jpom + inls200 + reading   36

Hjørland, B. (2010). The foundation of the concept of relevance. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(2), 217-237.
In 1975 Tefko Saracevic declared “the subject knowledge view” to be the most fundamental perspective of relevance. This paper examines the assumptions in different views of relevance, including “the system's view” and “the user's view” and offers a reinterpretation of these views. The paper finds that what was regarded as the most fundamental view by Saracevic in 1975 has not since been considered (with very few exceptions). Other views, which are based on less fruitful assumptions, have dominated the discourse on relevance in information retrieval and information science. Many authors have reexamined the concept of relevance in information science, but have neglected the subject knowledge view, hence basic theoretical assumptions seem not to have been properly addressed. It is as urgent now as it was in 1975 seriously to consider “the subject knowledge view” of relevance (which may also be termed “the epistemological view”). The concept of relevance, like other basic concepts, is influenced by overall approaches to information science, such as the cognitive view and the domain-analytic view. There is today a trend toward a social paradigm for information science. This paper offers an understanding of relevance from such a social point of view.
inls200  reading  relevance 
october 2012 by jpom
Is Google Book Search "Fair Use"?
This is a talk (ok, a long talk, ~30 minutes) about whether Google's Book Search project -- called "massive copyright infringement" by the American Association of Publishers, is "fair use"? It is.
inls740  reading  copyright  fair_use  inls200  video 
march 2012 by jpom
Cory Doctorow: It’s Time to Stop Talking About Copyright
There just isn’t such a thing as ‘‘copyright policy’’ anymore. Every modern copyright policy becomes Internet policy – policy that touches on every aspect of how we use the net. And as we make the transition from a world where everything we do includes an online component to a world where everything we do requires an online component, it’s becoming the case that there’s no such thing as ‘‘Internet policy’’ – there’s just policy.
inls089  copyright  internet  policy  inls200  reading 
november 2011 by jpom
Bates, The Invisible Substrate of Information Science
The explicit, above-the-water-line paradigm of information science is well known and widely discussed. Every disciplinary paradigm, however, contains elements that are less conscious and explicit in the thinking of its practitioners. The purpose of this article is to elucidate key elements of the below-the-water-line portion of the information science paradigm. Particular emphasis is given to information science's role as a meta-science - conducting research and developing theory around the documentary products of other disciplines and activities. The mental activities of the professional practice of the field are seen to center around representation and organization of information rather than knowing information. It is argued that such representation engages fundamentally different talents and skills from those required in other professions and intellectual disciplines. Methodological approaches and values of information science are also considered.
information_science  theory  representation  organization  inls200  reading 
september 2011 by jpom
Information as Thing
Three meanings of information are distinguished: Information-as-process; information-as-knowledge; and information-as-thing, the attributive use of information to denote things regarded as informative. The nature and characteristics of information-as-thing are discussed, using an indirect approach (What things are informative?). Varieties of information-as-thing include data, text, documents, objects, and events. On this view information includes but extends beyond communication. Whatever information storage and retrieval systems store and retrieve is necessarily information-as-thing. These three meanings of information, along with information processing, offer a basis for classifying disparate information-related activities (e.g., rhetoric, bibliographic retrieval, statistical analysis) and, thereby, suggest a topography for information science.
inls200  reading  information  definition  first_principles 
september 2011 by jpom
Ontology is Overrated: Categories, Links, and Tags
Today I want to talk about categorization, and I want to convince you that a lot of what we think we know about categorization is wrong. In particular, I want to convince you that many of the ways we're attempting to apply categorization to the electronic world are actually a bad fit, because we've adopted habits of mind that are left over from earlier strategies.
inls490121  inls200  reading  ontology  classification 
september 2011 by jpom
What Is Web 2.0
by Tim O'Reilly This article is an attempt to clarify just what we mean by Web 2.0.
inls490121  library2.0  web2.0  inls200  reading 
september 2011 by jpom
How to get students to find and read 94 articles before the next class
From Michael Wesch's Digital Ethnography blog My student-researchers and I tried something a little different to kick off our semester. Instead of the standard syllabus that requires everybody to read a few articles to discuss, we decided instead to organize ourselves into a Smart Mob that would try to read a good hunk of the literature on a single topic in one go. Each student was required to find 5 articles, read them, and summarize them; uploading their summaries (or the author’s own abstract) into a ZohoCreator form. ZohoCreator is a free service that allows you to create database input forms.
