josephaleo + rpg   614

How to be a Gray Man Step by Step
When the SHTF, who will be the first targets of the looters, the rioters, and the panicked idiots who didn’t prepare? The people who did. When the SHTF, you will most likely be prepared.
softapocalypse  rpg  prepper 
4 days ago by josephaleo
Air tanker drops in wildfires are often just for show
The use of airdrops is spiking the cost of fighting wildfires: up to $296m from $171m in 2004 -- about 20% of the Forest Service's firefighting budget. And the companies that do the airdrops for the Forest Service are private contractors who make bank every time they do a run. Firedrops are mostly useful while firefighters are mobilizing and marshalling fire suppression equipment, but after that they are of limited use. The private forces are offset by military aircraft, which politicians love because they look great on television.

It costs up to $14,000 a day to keep an air tanker on call and as much as $4,200 per hour to put it in the air. Heavy-duty helicopters, the workhorses of aerial firefighting, can cost $32,000 a day on standby, plus $6,300 per hour of flight time.

"When you deal with aviation on a wildland fire, you have a big bank in the sky that opens up and showers money," said Timothy Ingalsbee, a former Forest Service and National Park Service firefighter who has criticized federal firefighting and forest management practices.
softapocalypse  rpg  firefighting 
4 days ago by josephaleo
'Shut the country down': British climate group Extinction Rebellion heads to US | Science | The Guardian
Bea Ruiz, a veteran progressive coordinator, has been telling scores of first-time climate change protesters they face being harassed and beaten by police next week. Most seem happy with the deal.
softapocalypse  climatechange  rpg  extinctionrebellion 
6 days ago by josephaleo
Climate Chaos Is Coming — and the Pinkertons Are Ready - The New York Times
For much of the previous hour, Paz Larach and two other executives from Pinkerton, Carlos Manuel López Portillo Maltos and Paul Rakov, had been explaining the company’s philosophy of risk management. Now over 150 years old, having long outlived its reputation as Andrew Carnegie’s personal militia, the agency has evolved into a modern security firm. Over the last decade or so, Pinkerton began noticing a growing set of anxieties among its corporate clients about distinctly contemporary plagues — active shooters, political unrest, climate disasters — and in response began offering data-driven risk analysis, in addition to what they’re more traditionally known for. Dressed in an untucked powder blue oxford and round, rimless sunglasses, Paz Larach, the firm’s senior vice president in charge of the Americas, paused before affecting a look of brutal candor. “You’re going to turn to desperate measures,” he said. Everybody will. The other Pinkertons nodded.
softapocalypse  rpg  climatechange  pinkerton 
8 days ago by josephaleo
Midwestern Towns Navigate Flooding (and a Climate-Denying President) – Rolling Stone
As mayors from towns along the Mississippi River huddled over their phones on March 22nd, they cautiously awaited answers from members of the National Weather Service and emergency agencies across the federal government: “How bad is the flooding going to be? And what can we do to stop it?”
softapocalypse  rpg  climatechange  flooding 
11 days ago by josephaleo
This Faith Leader Sees Climate Change as a Moral Emergency – Mother Jones
This story was originally published by Grist and is shared here as part of the Climate Desk collaboration. Last winter, a few dozen scientists and faith leaders walked into the Archdiocese of Boston headquarters in Braintree, Massachusetts, to talk climate change.
softapocalypse  rpg  climatechange  faith  religion 
13 days ago by josephaleo
US cities preparing to become havens for mass migration from climate change | The Independent
The lakefront Minnesota city of Duluth has some of the coldest temperatures outside Alaska in the United States and gets more than seven feet (2m) of snow each winter on average.
softapocalypse  rpg  climatechange  cities  refugees 
13 days ago by josephaleo
Heaven or High Water – Popula
“Sunny day flooding” is flooding where water comes right up from the ground, hence the name, and yes, it can certainly rain during sunny day flooding, and yes, that makes it worse.
climatechange  rpg  softapocalypse 
16 days ago by josephaleo
Anders Mage Page 2.0
Anders Mage Page 2.0 offers ideas, suggestions and other material for the roleplaying game Mage: the Ascension. Begin your explorations with the links below.
magetheascension  magethepodcast  rpg  anders 
20 days ago by josephaleo
Malcolm Sheppard
Malcolm is a long-time author for White Wolf, particularly for Mage: The Ascension. He is also responsible for the OGL Opening the Dark system, which evokes the Storyteller System.
magetheascension  magethepodcast  rpg 
22 days ago by josephaleo
Smokejumper
A smokejumper is a wildland firefighter who parachutes into a remote area to combat wildfires. Smokejumpers are most often deployed to fires that are extremely remote. The risks associated with this method of personnel deployment are mitigated by a training program that has been developed over more than 70 years.
softapocalypse  smokejumper  rpg 
25 days ago by josephaleo
Here's a running list of all the ways climate change has altered Earth in 2019
The consequences of such a globally-disrupted climate are many, and it's understandably difficult to keep track. To help, here's a list of climate-relevant news that has transpired in 2019, from historically unprecedented disappearances of ice, to flood-ravaged cities. As more news comes out, the list will be updated.
climatechange  rpg  softapocalypse 
4 weeks ago by josephaleo
Louisiana’s Cancer Alley Communities at Risk | DeSmogBlog
More than 100 petrochemical facilities line a stretch of the Mississippi River between New Orleans and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, which is known to industry as the "Petrochemical Corridor" and to locals as “Cancer Alley.” This series documents the fenceline communities abutting this industrial activity and their efforts to push back against the companies they say are already polluting their air and water and which are often trying to expand further into these neighborhoods.
softapocalypse  rpg  cancer  Louisiana  NewOrleans  BatonRouge  Mississippi 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
What Happens When Communities Say No to Solar and Wind? - Resilience
I have spent my entire career thinking of myself as an advocate on behalf of public lands and acting for their protection…I am now helping facilitate an activity on public lands that will have very significant environmental impacts. We are doing it because of the threat of climate change. It’s not an accommodation; it’s a change I had to make to respond to climate.

