruses. The strategy is the latest development in immunotherapy, a revolutionary approach to cancer treatment that uses a series of precision strikes to disintegrate cancer from within the body itself.Joining the trial was risky, since other attempts to activate the immune system hadn't really worked in the past. Mandy, her husband James and Kaitlyn traveled from their home in Texas to Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), where they stayed in a hotel for eight weeks while Kaitlyn received the therapy and recovered.But it did. After receiving the therapy in 2015, the cancer cells in Kaitlyn's body melted away. Test after test, including one that picks up one cancer cell in a million, still can't detect any malignant cells lurking in Kaitlyn's blood. What saved Kaitlyn was an infusion of her own immune cells that were genetically modified to destroy her leukemia. You take someone who essentially has no possibility for a cure--almost every single one of these patients dies--and with [this] therapy, 90% go into remission," says Dr. David Porter, director of blood and bone-marrow transplantation at the University of Pennsylvania.Eager to bring this groundbreaking option to more patients, including those with other types of cancers, an advisory panel for the Food and Drug Administration voted unanimously in July to move the therapy beyond the testing phase, during which several hundred people have been able to take advantage of it, to become a standard therapy for children with certain leukemias if all other treatments have failed. While the FDA isn't obligated to follow the panel's advice, it often does, and it is expected to announce its decision in a matter of weeks.
Health  The_Optimist 
august 2017 by murilo
Flossing your teeth prevents inflammation that may lead to cancer
Taking good care of your gums helps to prevent cancer. Gum disease is caused by sticky, bacteria-laden plaque that forms on teeth. According to a new study, women with gum disease are 14 percent more likely to develop cancer than those with healthy teeth and gums. The link appears to be strongest for esophageal cancer, but associations were also found between poor oral health and lung, gallbladder, breast, and skin cancer. Daily flossing and brushing can usually reverse gum disease.
The_Optimist  Health 
august 2017 by murilo
‘Meditation, yoga, and tai chi can reverse damaging effects of stress’
Mind-body interventions such as meditation, yoga*, and tai chi can reverse the molecular reactions in our DNA that cause ill-health and depression, according to a study by scientists at the universities of Coventry and Radboud.

When a person is exposed to a stressful event, their sympathetic nervous system (responsible for the “fight-or-flight” response) is triggered, which increases production of a molecule called nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB). That molecule then activates genes to produce proteins called cytokines that cause inflammation at the cellular level, affecting the body, brain, and immune system.

That’s useful as a short-lived fight-or-flight reaction. However, if persistent, it leads to a higher risk of cancer, accelerated aging, and psychiatric disorders like depression.

But in a paper published June 16, 2017 in the open-access journal Frontiers in Immunology, the researchers reveal findings of 18 studies (featuring 846 participants over 11 years) indicating that people who practice mind-body interventions exhibit the opposite effect. They showed a decrease in production of NF-kB and cytokines — reducing the pro-inflammatory gene expression pattern and the risk of inflammation-related diseases and conditions.

David Gorski, MD, PhD, has published a critique of this study here. (Lead author Ivana Burić has replied in the comments below.)
The_Optimist  TM-FREE 
august 2017 by murilo
The “happiest man in the world” explains how you can be happier too
Stop thinking 'me, me, me' - "It's simply that me, me, me all day long is very stuffy. And it's quite miserable, because you instrumentalize the whole world as a threat, or as a potential sort of interest [to yourself]."

Start training your mind like you'd train to run a marathon - like a marathon runner who needs to train before he or she can run 26.2 miles, people who want to be happier need to train their minds. Ricard's preferred way of training his is meditation.

Just spend 15 continuous minutes a day thinking happy thoughts
Start by thinking happy thoughts for 10 to 15 minutes per day, Ricard says. Typically when we experience feelings of happiness and love, it's fleeting and then something else happens, and we move on to the next thought. But Ricard says instead, concentrate on not letting your mind get distracted and keep focused on the positive emotions for the next stretch of time. And if you do that training every day, even just two weeks later you can feel positive mental results. And if you practice that for 50 years like Ricard has, you can become a happiness pro too.

That's backed up by neuroscientists, by the way. Davidson found from his study that even 20 minutes of daily meditation can make people much happier overall.
The_Optimist  TM-FREE 
august 2017 by murilo
Chain that wants to be the McDonald's of vegan food prepares for a $13m takeover
A vegan fast-food chain is winning over omnivores across the US. Now, it’s ready to take on the rest of the world.

By Chloe is planning to open its first location outside of the US in London this fall, Bloomberg reported. Up to $US13 million has reportedly been invested in the chain’s expansion, with plans to open more locations in London, as well as elsewhere in Europe and the Middle East.

Read more at https://www.businessinsider.com/by-chloe-international-explosive-expansion-plan-2017-8#rqJT4dDKS7K4x1hH.99
The_Optimist 
august 2017 by murilo
Shell sees the end of oil and CEO’s next car will be electric
Ben van Beurden, the Royal Dutch Shell boss, last week delivered the clearest indication yet that the burgeoning electric vehicle industry is already hastening the decline of global oil demand. “When that will be is not certain. But that it will happen, we are certain,” he told investors.

It was not so much a foil to the group trebling second quarter profits as a statement of intent: for “Big Oil” it is time to adapt or die, and Shell intends to adapt.

The Anglo-Dutch giant is already shifting its focus from drilling for oil to natural gas, but within the next year Shell will unveil early plans for a deeper presence in renewable energy and the electrical chain to tap the boom in electric vehicles.

“Everyone is repeatedly surprised at how fast electric cars are coming forward,” Professor Dieter Helm told The Telegraph in April. The number of new registrations of plug-in cars has grown from 3,500 in 2013 to more than 100,000 at the end of May. “But the political pressure to adopt this technology is increasing all the time. It’s not due to concerns over climate change – it’s city air pollution,” he said.
The_Optimist 
july 2017 by murilo
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