inls200  blog  reading  collaboration  pedagogy  education  teaching 
september 2011 by jpom
Tennant, R. (2009). 21st Century Description and Access.
by Roy Tennant I no longer believe in the future of bibliographic control. I no longer believe that the term bibliographic encompasses the universe in which we should be interested, and I no longer think control is either achievable or even desirable. We have entered the age of descriptive enrichment and we'd better get bloody well good at it.
bibliographic  control  classification  description  metadata  inls200  reading 
september 2011 by jpom
Know Thyself: Tracking Every Facet of Life, from Sleep to Mood to Pain, 24/7/365
Numbers are making their way into the smallest crevices of our lives. We have pedometers in the soles of our shoes and phones that can post our location as we move around town. We can tweet what we eat into a database and subscribe to Web services that track our finances. There are sites and programs for monitoring mood, pain, blood sugar, blood pressure, heart rate, cognitive alacrity, menstruation, and prayers. Even sleep—a challenge to self-track, obviously, since you're unconscious—is yielding to the skill of the widget maker. With an accelerometer and some decent algorithms, you will soon be able to record your sleep patterns with technology that costs less than $100.
data  analysis  exercise  life  inls200  reading  inls089 
september 2011 by jpom
Gilliland, A. J. (1998). Setting the Stage. In M. Baca (Ed.), Introduction to Metadata: Pathways to Digital Information. Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute.
Metadata, literally "data about data," has become a widely used yet still frequently underspecified term that is understood in different ways by the diverse professional communities that design, create, describe, preserve, and use information systems and resources. It is a construct that has been around for as long as humans have been organizing information, albeit transparently in many cases, and today we create and interact with it in increasingly digital ways. For the past hundred years at least, the creation and management of metadata has primarily been the responsibility of information professionals engaged in cataloging, classification, and indexing; but as information resources are increasingly put online by the general public, metadata considerations are no longer solely the province of information professionals.
inls200  reading  metadata  getty 
september 2011 by jpom
Internet encyclopaedias go head to head
Giles, J. (2005). Internet encyclopaedias go head to head. Nature, 438(7070), 900-901. The exercise revealed numerous errors in both encyclopaedias, but among 42 entries tested, the difference in accuracy was not particularly great: the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three.
nature  Britannica  wikipedia  inls200  reading 
september 2011 by jpom
A simple, prima facie argument in favor of the Semantic Web
I do a bit with so-called Semantic Web technologies (OK, I've written a couple of articles, have a book proposal in the works, and am about to start a job as a Semantic web researcher ... as I said, "a bit"), but I must confess to never really getting certain aspects of it. I like logic programming, and I'm certainly interested in knowledge representation, and I do a bunch of web stuff so I must be a Semantic Web person. However, some bit never clicked for me, some key shared assumption left me feeling a bit out of the flow of things. I used to characterize this as having more of a logician/philosopher background, but that didn't seem quite right. During the recent Google and SOAP furor, I had a little insight that led to the following prima facie argument for the Semantic Web. I hope it helps other people "get it".
inls200  reading  semanticweb  Google  URI 
september 2011 by jpom
Fatally Flawed: Refuting the recent study on encyclopedic accuracy by the journal Nature
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. (2006). Fatally Flawed: Refuting the recent study on encyclopedic accuracy by the journal Nature.
inls200  reading  Britannica  wikipedia 
september 2011 by jpom
A Short History of the Internet
Some thirty years ago, the RAND Corporation, America's foremost Cold War think-tank, faced a strange strategic problem. How could the US authorities successfully communicate after a nuclear war?
inls200  reading  internet  history 
september 2011 by jpom
The Structure of the Web
The Web's structure has been studied at a global level, considering the network as a whole, and at a local level, studying focused neighborhoods and "community" structures. This analysis has revealed an intricate structure that suggests improved methods for organizing and accessing information and offers the opportunity to chart interests and relationships within society at an unprecedented level of detail.