Local projects are also attracting the interest and resources of national climate denier organizations. In the Spotsylvania case, Concerned Citizens of Spotsylvania County, an opposer of the 500-megawatt solar farm project, has claimed that the solar panels contain cadmium telluride that could leak out and contaminate groundwater supplies.

The claim is a lie. Cadmium telluride is a non-soluble black crystalline powder. The Spotsylvania group is apparently repeating information it has received from climate-denying organizations supported by the Koch Brothers.
softapocalypse  rpg  climatechange  solarenergy  windfarms 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
The Arctic’s ticking ‘carbon bomb’ could blow up the Paris Agreement | Grist
The Arctic is warming twice as fast as the rest of the globe, which translates to dramatic change. Sea ice extent, which has shrunk about 40 percent since regular satellite monitoring began in 1979, could reach zero percent in summer as early as the 2030s. Old, thick sea ice will likely be gone even sooner. Permafrost, frozen ground full of carbon, could thaw out and destroy a third of all the infrastructure in the Arctic (and also release deadly strains of anthrax). Rising temperatures could also unleash a host of other infectious diseases like Lyme disease, which is already on the rise in Canada.

“Insects like mosquitoes and ticks have the potential to connect the Arctic and tropics,” the authors write, which sounds like the sequel to Contagion.
softapocalypse  rpg  climatechange  arctic  lyme  anthrax  ticks  mosquitoes 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Big storm clusters are on the increase – what this means for hurricane hotspots
The real issue is how prepared we are around the world for the increasing frequency of hurricanes and their terrifying “gang” version, hurricane trios. This violent onslaught of hurricane-strength storms batters communities and destroys buildings and infrastructure from the US to the Caribbean to South-East Asia. But should communities on the coast stay and defend, or retreat altogether?
softapocalypse  rpg  climatechange  hurricane  stormclusters 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
This is the way world ends: will we soon see category 6 hurricanes? | World news | The Guardian
The combination of warmer oceans and more water in the earth’s atmosphere – whipsawed by sustained periods of drier and wetter conditions in regions of the world that create superstorms – is now starting to create storms with conditions that look precisely what a category 6 hurricane would look like.

The Great Hurricane of 1780, no Atlantic hurricane in history has matched its death toll of 22,000. So intense were the winds of the Great Hurricane that it peeled the bark off of trees – something only EF5 tornadoes with winds in excess of 200mph have been known to do.
hurricane  category6  climatechange  softapocalypse  rpg 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Glimpse: How An Army of Resurrected Mammoths Could Curb Global Warming
It’s 12,000 B.C. Modern humans are starting to migrate to the Americas for the first time. We won’t discover farming for another 2,000 years. We won’t build cities for another 9,000 years. As a species, our story is just beginning. In Siberia, another’s is coming to an end.
softapocalypse  rpg  climatechange  mammoths 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Climate-change crisis: Oregon faces wildfires, drought and deep economic losses | OregonLive.com
In Oregon, if you want to see what the future looks like, all you have to do is look a few years into the past, said Phil Mote, an Oregon State University professor who helped assemble the report's Pacific Northwest section. In 2015, high temperatures and low precipitation decimated the state's snowpack, leading to a cascade of effects around the region.
softapocalypse  rpg  oregon  climatechange 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
UM Study Suggests Climate Change Limits Forest Recovery After Wildfires - UM News - University Of Montana
New University of Montana research suggests climate change makes it increasingly difficult for tree seedlings to regenerate following wildfires in low-elevation forests, which could contribute to abrupt forest loss.
rpg  forests  softapocalypse  climatechange 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
BirthStrikers: meet the women who refuse to have children until climate change ends | Life and style | The Guardian
BirthStrike, she says, “is about saying: ‘It is OK to make this choice, but it’s not OK to have to make this choice.’ We should never be in a situation where we are genuinely scared to bring life into the world.”

BirthStrike is as much a support group as it is a political statement, says spokeswoman Alice Brown, a 25-year-old charitable campaigns manager from Bristol. As a former nanny and support worker, having children of her own had been on Brown’s “to-do list for life” until one of the girls she used to care for developed allergies which, Brown says, was as a result of pollution.
softapocalypse  rpg  climatechange  antinatalism  birthstrikes  population  overpopulation 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
These Pictures Show Just How Severe Venezuela's Massive Blackouts Are
As many as 17 people have died in massive power blackouts across Venezuela, which have left hospitals without power and led to shortages in gas, food, and water.
venezuela  rpg  photos  softapocalypse 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Top 5 Survival Crops for Preppers
Growing a survival garden is near the top of the “to do” list for all preppers, but just throwing seeds in the ground to plant a little bit of everything is definitely not the way to go.
softapocalypse  rpg  climatechange  crops  farming  prepper 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Global risk of deadly heat | Nature Climate Change
Climate change can increase the risk of conditions that exceed human thermoregulatory capacity1,2,3,4,5,6. Although numerous studies report increased mortality associated with extreme heat events1,2,3,4,5,6,7, quantifying the global risk of heat-related mortality remains challenging due to a lack of comparable data on heat-related deaths2,3,4,5. Here we conducted a global analysis of documented lethal heat events to identify the climatic conditions associated with human death and then quantified the current and projected occurrence of such deadly climatic conditions worldwide. We reviewed papers published between 1980 and 2014, and found 783 cases of excess human mortality associated with heat from 164 cities in 36 countries. Based on the climatic conditions of those lethal heat events, we identified a global threshold beyond which daily mean surface air temperature and relative humidity become deadly. Around 30% of the world’s population is currently exposed to climatic conditions exceeding this deadly threshold for at least 20 days a year. By 2100, this percentage is projected to increase to ∼48% under a scenario with drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and ∼74% under a scenario of growing emissions. An increasing threat to human life from excess heat now seems almost inevitable, but will be greatly aggravated if greenhouse gases are not considerably reduced.
softapocalypse  climatechange  rpg  heatwaves 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Around 2.5 billion more people will be living in cities by 2050, projects new UN report | UN DESA | United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
By 2050, two out of every three people are likely to be living in cities or other urban centres, according to a new United Nations report, highlighting the need for more sustainable urban planning and public services.

