jslu + @comparison   511

[每日頭條] 大多數國家的現行法律制度,大致可以分為兩個系統
大多數國家的現行法律制度,大致可以分為兩個系統:

(1)習慣法系(Common Law),又稱不成文法系、普通法系、英美法系等。它源於英國的法律制度。以傳統導向為主,重視習慣和判例,假使沒有特殊的判例或法令,習慣法往往由法官自行裁定。 ...

(2)成文法系(Code Law)。又稱為大陸法系。其判決基礎大致都有可供依據的法律條文,而不是依賴判例和法官解釋。在實行成文法的國家,明確的法律條文是非常重要的,而且其法律條文要能包括所有可能的法律事實和狀況。由於成文法系國家不依據以前的裁決,因此同樣的法系,因不同的用意,將產生解釋上的偏差。
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  Law  HabitRoutineAndPattern  MeaningManagement  ConflictResolution 
8 weeks ago by jslu
[TechBridge] 循序漸進理解 HTTP Cache 機制
前陣子在研究跟 HTTP Cache 有關的一些東西,看得眼花撩亂,不同的 Header 愈看愈混亂,像是 Pragma, Cache-Control, Etag, Last-Modified, Expires 等等。找了許多參考資料閱讀之後才有了比較深刻的理解,想說若是從一個比較不同的角度來理解 Cache,說不定會比較容易了解這些 Header 到底在做什麼。

在之前查的資料裡面,很多篇都是逐一解釋各個 Header 的作用以及參數,而我認為其實參數講多了容易造成初學者混淆,想說怎麼有這麼多奇怪的參數,而且每一個看起來都很像。所以這篇文章嘗試一步一步藉由不同的問題來引導出各個 Header 使用的場景以及出現的目的。
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @Example  Cache  WebHosting  WebApp  Software  DataSync  Scenario  Productivity  Tutorial 
april 2019 by jslu
[MONEY錢雜誌] 10分鐘搞懂債券殖利率
想知道你買的配息債券基金是否有獲利,就一定要了解債券「殖利率」的算法及其與「配息」的關係,還可進一步反推得出合理的市場價格,讓投資更穩健。 ... 如果上述企業在發行這批債券時,未來市場利率有上漲趨勢,發售時就有可能會按面額10萬元打折出售,假定是以9萬元出售,這種情形叫做折價發售。這一來殖利率就不一樣了。 .. 年化殖利率..就不等於票載利率了,而是比較高。 ... 相反的,如果債券發售時未來市場利率有下跌的趨勢,就有可能以高於面額10萬元的價格出售,假定是以11萬元出售,這種情形叫做溢價發售。
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @Example  Bond  InterestRate  Finance  Tutorial  Investment 
march 2019 by jslu
[CalliCoder] Java CompletableFuture Tutorial with Examples
Java 8 came up with tons of new features and enhancements like Lambda expressions, Streams, CompletableFutures etc. In this post I’ll give you a detailed explanation of CompletableFuture and all its methods using simple examples.
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @HOWTO  @Example  Java  DataSync  Functional  Software  Programming 
march 2019 by jslu
[Medium/劉仲敬] 諸神之戰:世界秩序與現代中國(上)
我們現在所謂的「中國」這個概念,跟這個有兩千多年歷史的方塊字的「國」的概念是截然不同的。它對應於英語中間的nation這個詞,意思就是民族國家。民族國家的產生是非常晚近的事情,即使是在歐洲也是十九世紀才有,十九世紀以前是沒有這個東西。歐洲十九世紀的觀念,隨著世界體系的擴張普及到全世界各地。在大清這一塊,大家用一種類似托古改制的方法,從漢語中原有的詞去尋找類似的詞,就用中國古籍中原有的「國」這個詞來翻譯nation這個詞。但是必須說,這種翻譯做法是不好的,它造成了極大的概念混亂。 ... 歐洲的秩序演化,從十九世紀開始到現在也是經歷了好幾波的:第一波是封建餘波的多元權力結構,建立上海租界、漢口租界和香港租界的是這種體系,上海的工部局、香港殖民地、各地租界什麼的,代表了這一個體系的秩序輸入;第二波是法蘭西革命以後,特別是普法戰爭以後的民族國家建構,後來的中華民國以及以後的各個政權是這一波影響的結果;第三波則是第一次世界大戰以後由布爾什維克開創的這種跨國性的意識形態戰爭;第四波呢,則是蘇聯解體、冷戰結束以後,亞國家組織和超國家組織開始瓜分現有的民族國家體系的過程。大體上是四個階段。
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @Example  Politics  History  WorldView  MilitaryAndWarfare  Europe  China  Law  HabitRoutineAndPattern  Capitalism  Globalization  MeaningManagement  Language  Community 
march 2019 by jslu
模擬class物件:Ruby當中Struct及OpenStruct的使用 | Motion Express | Ruby, Rails, Golang & DevOps
為什麼我們需要模擬class物件呢?主要是一個物件有一些屬性需要存取,例如一篇文章Post底下需要title和content兩個屬性,用class來存取就是用牛刀殺雞,太過複雜,用簡單的Hash存取即可。

但Hash其實在某些功能上過於簡單,存取的功能較不方便,假如要模擬的class更為複雜,就需要OpenStruct協助。

... 我自己最常用於寫Rails測試的時候使用Struct,例如撰寫RSpec的unit test要將其他class物件使用mock區隔開來。
@Article  @Concept  @HOWTO  @Comparison  @Example  Ruby  Software  OOAD  Productivity  Tutorial  TDD 
february 2019 by jslu
[Medium/左右觀察] 一戰後世界秩序的重塑 – 劉仲敬