inls200  reading  internet  hub  authority  network  topology 
september 2011 by jpom
Internet: Diameter of the World-Wide Web
We find that the average of d over all pairs of vertices is =0.35+2.06log(N) (Fig. 1c), indicating that the web forms a small-world network, which characterizes social or biological systems. For N=8*10^8, =18.59; that is, two randomly chosen documents on the web are on average 19 clicks away from each other.
inls200  reading  internet  network  topology 
september 2011 by jpom
The Nike Experiment: How the Shoe Giant Unleashed the Power of Personal Metrics
And not only can we collect that data, we can analyze it as well, looking for patterns, information that might help us change both the quality and the length of our lives. We can live longer and better by applying, on a personal scale, the same quantitative mindset that powers Google and medical research. Call it Living by Numbers—the ability to gather and analyze data about yourself, setting up a feedback loop that we can use to upgrade our lives, from better health to better habits to better performance.
nike  data  analysis  exercise  running  inls200  reading  inls089 
september 2011 by jpom
Search Engine Statistics
from Search Engine Showdown Measuring the size of the constantly changing Web search engine databases is a complex task. The following Size Showdowns are based on the hits from actual search results. See also Why size matters. Size statistics last updated Dec. 31, 2002.
inls200  reading  searchengine  statistics  size  freshness 
september 2011 by jpom
The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value
Searching on the Internet today can be compared to dragging a net across the surface of the ocean. While a great deal may be caught in the net, there is still a wealth of information that is deep, and therefore, missed. The reason is simple: Most of the Web's information is buried far down on dynamically generated sites, and standard search engines never find it.
inls200  reading  deep_web  hidden_web  invisible_web 
september 2011 by jpom
A Mathematical Theory of Communication
The recent development of various methods of modulation such as PCM and PPM which exchange bandwidth for signal-to-noise ratio has intensified the interest in a general theory of communication. A basis for such a theory is contained in the important papers of Nyquist1 and Hartley2 on this subject. In the present paper we will extend the theory to include a number of new factors, in particular the effect of noise in the channel, and the savings possible due to the statistical structure of the original message and due to the nature of the final destination of the information.
inls200  reading  information_theory  signal  noise  entropy  media:document 
september 2011 by jpom
Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life
The rapid adoption of social network sites by teenagers in the United States and in many other countries around the world raises some important questions. Why do teenagers flock to these sites? What are they expressing on them? How do these sites fit into their lives? What are they learning from their participation? Are these online activities like face-to-face friendships – or are they different, or complementary? The goal of this chapter is to address these questions, and explore their implications for youth identities. While particular systems may come and go, how youth engage through social network sites today provides long-lasting insights into identity formation, status negotiation, and peer-to-peer sociality.
inls200  reading  socialnetworking  socialsoftware  myspace  facebook  media:document 
september 2011 by jpom
Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business, Economies, Societies and Nations
James Surowiecki explores a deceptively simple idea that has profound implications: large groups of people are smarter than an elite few, no matter how brilliant—better at solving problems, fostering innovation, coming to wise decisions, even predicting the future. This seemingly counterintuitive notion has endless and major ramifications for how businesses operate, how knowledge is advanced, how economies are (or should be) organized and how we live our daily lives.
crowdsourcing  collaboration  inls200  reading 
september 2011 by jpom
Harnessing Crowds: Mapping the Genome of Collective Intelligence
Google. Wikipedia. Threadless. All are well-known examples of large, loosely organized groups of people working together electronically in surprisingly effective ways. These new modes of organizing work have been described with a variety of terms—radical decentralization, crowd-sourcing, wisdom of crowds, peer production, and wikinomics.1 The phrase we find most useful is collective intelligence, defined very broadly as groups of individuals doing things collectively that seem intelligent.
crowdsourcing  collaboration  collective_intelligence  inls200  reading  media:document 
september 2011 by jpom
How and why do college students use Wikipedia?