The report also estimates that by 2030, the world could have 43 so-called megacities (up from 31 today, according to reports) – those with more than 10 million inhabitants – most of them in developing countries.
climatechange  cities  overpopulation  softapocalypse  rpg 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Heat Island Effect | US EPA
The term "heat island" describes built up areas that are hotter than nearby rural areas. The annual mean air temperature of a city with 1 million people or more can be 1.8–5.4°F (1–3°C) warmer than its surroundings. In the evening, the difference can be as high as 22°F (12°C). Heat islands can affect communities by increasing summertime peak energy demand, air conditioning costs, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, heat-related illness and mortality, and water quality.
rpg  climatechange  heatwaves  cities  softapocalypse 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
City Grids Intensify the Urban Heat Island Effect - CityLab
Scientists found that cities with more rigid grid-like street patterns (that is, a higher local order) tended to display a higher temperature difference between their urban and rural areas. This has to do with air flow, said Pellenq. In disorganized cities, the air tends to flow uniformly with little or no interruption. But the perpendicular streets of Chicago and the like often trap heat by disrupting that airflow.
heatwaves  climatechange  rpg  cities  softapocalypse 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Engineered microbe may be key to producing plastic from plants
A new study provides a strategy for using bacteria called Novosphingobium aromaticivorans to turn lignin into PDC.

PDC is a substitute for common petroleum-based additives to PET polymers.

Lignin is found in plant cell walls, and it can be an abundant source of aromatic compounds.

In the study, scientists engineered a variation of Novosphingobium aromaticivorans that turns those compounds into PDC.

This discovery could lead to an environmentally safe alternative for plastic, and the creation of a new industry.
softapocalypse  rpg  plastic  microbe  environment 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Sudden emergence of a shallow aragonite saturation horizon in the Southern Ocean
Models project that with current CO2 emission rates, the Southern Ocean surface will be undersaturated with respect to aragonite by the end of this century1,2,3,4. This will result in widespread impacts on biogeochemistry and ocean ecosystems5,6,7, particularly the health of aragonitic organisms, such as pteropods7, which can dominate polar surface water communities6. Here, we quantify the depth of the present-day Southern Ocean aragonite saturation horizon using hydrographic and ocean carbon chemistry observations, and use a large ensemble of simulations from the Community Earth System Model (CESM)8,9 to track its evolution. A new, shallow aragonite saturation horizon emerges in many Southern Ocean locations between now and the end of the century. While all ensemble members capture the emergence, internal climate variability may affect the year of emergence; thus, its detection may have been overlooked by ensemble average analysis in the past. The emergence of the new horizon is driven by the slow accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the Southern Ocean thermocline, where the carbonate ion concentration exhibits a local minimum and approaches undersaturation. The new horizon is also apparent under an emission-stabilizing scenario indicating an inevitable, sudden decrease in the volume of suitable habitat for aragonitic organisms.

Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the three most common naturally occurring crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite). It is formed by biological and physical processes, including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments.

Uses: minor constituent of limestone which is used in cement and in steel production, ornamental carvings and as mineral specimens.

At rock-bottom price the whole deposit is worth more than $15 billion.
softapocalypse  aragonite  rpg  CO2  climatechange 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Modified bacteria could protect crops and replace man-made pesticides, scientists say
Using genomic sequencing of the bacterial DNA the researchers could identify the genes for burkholderia to manufacture Cepacin. They then used techniques already deployed in live vaccine development to neutralise the bacteria’s infectious capabilities while retaining its Cepacin producing effects.
softapocalypse  rpg  bacteria  pesticides  farming 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
New Warnings on Plastic’s Health Risks as Fracking Industry Promotes New 'Plastics Belt' Build-Out - Resilience
“China and Hong Kong went from buying 60 percent of the plastic waste exported by G7 countries during the first half of 2017,” the Financial Times reported, “to taking less than 10 percent during the same period a year later.”

The disruption is so severe that half of Philadelphia’s recycling — 200 tons a day — was sent right to the incinerator in the last few months, The Guardian reported on February 21.

The International Energy Agency warned in the summer of 2018 that the amount of plastic waste in the world’s oceans is on track to double in just over a decade. Roughly 100 million metric tons of plastic waste has already found its way into the world’s oceans — and every year, between 5 million and 15 million tons are added.