中國人很少通過國際體系這個角度來考慮問題,然而國際體系對國家來說就好像生態環境對生物一樣重要。 ... 你要明白這個基本前提,明白50年代的國際共產主義運動是全世界一盤棋這個基本邏輯,才能夠明白為什麼後來的很多歷史分析是不正確的。 ... 從毛澤東在中國黨內的政治生態的角度來看,文化大革命和反蘇運動,與其說是為了共產主義意識形態的緣故,倒不如說是毛本人為了消除親蘇派力量的班底而發起的行動。因為50年代以後,所謂反蘇是什麼呢,反蘇實際上就是,反蘇實質意義,從人事角度來看,就是毛澤東在自己的實力足夠強大以後,漸漸覺得由蘇聯給他培養出來的受蘇聯影響和操縱很嚴重的共產黨班底,已經不再適合他的需要了。他希望培養出一個只忠於他自己,而不再忠於蘇聯和國際主義體系的一個班底。但是原來那些老班底留在他身邊,對他來說是不安全的,他必須想辦法把他們打倒。所以劉少奇或者其他什麼類似的人必須去死。從這個角度上你才能夠理解文化大革命的邏輯。他想培養出純粹的中國本土化的幹部,用這些本土化的幹部取代蘇聯共產國際和蘇聯留學生,和在蘇聯培養出來的這批共產黨老幹部。這樣的話他才能夠實現完全的安全和真正的獨裁統治。
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @Example  China  Europe  History  WorldView  Globalization  MilitaryAndWarfare  Industry  Economics  Capitalism  Politics 
february 2019 by jslu
[國家政策研究基金會] 不堪回首話「治外法權」
「治外法權」(extraterritorial jurisdiction)則是過去歐美帝國主義國家以「未開化的國家」無法做出公正審判為由,透過簽訂不平等條約,讓其僑民犯罪時,在與其簽有不平等條約之國家內僅接受其本國駐在該國之領事審判。換言之,帝國主義國家的僑民即使犯罪,也不受僑居地法院的審判;此舉十足侵略他國主權
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @Example  Law  Politics  History 
february 2019 by jslu
Is 'Huh?' a universal word?
A word like ‘Huh?’ —used when one has not caught what someone just said—appears to be universal: it is found to have very similar form and function in languages across the globe. ... this little word, along with others that function in similar ways (e.g., ‘Sorry?’ ‘What?’) is an indispensible tool in human communication. Without such words we would be unable to signal when we have problems with hearing or understanding what was said. Because conversation moves along so quickly, if we did not have reliable ways of signaling trouble, we would constantly fail to stay ‘on the same page’ in social interaction.
@Article  @Research  @Comparison  @Example  Language  InterpersonalCommunication  Feedback-receiving 
february 2019 by jslu
[Medium/劉仲敬] 「中國」這個概念的形成
在近代以前的世界上,統治原則是不需要考慮國民問題的,它只需要在統治者和被統治者之間達成私人關係就行了。我只要忠於皇帝或者國王就行了,皇帝和國王跟我是不是同一族、是誰,那沒有關係,只要他實際上行使統治權、而我實際上對他進行個人效忠就可以了,他沒有整體性的國民概念。而法國大革命產生了民族民主國家的概念,統治權要由國王 — — 這個具體的、有血有肉的國王這個人手裡面,轉到抽象的國民手裡面。 ... 孫中山和國民黨離開了他們在辛亥年間的政策。他們在辛亥年間認為滿洲不是中國,而是中國的敵人;然後在北伐以後又主張,中華民國應該繼承清朝的所有土地。因此滿洲到底是不是中國的問題,就引起了嚴重的衝突,最後導致了戰爭。 ... 民族國家或者是國民共同體這個東西的建立,最核心的因素就是認同,而認同是主觀的,因此沒有客觀標準。
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @Example  History  Politics  China  Europe  WorldView  MilitaryAndWarfare  Community 
february 2019 by jslu
[Medium/劉仲敬] 史觀系列 (一):讀史早知今日事
判斷和追求真相主要不靠知識或材料,而是靠你對整個格局的把握和判斷,就像好獵人的那種直覺,就像堅持在陰溝裡而不是路燈下找鑰匙。你必須心裡有了七八分,再用史料來充實它。 ... 事實在歷史當中,猶如物自體在哲學當中。沒有適當詮釋,你不可能接觸到物自體。真實史料可以支援偽造的歷史,例如司馬昭解釋高貴鄉公死因的文告;虛假史料可以反映真實歷史,例如奧斯丁小說暴露的英國鄉紳習俗。可信度的估計主要還是要依靠個別史料在整體背景當中的協調程度,也就是說還是取決於情景模擬。史料正確而結論基本錯誤、史料錯誤而結論基本正確,都是有可能的。提高認知層次比具體的正誤重要的多,高層次的高細節錯誤率比低層次的低細節錯誤率更有利於達爾文意義上的格局判斷力。
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @Example  History  WorldView  PerspectiveAndFraming  MeaningManagement  HabitRoutineAndPattern  HumanNature  Decision-making  FutureTrend  Scenario 
february 2019 by jslu
[Experience Life] Steady-State Cardio Vs. High-Intensity Interval Training
Steady-state cardio is aerobic: It requires oxygen and is fueled mostly by stored fat. HIIT, by contrast, is anaerobic: The work intervals don’t rely exclusively on oxygen, and are fueled mostly by stored carbohydrates. (Counterintuitively, HIIT makes you breathe harder, and burns more fat, than steady-state cardio.) ... Experienced exercisers seeking general fitness should take this simple test: Sit quietly, find your pulse, and count your heartbeats for one minute. If your resting heart rate is below 60, feel free to experiment with HIIT. “If it’s above 65,” says Robertson, “you need steady-state cardio training.”