The purposes of this study were to explore college students' perceptions, uses of, and motivations for using Wikipedia, and to understand their information behavior concerning Wikipedia based on social cognitive theory (SCT). Approximately one-third of the students reported using Wikipedia for academic purposes. The students tended to use Wikipedia for quickly checking facts and finding background information. They had positive past experiences with Wikipedia; however, interestingly, their perceptions of its information quality were not correspondingly high. Respondents' past experience with Wikipedia, their positive emotional state, their disposition to believe information in Wikipedia, and information utility were positively related to their outcome expectations of Wikipedia. However, among the factors affecting outcome expectations, only information utility and respondents' positive emotions toward Wikipedia were related to their use of it.
inls200  reading  wikipedia  students  usage 
september 2011 by jpom
Incompetent Research Skills Curb Users' Problem Solving (Jakob Nielsen's Alertbox)
Although some analysts previously questioned the finding of search dominance, it's a user behavior that gets stronger every year. Today, many users are so reliant on search that it's undermining their problem-solving abilities. Ironically, the better search gets, the more dangerous it gets as people increasingly assume that whatever the search engine coughs up must be the answer.
inls200  reading  search  search_strategy 
september 2011 by jpom
Saracevic, T. (2006). Relevance: A Review of the Literature and a Framework for Thinking on the Notion in Information Science, Part II. In: Anne Woodsworth (ed.), Advances in Librarianship, Volume 30, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 3-71.
Building on the examination of relevance in the preceding (1976) re- view, this (2006) work updates the travails of relevance in information sci- ence for the past 30 years or so. Relevance still remains a basic notion in information science, and particularly in information retrieval (IR). The aim of this work is still substantially the same: it is an attempt to trace the evolution of thinking on relevance in information science for the past three decades and to provide an updated, contemporary framework within which the still widely dissonant ideas on relevance might be interpreted and related to one another.
inls200  reading  relevance  litreview 
september 2011 by jpom
A Fair(y) Use Tale | Stanford Center for Internet and Society
Professor Eric Faden of Bucknell University created this humorous, yet informative, review of copyright principles delivered through the words of the very folks we can thank for nearly endless copyright terms.
inls200  copyright  fair_use  inls740  reading 
september 2011 by jpom
Information Literacy as a Liberal Art
What does a person need to know today to be a full-fledged, competent and literate member of the information society? As we witness not only the saturation of our daily lives with information organized and transmitted via information technology, but the way in which public issues and social life increasingly are affected by information-technology issues - from intellectual property to privacy and the structure of work to entertainment, art and fantasy life - the issue of what it means to be information-literate becomes more acute for our whole society. Should everyone take a course in creating a Web page, computer programming, TCP/IP protocols or multimedia authoring? Or are we looking at a broader and deeper challenge - to rethink our entire educational curriculum in terms of information?
inls200  reading  information_literacy  curriculum 
september 2011 by jpom
YouTube - Howard Rheingold on Crap Detection (Part 1)
In this first video of his critical thinking series, Howard introduces 5 key Internet literacies: attention, participation, cooperation, crap detection, and network awareness and discusses how mastering critical thinking skills can keep children safer online.
inls200  reading  crap_detection  evaluation  literacy  skills  web  accuracy  internet  credibility  search 
september 2011 by jpom
YouTube - Creating a Critical Society - Howard Rheingold on Crap Detection (Part 2)
In this second part of his critical thinking series, Howard discusses how new online tools, personal trust networks and search skills can create a society prepared to distinguish between good and bad information.
inls200  reading  crap_detection  evaluation  literacy  skills  web  accuracy  internet  credibility  search 
september 2011 by jpom
YouTube - Determining Site Credibility - Howard Rheingold on Crap Detection (Part 3)
In the third part of his critical thinking series, Howard covers how teachers can turn students into "online detectives" by teaching critical research skills to determine site ownership and bias. Also, he describes some of his own collaborative teaching techniques.
inls200  reading  crap_detection  evaluation  literacy  skills  web  accuracy  internet  credibility  search 
september 2011 by jpom
Crap Detection 101 : Howard Rheingold : City Brights
The answer to almost any question is available within seconds, courtesy of the invention that has altered how we discover knowledge - the search engine. Materializing answers from the air turns out to be the easy part - the part a machine can do. The real difficulty kicks in when you click down into your search results. At that point, it's up to you to sort the accurate bits from the misinfo, disinfo, spam, scams, urban legends, and hoaxes. "Crap detection," as Hemingway called it half a century ago, is more important than ever before, now that the automation of crapcasting has generated its own word: "spamming."
inls200  reading  crap_detection  evaluation  literacy  skills  web  accuracy  internet  credibility  search 
september 2011 by jpom

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