From there, researchers say plastic may be getting into the food chain — and even potentially into each of us. “Microfibers and other plastic microparticles are increasingly being documented in human tissues,” CIEL’s new report observes.
softapocalypse  rpg  climatechange  oil  plastic  fracking 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
A Long Talk With Democratic 2020 Candidate Pete Buttigieg
"The younger you are, the less likely you are to do nihilism. ... There’s a due date on nihilism. Bad things happen specifically to people, and those people will be us if we don’t bend the trajectory."
nihilism  softapocalypse  rpg 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Impact of 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C global warming on aircraft takeoff performance in China - ScienceDirect
Associated with global warming, climate extremes such as extreme temperature will significantly increase. Understanding how climate change will impact the airflights is important to the planning of future flight operations. In this study, the impacts of 1.5 and 2 degree’s global warming on the aircraft takeoff performance in China are investigated using a unique climate projection data from an international collaboration project named HAPPI. It is found that the mean summer daily maximum temperature, which is a major factor that affects the flight through changing the aircraft’s takeoff weight, will increase significantly with magnitude less than 1.5 °C over most parts of China except for the Tibetan Plateau. The half a degree additional global warming will lead to higher extreme temperature in the arid and semi-arid western China, the Tibetan Plateau and the northeastern China, while the change in eastern China is weak. Five airports including Beijing, Shanghai, Kunming, Lasa and Urumqi will see ∼1.0°–2.0 °C (1.4°–3.0 °C) higher daily maximum temperature under 1.5 °C (2.0 °C) scenario. The half-degree additional warming will lead to a shift toward higher extreme temperature in these five sites. For both 1.5° and 2.0 °C scenarios, the number of weight-restriction days will increase significantly at 3 airports including Beijing, Shanghai, and Lasa. Urumqi will witness an increase of weight-restriction days only in 2.0 °C future.
aircraft  softapocalypse  rpg  climatechange 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
The impacts of rising temperatures on aircraft takeoff performance | SpringerLink
Steadily rising mean and extreme temperatures as a result of climate change will likely impact the air transportation system over the coming decades. As air temperatures rise at constant pressure, air density declines, resulting in less lift generation by an aircraft wing at a given airspeed and potentially imposing a weight restriction on departing aircraft. This study presents a general model to project future weight restrictions across a fleet of aircraft with different takeoff weights operating at a variety of airports. We construct performance models for five common commercial aircraft and 19 major airports around the world and use projections of daily temperatures from the CMIP5 model suite under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emissions scenarios to calculate required hourly weight restriction. We find that on average, 10–30% of annual flights departing at the time of daily maximum temperature may require some weight restriction below their maximum takeoff weights, with mean restrictions ranging from 0.5 to 4% of total aircraft payload and fuel capacity by mid- to late century. Both mid-sized and large aircraft are affected, and airports with short runways and high temperatures, or those at high elevations, will see the largest impacts. Our results suggest that weight restriction may impose a non-trivial cost on airlines and impact aviation operations around the world and that adaptation may be required in aircraft design, airline schedules, and/or runway lengths.
climatechange  softapocalypse  aircraft  rpg 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
‘We’d have to finish one new facility every working day for the next 70 years’—Why carbon capture is no panacea - Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
Eventually, negative emissions technologies, including CCS, may have to be developed and deployed as a kind of emergency planetary liposuction. But it would be far better to first reduce our diet of fossil fuels as quickly as possible through conservation, increased energy efficiency, and the deployment of emissions-free technologies.
carbon  rpg  climatechange  softapocalypse 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Why current negative-emissions strategies remain ‘magical thinking’
In theory, enhanced weathering could lock up significant amounts of atmospheric carbon in the deep ocean. But the effort required is astounding. The article estimates that grinding up 10–50 tonnes of basalt rock and applying it to each of some 70 million hectares — an area about the size of Texas — of US agricultural land every year would soak up 13% of the annual global emissions from agriculture. That still leaves an awful lot of carbon up there, even after all the quarrying, grinding, transporting and spreading.
rpg  softapocalypse  carbon  climatechange 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Mapped: The world’s coal power plants | Carbon Brief
This bleak outlook for the climate is tempered by signs of rapid change. The pipeline of plants under construction (pink) or proposed (purple) has halved since 2015, as the chart below shows. Retirements (grey) are also accelerating, reaching a cumulative 197GW between 2010 and 2017.
fossilfuel  climatechange  softapocalypse  coal  rpg  oil 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Dramatic surge in China carbon emissions signals climate danger - Unearthed
If China’s emissions are indeed going back to rapid growth, it means that the rest of the world would have to run just to stay in place – keep global emissions from increasing. The task of achieving a rapid and sustained decline in global emissions would become essentially impossible. The battle against air pollution has also been made harder by the growth in polluting industries – as Unearthed has been highlighting since summer 2016.
softapocalypse  rpg  china  climatechange 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
An epidemic of chronic kidney disease in Central America: an overview | Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health
For almost 2 decades, large areas of Central America have been impacted by an under-recognised epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown causes whose victims are disproportionately young men of working age.1–5 Although exact figures are unavailable, based on estimates from our group, the death toll has likely reached at least 20 000. El Salvador, for example, has the highest overall mortality from kidney disease in the world (with Nicaragua and Honduras also included in the 10 highest countries), and CKD is the second leading cause of mortality among men of working age in the country.4 ,6 Furthermore, similar excesses of CKD of unknown cause have been reported in Sri Lanka,7 India8 and Egypt,9 where many of the epidemiological characteristics appear to be similar to the epidemic in Central America.
heatwaves  softapocalypse  rpg  heatwave  climatechange  disease 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Future temperature in southwest Asia projected to exceed a threshold for human adaptability | Nature Climate Change
A human body may be able to adapt to extremes of dry-bulb temperature (commonly referred to as simply temperature) through perspiration and associated evaporative cooling provided that the wet-bulb temperature (a combined measure of temperature and humidity or degree of ‘mugginess’) remains below a threshold of 35 °C. (ref. 1). This threshold defines a limit of survivability for a fit human under well-ventilated outdoor conditions and is lower for most people. We project using an ensemble of high-resolution regional climate model simulations that extremes of wet-bulb temperature in the region around the Arabian Gulf are likely to approach and exceed this critical threshold under the business-as-usual scenario of future greenhouse gas concentrations. Our results expose a specific regional hotspot where climate change, in the absence of significant mitigation, is likely to severely impact human habitability in the future.
hajj  climatechange  softapocalypse  wetbulb  rpg 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
The cost analysis of electric power generation in Saudi Arabia: Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy: Vol 12, No 6