@Article  @Comparison  Health  Fitness 
december 2018 by jslu
[新新聞] 【梁國源專欄】主權、民主與全球化的矛盾
近代全球化效益深信不疑者,很難想像為何「美好世界」無以為繼,甚至催生出英國甘冒經濟大幅衰退風險,決心退歐等事件。但從著名經濟學者羅德里克(Dani Rodrik)於二○○○年提出的「世界政經運作三元悖論」(political trilemma of world economy)觀點看來,當前的國際政治亂象反倒像是一個遲來的必然,並無多大驚人之處。何謂世界政經運作三元悖論?簡單地說,就是「全球經濟整合」、「國家主權」,以及「高度直接參與的民主政治體制」,三者無法同時兼得。
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  Globalization  Economics  Politics  @Example  Europe  WorldView 
november 2018 by jslu
Sanity Testing Vs Smoke Testing: Introduction & Differences
Smoke Testing is a kind of Software Testing performed after software build to ascertain that the critical functionalities of the program is working fine. It is executed "before" any detailed functional or regression tests are executed on the software build. The purpose is to reject a badly broken application, so that the QA team does not waste time installing and testing the software application.
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  Software  QAnQC  TimeManagement  Priority  Productivity  Engineering 
november 2018 by jslu
[博客园] JAVA多线程实现的四种方式 - FelixZh
Java多线程实现方式主要有四种:
1. 继承Thread类、
2. 实现Runnable接口、
3. 实现Callable接口通过FutureTask包装器来创建Thread线程、
4. 使用ExecutorService、Callable、Future实现有返回结果的多线程。
其中前两种方式线程执行完后都没有返回值,后两种是带返回值的。
@Article  @Concept  @HOWTO  @Comparison  @Example  Java  Software  Concurrency 
november 2018 by jslu
[關鍵評論網] 《大清帝國與中華的混迷》書評:從內亞王朝到東亞國家,「漢化」等同亡國之兆
大清帝國於1911年崩解後,取而代之的是中華民國,如果按照革命歷史而言,清末的革命黨人所要求的是「驅逐韃虜」,亦即將滿洲人趕回滿洲、恢復只有漢人的「中華」,因此理論上漢人的中華民國應該只包含清代的漢人十八省而已,至於滿洲、蒙古、圖博、東突厥斯坦,則應該讓其人民自行決定去留。至少,按照原來的革命精神,推翻滿人王朝的革命本就與這些地方無關;然而無論是孫中山或袁世凱,在指導中華民國初期國策的同時,也自行繼承了大清帝國的疆域,因而開始產生所謂自古不可分割的領土這種主張。事實上,從清末開始建構革命理論的章太炎,並不贊成將蒙古、圖博等地納入中華民國的範疇裡,原因很簡單,翻閱史書就知道,這些地方並非自古就屬於中國的一部份。
@Article  @Concept  China  History  MeaningManagement  Politics  @Comparison 
november 2018 by jslu
[程序猿DD] Lombok:让JAVA代码更优雅
Lombok项目通过添加“处理程序”,使java成为一种更为简单的语言。作为一个Old Java Developer,我们都知道我们经常需要定义一系列的套路,比如定义如下的格式对象。
@Article  @HOWTO  @Example  @Comparison  Java  Reading  InterpersonalCommunication  MeaningManagement  Software  Programming  Language  Self-expression  Tutorial 
october 2018 by jslu
[Oxygen Magazine] What Are Drop Sets, Supersets and Giant Sets?
Advanced techniques are used to boost the intensity of a workout, improve muscular endurance and shock your body to prevent a plateau. ... These techniques can be intense, so use them sparingly. Overuse can lead to overtraining.
@Article  @HOWTO  @Concept  @Comparison  Health  Tip 
october 2018 by jslu
[QATestLab] Sanity Testing vs Regression Testing
Testers carry out Sanity Testing if they have limited time for performing testing. Regression Testing is carried out when there is enough time for it. ... Non-complete test cases are conducted in the software in the course of Sanity Testing. In the course of Regression Testing complete test cases are conducted in the software.
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  QAnQC  Software  Engineering 
october 2018 by jslu
[咀嚼之味] 阻碍你使用 GraphQL 的十个问题
从官方的定义来说,GraphQL 是一种针对 API 的查询语言;在我看来,GraphQL 是一种标准,而与标准相对的便是实现。就像 EcmaScript 与 JavaScript 的关系,从一开始你就需要有这样一种认知:GraphQL 只定义了这种查询语言语法如何、具体的语句如何执行等。但是,你在真正使用某种 GraphQL 的服务端实现时,是有可能发现 GraphQL 标准中所描述的特性尚未被实现;或者这种 GraphQL 的实现扩展了 GraphQL 标准所定义的内容。
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @Reference  API  CloudComputing  Software  Programming  InterpersonalCommunication  Cache  Database  Tutorial 
october 2018 by jslu
How FPGAs work, and why you'll buy one
A programmable gate array is when your gates are generic. They index into a truth table (called a look-up table or LUT) with their inputs, and fetch the answer. With a 2-input LUT, you get an OR gate or an AND gate or whatever, depending on the truth table you programmed. With 3-input LUTs, you can have a single gate computing, say, (a&b)|c, but the principle is the same
@Article  @Concept  @HOWTO  @Comparison  @Example  Hardware  Programming  Logic  Computation 
september 2018 by jslu
Why use an FPGA instead of a CPU or GPU? – Netherlands eScience Center
If you want to compute something, the common approach is to write some software for an instruction based architecture, such as a CPU or GPU. Another, more arduous, route one could take is to design a special circuit for this specific computation — as opposed to writing instructions for a general purpose circuit such as a CPU or GPU. ... Instruction-based hardware is configured via software, whereas FPGAs are instead configured by specifying a hardware circuit.
