jm + psychology   4

Screen time guidelines need to be built on evidence, not hype | Science | The Guardian
An open letter signed by about 100 scientists 'from different countries and academic fields with research expertise and experience in screen time, child development and evidence-based policy.'
If the government were to implement guidelines on screen-based technology at this point, as the authors of the letter suggest, this would be on the basis of little to no evidence. This risks the implementation of unnecessary, ineffective or even potentially harmful policies. For guidelines to have a meaningful impact, they need to be grounded in robust research evidence and acknowledge that children’s health and wellbeing is a complex issue affected by many other factors, such as socioeconomic status, relational poverty, and family environment – all of which are likely to be more relevant for children’s health and well-being than screens. For example, there is no consistent evidence that more screen time leads to less outdoor play; if anything the evidence indicates that screen time and physical outdoor activity are unrelated, and reductions in average time spent in outdoor play over time seem to be driven by other factors. Policy efforts to increase outdoor play that focus on screen time are therefore likely to be ineffective.


(via Damien Mulley)
via:damienmulley  science  children  psychology  screens  screen-time  childhood  development  evidence  policy  health  open-letters 
june 2017 by jm
Prior Exposure Increases Perceived Accuracy of Fake News
In other words, repeated exposure to fake news renders it believable. Pennycook, Gordon and Cannon, Tyrone D and Rand, David G., _Prior Exposure Increases Perceived Accuracy of Fake News_ (April 30, 2017):
Collectively, our results indicate familiarity is used heuristically to infer accuracy. Thus, the spread of fake news is supported by persistent low-level cognitive processes that make even highly implausible and partisan claims more believable with repetition. Our results suggest that political echo chambers not only isolate one from opposing views, but also help to create incubation chambers for blatantly false (but highly salient and politicized) fake news stories.


(via Zeynep Tufekci)

See also: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/perspectives/PE100/PE198/RAND_PE198.pdf , _The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model_, from RAND.
propaganda  psychology  fake-news  belief  facebook  echo-chambers  lies  truth  media 
may 2017 by jm
Mass surveillance silences minority opinions, according to study - The Washington Post
This is excellent research, spot on.
Elizabeth Stoycheff, lead researcher of the study and assistant professor at Wayne State University, is disturbed by her findings. “So many people I've talked with say they don't care about online surveillance because they don't break any laws and don't have anything to hide. And I find these rationales deeply troubling,” she said.

She said that participants who shared the “nothing to hide” belief, those who tended to support mass surveillance as necessary for national security, were the most likely to silence their minority opinions.

“The fact that the 'nothing to hide' individuals experience a significant chilling effect speaks to how online privacy is much bigger than the mere lawfulness of one's actions. It's about a fundamental human right to have control over one's self-presentation and image, in private, and now, in search histories and metadata,” she said.
culture  privacy  psychology  surveillance  mass-surveillance  via:snowden  nothing-to-hide  spiral-of-silence  fear 
march 2016 by jm
Internet Trolls Are Narcissists, Psychopaths, and Sadists | Psychology Today
The relationship between this Dark Tetrad [of narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism] and trolling is so significant, that the authors write the following in their paper:

"... the associations between sadism and GAIT (Global Assessment of Internet Trolling) scores were so strong that it might be said that online trolls are prototypical everyday sadists." [emphasis added]

Trolls truly enjoy making you feel bad. To quote the authors once more (because this is a truly quotable article):

"Both trolls and sadists feel sadistic glee at the distress of others. Sadists just want to have fun ... and the Internet is their playground!"


Bloody hell.
trolls  sadism  narcissism  psychopaths  online  trolling  psychology  papers 
september 2014 by jm

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