Electricity is mainly used for cooling, desalination, industrial, and domestic needs in Saudi Arabia. Natural gas, diesel oil, crude oil, and heavy fuel oil are used for electricity generation in the Kingdom. More than 70% of Saudi’s electricity is consumed for air conditioning and cooling, and the summer demand is about twice the winter demand. Today, 65% of world’s electricity is produced by steam turbine generators by burning fossil fuels, whereas 100% of Saudi’s electricity is generated from fossil energy sources. Electricity & Cogeneration Regulatory Authority (ECRA) regulates the electricity and water desalination industry in Saudi Arabia. The country has 30 desalination plants and drinking water demand increases year after year. More than 60% of the water consumed in households is provided from desalinated sea water, and the rest comes from the groundwater aquifers. Desalinated water consumption increases approximately 14% per year. Desalination is a very costly process and is not sustainable. The consumption of energy is nearly 20% of total energy consumption in Saudi Arabia. Cost analysis, especially electricity and water sectors to focus on, indicates the need to encourage the optimum use of fossil fuels. Against the possibility of increasing oil prices and using of energy diversity requirement, Saudi Arabia must generate electricity from coal and renewable energy sources in the long term. Another remedy is the use of diversifying the power mix of renewable energy and nuclear energy. The use of coal in electricity production will result in environmental concerns. In situ, with underground gas formed by burning coal generated electricity by running a gas turbine. The electricity losses may occur during the transmission and distribution from generators to consumers.
electricity  softapocalypse  fossilfuel  climatechange  rpg 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Communicating the deadly consequences of global warming for human heat stress | PNAS
In December of 2015, the international community pledged to limit global warming to below 2 °C above preindustrial (PI) to prevent dangerous climate change. However, to what extent, and for whom, is danger avoided if this ambitious target is realized? We address these questions by scrutinizing heat stress, because the frequency of extremely hot weather is expected to continue to rise in the approach to the 2 °C limit. We use analogs and the extreme South Asian heat of 2015 as a focusing event to help interpret the increasing frequency of deadly heat under specified amounts of global warming. Using a large ensemble of climate models, our results confirm that global mean air temperature is nonlinearly related to heat stress, meaning that the same future warming as realized to date could trigger larger increases in societal impacts than historically experienced. This nonlinearity is higher for heat stress metrics that integrate the effect of rising humidity. We show that, even in a climate held to 2 °C above PI, Karachi (Pakistan) and Kolkata (India) could expect conditions equivalent to their deadly 2015 heatwaves every year. With only 1.5 °C of global warming, twice as many megacities (such as Lagos, Nigeria, and Shanghai, China) could become heat stressed, exposing more than 350 million more people to deadly heat by 2050 under a midrange population growth scenario. The results underscore that, even if the Paris targets are realized, there could still be a significant adaptation imperative for vulnerable urban populations.
heatwaves  softapocalypse  rpg  heatwave  climatechange 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate warming | Nature Climate Change
A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced warming is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity1,2. Under continued warming, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in tropical and mid-latitudes during peak months of heat stress3. One heat-stress metric with broad occupational health applications4,5,6 is wet-bulb globe temperature. We combine wet-bulb globe temperatures from global climate historical reanalysis7 and Earth System Model (ESM2M) projections8,9,10 with industrial4 and military5 guidelines for an acclimated individual’s occupational capacity to safely perform sustained labour under environmental heat stress (labour capacity)—here defined as a global population-weighted metric temporally fixed at the 2010 distribution. We estimate that environmental heat stress has reduced labour capacity to 90% in peak months over the past few decades. ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to 80% in peak months by 2050. Under the highest scenario considered (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to less than 40% by 2200 in peak months, with most tropical and mid-latitudes experiencing extreme climatological heat stress. Uncertainties and caveats associated with these projections include climate sensitivity, climate warming patterns, CO2 emissions, future population distributions, and technological and societal change.
rpg  climatechange  wetbulb  softapocalypse  heatwave 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita) | Data
The World Bank estimated the 2014 U.S. carbon emissions per capita at 16.49 metric tons per year; the average citizen of the E.U., that year, was responsible for just 6.379 (so the savings would actually be considerably more than 50 percent). World Bank, “CO2 Emissions (Metric Tons per Capita),”
CO2  climatechange  rpg  softapocalypse 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
NCE 2018
We are on the cusp of a new economic era: one where growth is driven by the interaction between rapid technological innovation, sustainable infrastructure investment, and increased resource productivity. This is the only growth story of the 21st century.
climatechange  renewableenergy  softapocalypse  rpg 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
How Large Are Global Fossil Fuel Subsidies? - ScienceDirect
Estimated subsidies are $4.9 trillion worldwide in 2013 and $5.3 trillion in 2015 (6.5% of global GDP in both years). Undercharging for global warming accounts for 22% of the subsidy in 2013, air pollution 46%, broader vehicle externalities 13%, supply costs 11%, and general consumer taxes 8%. China was the biggest subsidizer in 2013 ($1.8 trillion), followed by the United States ($0.6 trillion), and Russia, the European Union, and India (each with about $0.3 trillion). Eliminating subsidies would have reduced global carbon emissions in 2013 by 21% and fossil fuel air pollution deaths 55%, while raising revenue of 4%, and social welfare by 2.2%, of global GDP.
fossilfuel  climatechange  softapocalypse  rpg 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Americans used more clean energy in 2016 | Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
This year marks two changes to the energy flow chart. The Energy Information Administration has changed the way it analyzes and reports renewable energy use, and those changes are reflected in the 2016 chart as well as a revision to the 2015 analysis. Additionally, the estimate of efficiency of the industrial sector has been reduced from 80 percent to 49 percent to align with recent analysis at the DOE’s Advanced Manufacturing Office. LLNL reports all year-over-year changes on a basis consistent with the new methodology.
cleanenergy  climatechange  softapocalypse  rpg 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Quantified, localized health benefits of accelerated carbon dioxide emissions reductions | Nature Climate Change
Societal risks increase as Earth warms, and increase further for emissions trajectories accepting relatively high levels of near-term emissions while assuming future negative emissions will compensate, even if they lead to identical warming as trajectories with reduced near-term emissions1. Accelerating carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reductions, including as a substitute for negative emissions, hence reduces long-term risks but requires dramatic near-term societal transformations2. A major barrier to emissions reductions is the difficulty of reconciling immediate, localized costs with global, long-term benefits3,4. However, 2 °C trajectories not relying on negative emissions or 1.5 °C trajectories require elimination of most fossil-fuel-related emissions. This generally reduces co-emissions that cause ambient air pollution, resulting in near-term, localized health benefits. We therefore examine the human health benefits of increasing 21st-century CO2 reductions by 180 GtC, an amount that would shift a ‘standard’ 2 °C scenario to 1.5 °C or could achieve 2 °C without negative emissions. The decreased air pollution leads to 153 ± 43 million fewer premature deaths worldwide, with ~40% occurring during the next 40 years, and minimal climate disbenefits. More than a million premature deaths would be prevented in many metropolitan areas in Asia and Africa, and >200,000 in individual urban areas on every inhabited continent except Australia.
economics  rpg  softapocalypse  climatechange 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Large potential reduction in economic damages under UN mitigation targets | Nature