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @HOWTO  Computation  Software  Hardware  Engineering  Adaptability  CloudComputing  Cryptocurrency  EnergyCirculation 
august 2018 by jslu
[Semaphore] Stubbing and Mocking in Java with the Spock Testing Framework
Spock was created to cover the full testing lifecycle of a Java Enterprise application. The existing tools have a long history and come with several legacy features that cannot always keep up with newer testing practices. The most evident example of this is the fact that JUnit covers only plain unit testing and nothing else. If you need to mock some services or wish to employ Behavior-driven development, JUnit is simply not enough. You are forced to add more testing frameworks into the mix, each one with its own idiosyncrasies and issues.
@Article  @Comparison  @Concept  @HOWTO  @Example  TDD  Java  Software  Framework  Feedback-receiving  Agility  Tutorial 
august 2018 by jslu
[3S Market「全球智慧科技應用」市場資訊網] 為什麼 IoT 開發人員會對 MQTT 和 CoAP 感到困惑?
你可能都在問的問題是,「如果他們很相似,我應該在什麼時候使用哪一個;又在什麼時候,使用哪一個?」
@Article  @Comparison  @Concept  @Reference  IoT  Internet  InterpersonalCommunication  Software  Tutorial 
august 2018 by jslu
[大和有話說] 萬物聯網,淺談IoT低功耗廣域網路趨勢:LoRa、SIGFOX、NB-IoT
LPWAN的特性在於低功耗、長距離、低傳輸量、低成本。然而,LPWAN也並非萬能,無法取代所有無線的傳輸應用,例如高速傳輸需求、即時性的應用就需要仰賴其他傳輸技術。而以現行LPWAN三大技術SIGFOX、LoRa、NB-IoT的競爭態勢來看,我個人認為,這三大技術不論在功耗、傳輸距離、應用場域上各有擅長,因此很難說誰會被誰取代。在我看來,這三大技術在未來幾年更可能會依不同的應用場域來做交叉應用。
@Article  @Comparison  @Concept  @Research  @Reference  IoT  Industry  Hardware  Software 
july 2018 by jslu
The difference between @Inject vs. @Autowire vs. @Resource? | Pankaj Kumar | Pulse | LinkedIn
@Inject: Annotation based on JSR-330 (Dependency Injection for Java) identifies injectable constructors, methods, and fields. This annotation is an almost complete drop-in replacement for Spring’s @Autowired annotation.
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  Java  Software  Programming  Language  EncapsulationAndDecoupling 
june 2018 by jslu
History of Spring Framework and Spring Boot
In October 2002, Rod Johnson wrote a book titled "Expert One-on-One J2EE Design and Development". Published by Wrox, this book covered the state of Java enterprise application development at the time and pointed out a number of major deficiencies with Java EE and EJB component framework. In the book he proposed a simpler solution based on ordinary java classes (POJO – plain old java objects) and dependency injection. ... One-on-One J2EE Design and Development was an instant hit. Much...
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  History  Java  Software  Programming  Framework  OOAD  HabitRoutineAndPattern  Anecdote  OpenSource  EncapsulationAndDecoupling 
april 2018 by jslu
When Functional Programming Isn't Functional - LeadingAgile
Using lambda expressions in an OO language doesn’t make you a functional programmer, but using ideas from the FP community to produce clean OO code is a Good Thing. OO code that uses a functional style will tend to have fewer problems of the kinds that arise from hidden side effects and poor separation of concerns. Lambda expressions are readable and expressive of intent for sections of code that process lists or collections; often more so than iteration.
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @Example  Functional  OOAD  Software  Programming  InterpersonalCommunication  Self-expression 
april 2018 by jslu
[Wikipedia] Pseudoterminal
a pseudoterminal, pseudotty, or PTY is a pair of pseudo-devices, one of which, the slave, emulates a real text terminal device, the other of which, the master, provides the means by which a terminal emulator process controls the slave.
真實的TTY是用來與「真人」以text互動的;PTY則是用來與「另一個process」以text互動的。
@Wikipedia  @Concept  @Comparison  @Graph  Unix  UI  InterpersonalCommunication  History 
march 2018 by jslu
[DataStax] A deep look at the CQL WHERE clause
While they share similar syntaxes, there are lots of differences between CQL and SQL. The reasons for these differences come mainly from the fact that Cassandra is dealing with distributed data and aims to prevent inefficient queries. One of the places where CQL differs a lot from SQL is the WHERE clause. The goal of this post is to describe what is supported by the CQL WHERE clause and the reasons why it differs from normal SQL.
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  Database  BigData  DistributedSystem  Fault-tolerance  Tutorial 
january 2018 by jslu
[Capterra] The 8 Best Free and Open Source Help Desk Software Tools
Misplacing tickets, violating SLAs, frustrating customers, and sometimes losing them—all signs point to a need for a better system. The only problem is, the budget isn’t there to shell out $100 to $200 per month on software. To help get you started, and save you some cash, here are some great free and open source help desk software solutions on the market right now
@Article  @Reference  @Comparison  SysAdmin  IssueTracking  Software  ProjectManagement  TimeManagement  ServiceIndustry 
january 2018 by jslu
[Technology Conversations] Java Build Tools: Ant vs Maven vs Gradle
Gradle combines good parts of both tools and builds on top of them with DSL and other improvements. It has Ant’s power and flexibility with Maven’s life-cycle and ease of use. The end result is a tool that was released in 2012 and gained a lot of attention in a short period of time. For example, Google adopted Gradle as the default build tool for the Android OS.