International climate change agreements typically specify global warming thresholds as policy targets1, but the relative economic benefits of achieving these temperature targets remain poorly understood2,3. Uncertainties include the spatial pattern of temperature change, how global and regional economic output will respond to these changes in temperature, and the willingness of societies to trade present for future consumption. Here we combine historical evidence4 with national-level climate5 and socioeconomic6 projections to quantify the economic damages associated with the United Nations (UN) targets of 1.5 °C and 2 °C global warming, and those associated with current UN national-level mitigation commitments (which together approach 3 °C warming7). We find that by the end of this century, there is a more than 75% chance that limiting warming to 1.5 °C would reduce economic damages relative to 2 °C, and a more than 60% chance that the accumulated global benefits will exceed US$20 trillion under a 3% discount rate (2010 US dollars). We also estimate that 71% of countries—representing 90% of the global population—have a more than 75% chance of experiencing reduced economic damages at 1.5 °C, with poorer countries benefiting most. Our results could understate the benefits of limiting warming to 1.5 °C if unprecedented extreme outcomes, such as large-scale sea level rise8, occur for warming of 2 °C but not for warming of 1.5 °C. Inclusion of other unquantified sources of uncertainty, such as uncertainty in secular growth rates beyond that contained in existing socioeconomic scenarios, could also result in less precise impact estimates. We find considerably greater reductions in global economic output beyond 2 °C. Relative to a world that did not warm beyond 2000–2010 levels, we project 15%–25% reductions in per capita output by 2100 for the 2.5–3 °C of global warming implied by current national commitments7, and reductions of more than 30% for 4 °C warming. Our results therefore suggest that achieving the 1.5 °C target is likely to reduce aggregate damages and lessen global inequality, and that failing to meet the 2 °C target is likely to increase economic damages substantially.
rpg  economics  climatechange  softapocalypse 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Estimating economic damage from climate change in the United States | Science
Estimates of climate change damage are central to the design of climate policies. Here, we develop a flexible architecture for computing damages that integrates climate science, econometric analyses, and process models. We use this approach to construct spatially explicit, probabilistic, and empirically derived estimates of economic damage in the United States from climate change. The combined value of market and nonmarket damage across analyzed sectors—agriculture, crime, coastal storms, energy, human mortality, and labor—increases quadratically in global mean temperature, costing roughly 1.2% of gross domestic product per +1°C on average. Importantly, risk is distributed unequally across locations, generating a large transfer of value northward and westward that increases economic inequality. By the late 21st century, the poorest third of counties are projected to experience damages between 2 and 20% of county income (90% chance) under business-as-usual emissions (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5).
economics  rpg  softapocalypse  climatechange 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Climate change: The 2015 Paris Agreement thresholds and Mediterranean basin ecosystems | Science
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Paris Agreement of December 2015 aims to maintain the global average warming well below 2°C above the preindustrial level. In the Mediterranean basin, recent pollen-based reconstructions of climate and ecosystem variability over the past 10,000 years provide insights regarding the implications of warming thresholds for biodiversity and land-use potential. We compare scenarios of climate-driven future change in land ecosystems with reconstructed ecosystem dynamics during the past 10,000 years. Only a 1.5°C warming scenario permits ecosystems to remain within the Holocene variability. At or above 2°C of warming, climatic change will generate Mediterranean land ecosystem changes that are unmatched in the Holocene, a period characterized by recurring precipitation deficits rather than temperature anomalies.
rpg  bees  pollen  climatechange  softapocalypse 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Fish Species Forecast to Migrate Hundreds of Miles Northward as U.S. Waters Warm | InsideClimate News
If heat-trapping greenhouse gas emissions continue unchecked, several important species will disappear from their current habitat by the end of the century, according to a new study of 686 species that live in the relatively shallow waters along the North American continental shelf. The biggest changes are expected along the West Coast, where some economically important species like rockfish will move some 900 miles from their traditional grounds off Washington and Canada to Alaska.
oceans  rpg  climatechange  softapocalypse  fish 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total flying insect biomass in protected areas
Global declines in insects have sparked wide interest among scientists, politicians, and the general public. Loss of insect diversity and abundance is expected to provoke cascading effects on food webs and to jeopardize ecosystem services. Our understanding of the extent and underlying causes of this decline is based on the abundance of single species or taxonomic groups only, rather than changes in insect biomass which is more relevant for ecological functioning. Here, we used a standardized protocol to measure total insect biomass using Malaise traps, deployed over 27 years in 63 nature protection areas in Germany (96 unique location-year combinations) to infer on the status and trend of local entomofauna. Our analysis estimates a seasonal decline of 76%, and mid-summer decline of 82% in flying insect biomass over the 27 years of study. We show that this decline is apparent regardless of habitat type, while changes in weather, land use, and habitat characteristics cannot explain this overall decline. This yet unrecognized loss of insect biomass must be taken into account in evaluating declines in abundance of species depending on insects as a food source, and ecosystem functioning in the European landscape.
rpg  softapocalypse  climatechange  insects 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Living Planet Report 2018 | WWF
The Living Planet Report, WWF’s flagship publication released every two years, is a comprehensive study of trends in global biodiversity and the health of the planet. The Living Planet Report 2018 is the twelfth edition of the report and provides the scientific evidence to what nature has been telling us repeatedly: unsustainable human activity is pushing the planet’s natural systems that support life on Earth to the edge.
softapocalypse  climatechange  rpg 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Coupling of pollination services and coffee suitability under climate change | PNAS
Climate change will cause geographic range shifts for pollinators and major crops, with global implications for food security and rural livelihoods. However, little is known about the potential for coupled impacts of climate change on pollinators and crops. Coffee production exemplifies this issue, because large losses in areas suitable for coffee production have been projected due to climate change and because coffee production is dependent on bee pollination. We modeled the potential distributions of coffee and coffee pollinators under current and future climates in Latin America to understand whether future coffee-suitable areas will also be suitable for pollinators. Our results suggest that coffee-suitable areas will be reduced 73–88% by 2050 across warming scenarios, a decline 46–76% greater than estimated by global assessments. Mean bee richness will decline 8–18% within future coffee-suitable areas, but all are predicted to contain at least 5 bee species, and 46–59% of future coffee-suitable areas will contain 10 or more species. In our models, coffee suitability and bee richness each increase (i.e., positive coupling) in 10–22% of future coffee-suitable areas. Diminished coffee suitability and bee richness (i.e., negative coupling), however, occur in 34–51% of other areas. Finally, in 31–33% of the future coffee distribution areas, bee richness decreases and coffee suitability increases. Assessing coupled effects of climate change on crop suitability and pollination can help target appropriate management practices, including forest conservation, shade adjustment, crop rotation, or status quo, in different regions.
climatechange  rpg  bees  softapocalypse  coffee 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
The Inequality of Climate Change From 1.5 to 2°C of Global Warming - King - 2018 - Geophysical Research Letters - Wiley Online Library
The Paris Agreement aims to keep global warming well below 2°C above preindustrial levels with a preferred ambitious 1.5°C target. Developing countries, especially small island nations, pressed for the 1.5°C target to be adopted, but who will suffer the largest changes in climate if we miss this target? Here we show that exceeding the 1.5°C global warming target would lead to the poorest experiencing the greatest local climate changes. Under these circumstances greater support for climate adaptation to prevent poverty growth would be required.
poverty  inequality  climatechange  softapocalypse  rpg 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Overlooked U.S. border shantytowns face threat of gathering storms | Agricultural Commodities | Reuters
With the prospect of climate change bringing more powerful storms more often, flooding is the latest ordeal for 500,000 people in Texas living with little or no drainage in colonias that are largely unheard of further from the border.
softapocalypse  flooding  rpg  climatechange  rain 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
NHESS - Global fatal landslide occurrence from 2004 to 2016
Landslides are a ubiquitous hazard in terrestrial environments with slopes, incurring human fatalities in urban settlements, along transport corridors and at sites of rural industry. Assessment of landslide risk requires high-quality landslide databases. Recently, global landslide databases have shown the extent to which landslides impact on society and identified areas most at risk. Previous global analysis has focused on rainfall-triggered landslides over short ∼ 5-year observation periods. This paper presents spatiotemporal analysis of a global dataset of fatal non-seismic landslides, covering the period from January 2004 to December 2016. The data show that in total 55 997 people were killed in 4862 distinct landslide events. The spatial distribution of landslides is heterogeneous, with Asia representing the dominant geographical area. There are high levels of interannual variation in the occurrence of landslides. Although more active years coincide with recognised patterns of regional rainfall driven by climate anomalies, climate modes (such as El Niño–Southern Oscillation) cannot yet be related to landsliding, requiring a landslide dataset of 30+ years. Our analysis demonstrates that landslide occurrence triggered by human activity is increasing, in particular in relation to construction, illegal mining and hill cutting. This supports notions that human disturbance may be more detrimental to future landslide incidence than climate.
mudslides  climatechange  landslides  rpg  softapocalypse 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Understanding Global Warming Potentials | Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions | US EPA
Greenhouse gases (GHGs) warm the Earth by absorbing energy and slowing the rate at which the energy escapes to space; they act like a blanket insulating the Earth. Different GHGs can have different effects on the Earth's warming. Two key ways in which these gases differ from each other are their ability to absorb energy (their "radiative efficiency"), and how long they stay in the atmosphere (also known as their "lifetime").
softapocalypse  climatechange  rpg  CO2 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Is Arctic Permafrost the "Sleeping Giant" of Climate Change? | Science Mission Directorate
"Permafrost soils are warming even faster than Arctic air temperatures - as much as 1.5 to 2.5 degrees Celsius in just the past 30 years," says Miller. "As heat from Earth's surface penetrates into permafrost, it threatens to mobilize these organic carbon reservoirs and release them into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide and methane, upsetting the Arctic's carbon balance and greatly exacerbating global warming."
permafrost  methane  rpg  softapocalypse  climatechange 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Wallace Broecker: How to calm an angry beast | CBC News
Our goal is to understand the Earth system and clearly we are moving forward in this. We are learning a lot all the time. We have a lot of people working on it and a lot of things are being learned. But I think we are also finding that the goal is receding faster than we are moving toward it, because we are realizing that things that we didn't think were important are important and these things that we didn't think were important are also difficult to get a grip on.
rpg  softapocalypse  climatechange 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Torrential rains bring epic flash floods in Maryland in late May 2018 | NOAA Climate.gov
Less than two years after a massive flash flood destroyed large portions of the historic district of downtown Ellicott City, Maryland, even heavier rains led to a destructive repeat for the city in May 2018. While having two extreme rainfall and flooding events nearly back to back is not impossible, it certainly was improbable. And now residents are again left to pick up the pieces.
flooding  rpg  softapocalypse  climatechange  rain 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Hurricane Harvey Caused 500,000-Year Floods in Some Areas
The 24-hour measures of rain falling during Hurricane Harvey were unprecedented and exceeded the rate predicted to occur once every 1,000 years, researchers found. And the flood levels seen in some isolated areas of Houston over a five-day period exceeded those predicted to occur twice in a million years, a new analysis found. In some parts of texas, more than 51 inches (130 centimeters) fell over the five-day period, the report found.
rpg  softapocalypse  climatechange  hurricane  flooding 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
An adaptability limit to climate change due to heat stress | PNAS
Despite the uncertainty in future climate-change impacts, it is often assumed that humans would be able to adapt to any possible warming. Here we argue that heat stress imposes a robust upper limit to such adaptation. Peak heat stress, quantified by the wet-bulb temperature TW, is surprisingly similar across diverse climates today. TW never exceeds 31 °C. Any exceedence of 35 °C for extended periods should induce hyperthermia in humans and other mammals, as dissipation of metabolic heat becomes impossible. While this never happens now, it would begin to occur with global-mean warming of about 7 °C, calling the habitability of some regions into question. With 11–12 °C warming, such regions would spread to encompass the majority of the human population as currently distributed. Eventual warmings of 12 °C are possible from fossil fuel burning. One implication is that recent estimates of the costs of unmitigated climate change are too low unless the range of possible warming can somehow be narrowed. Heat stress also may help explain trends in the mammalian fossil record.
climatechange  softapocalypse  rpg 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Temperature-related mortality impacts under and beyond Paris Agreement climate change scenarios | SpringerLink
The Paris Agreement binds all nations to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change, with the commitment to “hold warming well below 2 °C in global mean temperature (GMT), relative to pre-industrial levels, and to pursue efforts to limit warming to 1.5 °C”. The 1.5 °C limit constitutes an ambitious goal for which greater evidence on its benefits for health would help guide policy and potentially increase the motivation for action. Here we contribute to this gap with an assessment on the potential health benefits, in terms of reductions in temperature-related mortality, derived from the compliance to the agreed temperature targets, compared to more extreme warming scenarios. We performed a multi-region analysis in 451 locations in 23 countries with different climate zones, and evaluated changes in heat and cold-related mortality under scenarios consistent with the Paris Agreement targets (1.5 and 2 °C) and more extreme GMT increases (3 and 4 °C), and under the assumption of no changes in demographic distribution and vulnerability. Our results suggest that limiting warming below 2 °C could prevent large increases in temperature-related mortality in most regions worldwide. The comparison between 1.5 and 2 °C is more complex and characterized by higher uncertainty, with geographical differences that indicate potential benefits limited to areas located in warmer climates, where direct climate change impacts will be more discernible.
rpg  climatechange  softapocalypse 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Interactive: The impacts of climate change at 1.5C, 2C and beyond | Carbon Brief
Carbon Brief has extracted data from around 70 peer-reviewed climate studies to show how global warming is projected to affect the world and its regions.
rpg  climatechange  softapocalypse 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Marshalls likens climate change migration to cultural genocide | RNZ News
Displacement of populations and destruction of cultural language and tradition is equivalent in our minds to genocide. People must know that climate change can be reversed if we do it now. But if we do not of irreversible damage or and even catastrophic ending of civilisation as we know it.
climatechange  migration  softapocalypse  rpg 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
The funnel of human experience - LessWrong 2.0
It turns out that if you add up all these years, 50% of human experience has happened after 1309 AD. 15% of all experience has been experienced by people who are alive right now.