@Article  @Concept  @Example  @Comparison  Java  Software  Engineering 
january 2018 by jslu
[AgoraPulse] How Does Digital Marketing Differ From B2B to B2C?
B2B marketers have to create stellar content that takes time consuming research and impeccable presentation skills to reach a small pool of clients who may or may not hire them. Conversely, B2C companies have the overwhelming task of standing out in the crowd, reselling their product over and over to create customer loyalty, and appealing to an array of distinct personalities within one audience.
@Article  @HOWTO  @Comparison  B2B  Business  Marketing  SocialMedia  TargetAudience  Research  Branding  ContentStrategy 
january 2018 by jslu
[Brave New Geek] Building a Distributed Log from Scratch, Part 1: Storage Mechanics
Essentially, it’s a timestamp and an event, a when and a what, and typically appended to the end of a file. But when we generalize that pattern, we end up with something much more useful for a broad range of problems.
@Article  @Column  DistributedSystem  SystemArchitecture  DataSync  Software  Engineering  HabitRoutineAndPattern  Storage  Scalability  Cache  @Comparison  Fault-tolerance 
december 2017 by jslu
[Miula 觀點] 成長駭客必備的MVP(最小可行產品)概念,到底哪個版本才比較正確?
其實 MVP 的概念,不在於最終的產品,而是在於一個商業觀念的市場驗證,做出第一個版本的產品來測試 PMF (Product-Market-Fit)。也就是說,其實最終產品是什麼,在一開始的時候根本不知道,或者是只有一個模糊的概念,但卻是隨時可以被替換更改的。為什麼要做最小可行產品 MVP 呢? 就是為了避免一開始就把整個產品都定義完成,但最後做出來的東西根本是市場不要的,而浪費了時間、金錢與精神。MVP 這個概念的真正精神,在於在市場測試後的修正彈性。
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  Entrepreneurship  Feedback-receiving  Agility  Productivity  UnexpectednessUncertaintyAndImpermanence  LearningFromFailure  Business 
december 2017 by jslu
[星空博客] CAP原理、一致性模型、BASE理论和ACID特性
CAP原理指的是,CAP的三个要素最多只能同时实现两点,不可能三者兼顾。因此在进行分布式架构设计时,必须做出取舍。而对于分布式数据系统,分区容忍性是基本要求,否则就失去了价值。因此设计分布式数据系统,就是在一致性和可用性之间取一个平衡。对于大多数web应用,其实并不需要强一致性,因此牺牲一致性而换取高可用性,是目前多数分布式数据库产品的方向。当然,并不是完全不管数据的一致性。牺牲一致性,只是不再要求关系型数据库中的强一致性,而是只要系统能达到最终一致性即可,考虑到客户体验,这个最终一致的时间窗口,要尽可能的对用户透明,也就是需要保障“用户感知到的一致性”。
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  DistributedSystem  Database  DataSync  UX  Scalability 
december 2017 by jslu
Triplebyte: Software Engineer Salary Data
Triplebyte helps software engineers create career opportunities at hundreds of top tech companies and the most exciting startups. We're unique because we're a team of engineers running our own centralized technical interview process, we're background-blind, and our screening and matching is so good that companies like Apple, Dropbox, Mixpanel, and Instacart let the engineers we recommend skip steps in their application process.
@Graph  @Comparison  Software  Engineering  Career  PersonalGrowth 
november 2017 by jslu
What's So Bad About POSIX I/O?
it is much less common to hear exactly why POSIX I/O is so detrimental to scalability and performance, and what needs to change to have a suitably high-performance, next-generation I/O model.  To answer the question of why POSIX I/O is holding back I/O performance today and shed light on the design space for tomorrow’s extreme-scale I/O systems, it is best to take a critical look at what POSIX I/O really means.
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  Hardware  Software  Scalability  FileManagement  HabitRoutineAndPattern  API  DataSync  Cache  CloudComputing  Storage 
november 2017 by jslu
[Diffen] Inner Join vs Outer Join - Difference and Comparison
An inner join finds and returns matching data from tables, while an outer join finds and returns matching data and some dissimilar data from tables.
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  Database  Tutorial 
november 2017 by jslu
[Investopedia] Initial Coin Offering (ICO)
An unregulated means by which funds are raised for a new cryptocurrency venture. An Initial Coin Offering (ICO) is used by startups to bypass the rigorous and regulated capital-raising process required by venture capitalists or banks. In an ICO campaign, a percentage of the cryptocurrency is sold to early backers of the project in exchange for legal tender or other cryptocurrencies, but usually for Bitcoin.
@Article  @Concept  Investment  Currency  Funding  CrowdSourcing  @Comparison 
september 2017 by jslu
中文變好,英文也跟著好了
中文重視語序,英文重視語調...中文跟英文一樣,主要的語序是SVO (Subject–Verb–Object),就是主詞先講,再來是動詞,受詞放最後...可是中文又有另一個必須迎合的要求,就是最重要的資訊要擺在句末。...英文經常不用語序表現出重點是什麼,用的是語調。
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @HOWTO  @Example  English  Language  Culture  Tip 
september 2017 by jslu
[Slate] What's the Difference Between CEOs and Chairmen?
The CEO is a company's top decision-maker, and all other executives answer to him or her. The CEO typically delegates many of the tactical responsibilities to other managers, focusing instead on strategic issues, such as which markets to enter, how to take on the competition, and which companies to form partnerships with. This is in contrast to the chief operating officer or president, who oversees day-to-day operations and logistics. The CEO is ultimately accountable to the board of...