I call this "the funnel of human experience" - the fact that because of a tiny initial population blossoming out into a huge modern population, more of human experience has happened recently than time would suggest.
population  rpg  softapocalypse 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Sustainability. Stability. Security. | UNCCD
Losing productive land is driving people to make risky life choices. In rural areas where people depend on scarce productive land resources, land degradation is a driver of forced migration. Africa is particularly susceptible since more than 90% of our economy depends on a climate-sensitive natural resource base like rain-fed, subsistence agriculture. Unless we change the way we manage our land, in the next 30 years we may leave a billion or more vulnerable poor people with little choice but to fight or flee.
climatechange  migration  rpg  softapocalypse 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Historical Estimates of World Population
Population in millions. When lower and upper estimates are the same they are shown under "Lower."
rpg  population  overpopulation  softapocalypse 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Climate Migrants Might Reach One Billion by 2050 - World | ReliefWeb
Imagine a world with as many as one billion people facing harsh climate change impacts resulting in devastating droughts and/or floods, extreme weather, destruction of natural resources, in particular lands, soils and water, and the consequence of severe livelihoods conditions, famine and starvation.
rpg  softapocalypse  migration  climatechange 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Groundswell : Preparing for Internal Climate Migration
This report, which focuses on three regions—Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Latin America that together represent 55 percent of the developing world’s population—finds that climate change will push tens of millions of people to migrate within their countries by 2050. It projects that without concrete climate and development action, just over 143 million people—or around 2.8 percent of the population of these three regions—could be forced to move within their own countries to escape the slow-onset impacts of climate change. They will migrate from less viable areas with lower water availability and crop productivity and from areas affected by rising sea level and storm surges. The poorest and most climate vulnerable areas will be hardest hit. These trends, alongside the emergence of “hotspots” of climate in- and out-migration, will have major implications for climate-sensitive sectors and for the adequacy of infrastructure and social support systems. The report finds that internal climate migration will likely rise through 2050 and then accelerate unless there are significant cuts in greenhouse gas emissions and robust development action.
climatechange  migration  softapocalypse  rpg 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Another Climate Milestone Falls at Mauna Loa Observatory | Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego
Carbon dioxide levels measured at NOAA’s Mauna Loa Atmospheric Baseline Observatory exceeded 411 parts per million in May, the highest monthly average ever recorded, scientists from Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego and NOAA announced today.
rpg  CO2  climatechange  softapocalypse 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
How the World Passed a Carbon Threshold and Why It Matters - Yale E360
Last year marked the first time in several million years that atmospheric concentrations of CO2 passed 400 parts per million. By looking at what Earth’s climate was like in previous eras of high CO2 levels, scientists are getting a sobering picture of where we are headed.
softapocalypse  CO2  rpg  climatechange 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere Hits Record High Monthly Average | The Keeling Curve
The Keeling Curve draws its name from its creator and the shape of its dataset, a seasonally seesawing trend of steadily rising CO2 readings that exceeded 400 ppm in air for the first time in human history in 2013. Prior to the onset of the Industrial Revolution, CO2  levels had fluctuated over the millennia but had never exceeded 300 ppm at any point in the last 800,000 years.
climatechange  softapocalypse  rpg 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Methane Hydrate: Killer cause of Earth's greatest mass extinction - ScienceDirect
Global warming triggered by the massive release of carbon dioxide may be catastrophic, but the release of methane from hydrate may be apocalyptic. The end Permian holds an important lesson for humanity regarding the issue it faces today with greenhouse gas emissions, global warming, and climate change.
globalwarming  climatechange  rpg  softapocalypse 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
The big five mass extinctions | Cosmos
Biologists suspect we’re living through the sixth major mass extinction. Earth has witnessed five, when more than 75% of species disappeared. Palaeontologists spot them when species go missing from the global fossil record, including the iconic specimens shown here. “We don’t always know what caused them but most had something to do with rapid climate change”, says Melbourne Museum palaeontologist Rolf Schmidt.
massextinctions  softapocalypse  rpg 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
Post Carbon Institute
Founded in 2003, Post Carbon Institute’s mission is to lead the transition to a more resilient, equitable, and sustainable world by providing individuals and communities with the resources needed to understand and respond to the interrelated ecological, economic, energy, and equity crises of the 21st century.
economics  rpg  climatechange  softapocalypse 
5 weeks ago by josephaleo
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