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  Leadership  CorporateGovernance  Decision-making  Goal-setting  Business 
september 2017 by jslu
Mac Automation Tips - Automate Tasks and Get More Done
The purpose of Mac Automation Tips is to provide tips and how-tos about using Mac automation programs, including Keyboard Maestro, Hazel, BetterTouchTool, TextExpander, Automator, SuperTab, Alfred, etc.
@Blog  @HOWTO  @Comparison  Mac  Productivity  Automation  Software  Tip 
september 2017 by jslu
How to Choose the Right Tools to Automate the Mac
While many of the tools have overlapping functionality, each has it’s own individual strengths and weaknesses. While TextExpander and KeyboardMaestro can do some of the same things, there are situations where TextExpander is better and vice versa. In this tutorial I’ll look at the major Mac automation tools and when they’re best employed.
@Article  @Comparison  @Reference  Mac  Productivity  Automation  Software 
september 2017 by jslu
Practical Color Theory for People Who Code
Increasing contrast is one of the ways you can immediately improve your design on all levels. Your layout should still work when you take out ALL of the color information (desaturate it all, take out all of the hue information, and leave only lightness and darkness to differentiate between areas). Just about every famous master painting still looks amazing if you desaturate the whole thing.
@Article  @Concept  @HOWTO  @Comparison  @Example  Color  Design  Reading  Non-verbal  InterpersonalCommunication  CSS  UI  AttentionManagement  Decision-making  Tutorial 
august 2017 by jslu
ENTRYPOINT vs CMD: Back to Basics
Use ENTRYPOINT if you don't want developers to change the executable that is run when the container starts. You can think of your container as an "executable wrapper". A good strategy is to define a "stable" combination of executable + parameters as the ENTRYPOINT. Then you can (optionally) specify a default CMD that developers can easily override.
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @Example  @HOWTO  Software  Virtualization  EncapsulationAndDecoupling  DevOps  Tip 
august 2017 by jslu
Dockerfile: RUN vs CMD vs ENTRYPOINT
some developers, especially newbies, still get confused when looking at the instructions that are available for use in a Dockerfile, because there are a few that may initially appear to be redundant (or, at least, have significant overlap) . RUN, CMD and ENTRYPOINT are a good example of this, and in this post I will explain the difference between CMD, RUN, and ENTRYPOINT on examples.
@Article  @Concept  @HOWTO  @Example  Software  Virtualization  Tutorial  @Comparison 
august 2017 by jslu
[OctoPerf] JMeter VS Gatling Tool
Following up our article about why we chose JMeter to build OctoPerf, our Cloud Load Testing Platform, let’s now compare Apache JMeter to Gatling Tool in details. Both tools are great, but they excel in different fields. We aim to give you the best possible overview of these tool and try to stay as objective as possible. The purpose of this post is to give a technical insight about how each of these load testing tools are made.
@Article  @HOWTO  @Comparison  WebApp  Software  Scalability  QAnQC  Engineering  Java  DataSync 
july 2017 by jslu
[IBM] Using MQTT Protocol Advantages Over HTTP in Mobile Application Development (So what?)
"HTTP is designed as a request-response protocol for client-server computing, not necessarily optimized for mobile and push capabilities, particularly in terms of battery usage."
@Article  @Comparison  @Concept  Internet  Mobile  Software  EnergyCirculation 
july 2017 by jslu
[VidaOrange] 「要嘛不做,要做就做到最好!」你知道完美主義有分兩種,而很多人是第二種嗎?
完美主義(perfectionism)分為兩個方面:
第一,是對完美的渴望和追求。 這一傾向在很多時候是具有優勢的,這給予他們強烈的動機去努力達成目標。
第二,是對錯誤的規避。 犯錯、失誤、哪怕是一點瑕疵,都是不能容忍的。

適應不良的完美主義,往往是在追求避免犯錯,而不是追求完美。
@Article  @Comparison  PersonalGrowth  Productivity  Self-esteem  ProgressiveImprovement  Fault-tolerance  Relationship  Health  Self-awareness 
june 2017 by jslu
[Ben Scheirman] Dry up Your Rspec Files with subject & let Blocks
Subject blocks allow you to control the initialization of the subject under test. ... Let blocks allow you to provide some input to the subject block that change in various contexts. ... Its blocks allow you to test methods on the subject that return a simple value.
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @HOWTO  @Example  TDD  Ruby  Software  Self-expression  Productivity  Reading  Programming  UX 
may 2017 by jslu
[Quora] Node.js: What is a good comparison of the reactor pattern vs actor model?
The reactor model follows a purely event driven system where the entire system can be implemented as a single-threaded process with a series of event generators and event handlers. ... An actor model* is a more abstract method of breaking up execution into different processes that interact with each other.
@HOWTO  @Concept  @Comparison  Software  Engineering  DataSync  QnA 
may 2017 by jslu
[FPGA] VHDL or Verilog?
At the end of the day, the two languages are really able to achieve the same designs. I think it's good to understand code in both languages, but since mixed language support is common, I don't see an issue sticking with the one that you prefer. .. Verilog with its plain syntax is easier to learn and grasp for the beginner. .. Verilog tends to be dominant in the ASIC arena, while VHDL is the language of choice for most FPGA designs.
@Article  @Comparison  Hardware  Programming  Language 
may 2017 by jslu
RE: What's so cool about Scheme?
Given this tension between opposites, I maintain that the question of closures vs. objects should really be a koan. I'll take some koanic license and combine Norman Adams (alleged source of "objects are a poor man's closures") and Christian Queinnec ("closures are a poor man's objects") into a single great Zen language master named Qc Na.
@Discussion  @Story  @Concept  @Comparison  Software  Programming  Language  Functional  OOAD 
may 2017 by jslu
[AllAboutCircuits] FET vs. BJT vs. IGBT: What’s the Right Choice for your Power Stage Design?
There is considerable overlap in application areas for the major types of high-power semiconductors. So how does the designer determine whether to use BJTs or MOSFETs in his/her application's power stage? Or should the designer use IGBTs? And what about thyristors? Would they work in the design? Would they be better?
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  Hardware  Design  Decision-making  Tutorial  Tip 
may 2017 by jslu
[Instrumental Manufacturing Intelligence] Hardware engineers speak in code: EVT, DVT, PVT decoded
While software engineers may write code, hardware engineers speak it.  We love our three-letter acronyms (TLAs): EVT, DVT, PVT, MP; OK, NG, FA, CA; PD, EPM, OPM; PRD, DRP, BOM.  Goodness, how do we even understand each other?
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  Hardware  Engineering  ProjectManagement  CycleAndRhythmOfLife  Industry  SupplyChain  TimeManagement  QAnQC  Prototyping  ProgressiveImprovement 
may 2017 by jslu
[API Handyman] ...And GraphQL for all? A few things to think about before blindly dumping REST for GraphQL
Updating or deleting this user with GraphQL will not be as clear as with REST. How will be named the mutation allowing me to delete a user? deleteUser, removeUser or suppressPeople? You’ll have to dig in the documentation to find out. You cannot guess it because different API providers will have different naming conventions and these naming convention may event not be consistent within an API.
@Article  @Comparison  @HOWTO  @Example  API  Database  Software  Programming  Language  Tutorial  Cache  Agility  Adaptability  Scalability  ValuationAndValueAdding  Scenario  Tip 
april 2017 by jslu
[Nordic APIs] Top Specification Formats for REST APIs
The argument comes down to how you want to present your API documentation to your API developer users. Is readability most important? Is modern documentation and forward-thinking specification important? Do you care about adoption rates? These questions, along with their answers in the above pros and cons section, will inform your decision.
@Article  @Comparison  @Example  API  InterpersonalCommunication  Software  EncapsulationAndDecoupling  Engineering 
april 2017 by jslu
行動/電子支付必然失敗的困境,與可能的解答 | Rocket Café 火箭科技評論
換句話說,現今行動支付產業的競爭,就是這些「閉環」之間彼此的競爭。競爭什麼?競爭彼此所擁有的商家數與消費者數,是否已經到達正向成長循環所需的最低經濟規模。問題來了。以現今的資訊技術,建構這樣的閉環實在太簡單,所以跳下來搶市的競爭者很多;也正因為競爭者很多,最後的下場,就是所有的業者都無法在錢燒光之前進入正向循環,反而都是進入負向循環,最終走向失敗。
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  Finance  Marketing  SupplyAndDemand  China  Business  CycleAndRhythmOfLife 
april 2017 by jslu
Create a many-to-many ActiveRecord association in Ruby on Rails with has_many :through and has_and_belongs_to_many
In this article I'll go through the creation of a many-to-many relationship with the built-in Ruby on Rails ActiveRecord associations, has_many :through and has_and_belongs_to_many:. Additionally, the specific differences between the two will be examined, but before all that let's first get some background on what is a many-to-many relationship
@Article  @HOWTO  @Concept  @Comparison  @Example  Ruby  WebApp  Framework  Database  Tutorial 
april 2017 by jslu
一看就懂的 IC 產業結構與競爭關係 – 寫點科普,請給指教。
聽說… Intel 的經營模式屬於 IDM 廠商、高通和發哥叫 Fabless,而他們兩種模式都會賣 IC 晶片?! 但台積電不賣晶片?! 這些 IC 產業新聞一天到晚出現的專業術語到底是什麼意思呢?藉由理解這幾家廠商不同的定位與利基點,我們將能進一步瞭然這些廠商彼此間的競合策略。 ... 台灣媒體常稱的半導體產業鏈,正確一點來說應該叫 IC 產業鏈,包括「IC設計」、「IC製造」、「IC封裝」。
@Article  @Reference  @Concept  Hardware  Industry  History  SupplyChain  Tutorial  Competition  @Comparison  @Example 
april 2017 by jslu
Creating Usability with Motion: The UX in Motion Manifesto
The following manifesto represents my answer to the question — “As a UX or UI, designer, how do I know when and where to implement motion to support usability?” ... there are 12 specific opportunities to support usability in your UX projects using motion.
@Article  @Concept  @HOWTO  UI  Animation  UX  Design  AttentionManagement  Tutorial  Tip  @Comparison  Non-verbal  InterpersonalCommunication  SensoryStimulus  @Example  Relationship 
april 2017 by jslu
[NovaTec] The problems with Swagger
Hypermedia is a constraint. As in, you either do it or you aren’t doing REST. You can’t have evolvability if clients have their controls baked into their design at deployment. Controls have to be learned on the fly. That’s what hypermedia enables. ... Since the links are dynamically provided by the server, they may be added or changed at any given point in time without having to change the clients as the URLs are not hard-coded.
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @Example  WebService  API  Software  InterpersonalCommunication  Teamwork  Productivity  EncapsulationAndDecoupling  Adaptability 
april 2017 by jslu
[搞笑談軟工] 價值 VS 技術
"軟體開發是一個經濟問題,要得到最佳的投資報酬率,要考慮的因素(force)很多。能力越強的人,越知道如何動態平衡這些因素。價值愈高的產品,通常需要越強的技術作為後盾。「技術」不光是寫程式的能力,軟體生命周期的每個環節都需要關照。各行各業所需要的核心技術不同,找到自己行業的核心技術,不斷增強這個技術以支援價值交付,最後培養取捨的判斷力。剩下的事情,就只能交給老天爺了。"
@Article  @Comparison  ValuationAndValueAdding  Software  Engineering  Balance  ProjectManagement  Agility  TDD 
march 2017 by jslu
[Wikipedia] Data model
an abstract model that organizes elements of data and standardizes how they relate to one another and to properties of the real world entities.
@Wikipedia  @Concept  @Comparison  Database  Non-verbal  InterpersonalCommunication 
march 2017 by jslu
Better Specs { rspec guidelines with ruby }
Better Specs tries to fill this gap by collecting most of the "best practices" that other developers learn through years of experience.
@Article  @Project  @HOWTO  @Reference  @Comparison  @Example  TDD  Ruby  WebApp  Software  Programming  Language  Self-expression  InterpersonalCommunication  MeaningManagement  Productivity  Tip 
march 2017 by jslu
[Lab Matrix] describe vs. context in rspec
The purpose of “describe” is to wrap a set of tests against one functionality while “context” is to wrap a set of tests against one functionality under the same state.
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @HOWTO  @Example  TDD  Ruby  WebApp  Software  Programming  Language  Self-expression  InterpersonalCommunication  MeaningManagement  Reading  Tip 
march 2017 by jslu
[TechBridge] 讓我們來談談 CSRF
你可以仔細思考一下 CSRF 攻擊的 request 與使用者本人發出的 request 有什麼不一樣?不一樣的點就在於,前者來自不同的 domain,後者來自相同的 domain。所以我們只要有辦法區分出這個 request 是不是從同樣的 domain 來,我們就勝利了。
@Article  @Concept  @HOWTO  @Comparison  @Example  WebApp  Security  Software 
february 2017 by jslu
[The Pragmatic Bookshelf] What's all this fuss about Erlang?
Why do our programs just run faster? It’s all about mutable state and concurrency.

Back in the old days (20 odd years ago) there were two models of concurrent:

* Shared state concurrency
* Message passing concurrency
Now the whole world went one way (towards shared state), and we went the other.
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  DataSync  Computation  Scalability  History  Functional  Programming  Memory  Sharing  Concurrency  Language  @Reference 
february 2017 by jslu
The TTY demystified
The TTY subsystem is central to the design of Linux, and UNIX in general. Unfortunately, its importance is often overlooked, and it is difficult to find good introductory articles about it. ... a basic understanding of TTYs in Linux is essential for the developer and the advanced user... the TTY subsystem — while quite functional from a user's point of view — is a twisty little mess of special cases. To understand how this came to be, we have to go back in time.
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @Example  Unix  Hardware  Software  History  SysAdmin  Programming 
february 2017 by jslu
[LinkedIn] The difference between a CTO and a VP Engineering
Eventually the hacker/CTO might realize they are doing a lot of things that they don't love (e.g. project and people management) and not getting time on the things that they do love (e.g. technical explorations). This is the time when startups ought to begin to think about bringing on a VP of Engineering.
@Article  @Comparison  @Concept  Entrepreneurship  PersonalGrowth  Teamwork  Career  HR  Engineering  Business 
january 2017 by jslu
[Medium] Color in UI Design: A (Practical) Framework
if color theory doesn’t provide a solid basis for color in UI design, what does? Let me throw an opinion at ya’: color modifications. It’s the tweaking of color that counts, not the picking of them from the color theory hat. ... Darker color variation = higher saturation + lower brightness ... make the movement of the hue match up with the movement of the saturation and brightness.
@Article  @Concept  @HOWTO  @Comparison  @Example  @CourseOutline  Color  UI  Design  Decision-making  Tutorial 
january 2017 by jslu
[StockFeel] 好市多:我其實不是超市,我是你無法拒絕的仲介
真正的仲介也不賺取這些服​​務和物品的差價,而主要依靠解決訊息不對稱,降低交易成本,進行交易撮合,實現交易雙方的柏拉圖改進(備註:主要探討如何在沒有犧牲任何一方的福利下,改善另一方、或雙方的福利。),並以降低交易成本的程度來收取服務費。只要“仲介服務費+因為仲介存在而產生的交易成本”顯著小於“因為仲介的作用而節省的交易成本”,仲介的存在就有意義。而且這個差值越大,仲介存在的價值越大。
@Article  @Concept  @HOWTO  @Comparison  DistributionChannel  BusinessModel  Business  TargetAudience 
january 2017 by jslu
Compiler Explorer
Go check it out if you’re ever intrigued how your C++ code ends up looking after compilation.
@Site  @Project  @Comparison  @Concept  Programming  Language  Computation 
january 2017 by jslu
Software Web & Mobile Development Blog - Prograils | Ruby Methods: differences between load, require, include and extend in Ruby.
`require` reads and parses files only once, when they were referenced for the first time. `load` reads and parses files every time you call `load`. ... the require and load are 'file-level' methods used to "read" and parse files, whereas include and extend are 'language-level' methods that can extend your class with other modules.
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @Example  Ruby  Software  Programming  Language  OOAD  Tutorial 
january 2017 by jslu
[YehudaKatz] Better Ruby Idioms
Carl and I have been working on the plugins system over the past few days. As part of that process, we read through the Rails Plugin Guide. While reading through the guide, we noticed a number of idioms presented in the guide that are serious overkill for the task at hand.
@Article  @Concept  @Comparison  @Example  Ruby  Software  Programming  OOAD  EncapsulationAndDecoupling  HabitRoutineAndPattern 
december 2016 by jslu
On Ruby modules and concerns
A concern is a nice abstraction that simplifies sharing behaviour using modules. It can be found in ActiveSupport::Concern and it just removes some boiler-plate code ... Some simple uses for Concerns? One can use them to apply the "Extract Method" refactoring i.e. “code fragments that can be grouped together”.
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december 2016 by jslu
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