jm + multi-region   5

Google Cloud Status
Ouch, multi-region outage:
At 14:50 Pacific Time on April 11th, our engineers removed an unused GCE IP block from our network configuration, and instructed Google’s automated systems to propagate the new configuration across our network. By itself, this sort of change was harmless and had been performed previously without incident. However, on this occasion our network configuration management software detected an inconsistency in the newly supplied configuration. The inconsistency was triggered by a timing quirk in the IP block removal - the IP block had been removed from one configuration file, but this change had not yet propagated to a second configuration file also used in network configuration management. In attempting to resolve this inconsistency the network management software is designed to ‘fail safe’ and revert to its current configuration rather than proceeding with the new configuration. However, in this instance a previously-unseen software bug was triggered, and instead of retaining the previous known good configuration, the management software instead removed all GCE IP blocks from the new configuration and began to push this new, incomplete configuration to the network.

One of our core principles at Google is ‘defense in depth’, and Google’s networking systems have a number of safeguards to prevent them from propagating incorrect or invalid configurations in the event of an upstream failure or bug. These safeguards include a canary step where the configuration is deployed at a single site and that site is verified to still be working correctly, and a progressive rollout which makes changes to only a fraction of sites at a time, so that a novel failure can be caught at an early stage before it becomes widespread. In this event, the canary step correctly identified that the new configuration was unsafe. Crucially however, a second software bug in the management software did not propagate the canary step’s conclusion back to the push process, and thus the push system concluded that the new configuration was valid and began its progressive rollout.
multi-region  outages  google  ops  postmortems  gce  cloud  ip  networking  cascading-failures  bugs 
april 2016 by jm
Update on Azure Storage Service Interruption
As part of a performance update to Azure Storage, an issue was discovered that resulted in reduced capacity across services utilizing Azure Storage, including Virtual Machines, Visual Studio Online, Websites, Search and other Microsoft services. Prior to applying the performance update, it had been tested over several weeks in a subset of our customer-facing storage service for Azure Tables. We typically call this “flighting,” as we work to identify issues before we broadly deploy any updates. The flighting test demonstrated a notable performance improvement and we proceeded to deploy the update across the storage service. During the rollout we discovered an issue that resulted in storage blob front ends going into an infinite loop, which had gone undetected during flighting. The net result was an inability for the front ends to take on further traffic, which in turn caused other services built on top to experience issues.


I'm really surprised MS deployment procedures allow a change to be rolled out globally across multiple regions on a single day. I suspect they soon won't.
change-management  cm  microsoft  outages  postmortems  azure  deployment  multi-region  flighting  azure-storage 
november 2014 by jm
DynamoDB Streams
This is pretty awesome. All changes to a DynamoDB table can be streamed to a Kinesis stream, MySQL-replication-style.

The nice bit is that it has a solid way to ensure readers won't get overwhelmed by the stream volume (since ddb tables are IOPS-rate-limited), and Kinesis has a solid way to read missed updates (since it's a Kafka-style windowed persistent stream). With this you have a pretty reliable way to ensure you're not going to suffer data loss.
iops  dynamodb  aws  kinesis  reliability  replication  multi-az  multi-region  failover  streaming  kafka 
november 2014 by jm
Why We Didn’t Use Kafka for a Very Kafka-Shaped Problem
A good story of when Kafka _didn't_ fit the use case:
We came up with a complicated process of app-level replication for our messages into two separate Kafka clusters. We would then do end-to-end checking of the two clusters, detecting dropped messages in each cluster based on messages that weren’t in both.

It was ugly. It was clearly going to be fragile and error-prone. It was going to be a lot of app-level replication and horrible heuristics to see when we were losing messages and at least alert us, even if we couldn’t fix every failure case.

Despite us building a Kafka prototype for our ETL — having an existing investment in it — it just wasn’t going to do what we wanted. And that meant we needed to leave it behind, rewriting the ETL prototype.
cassandra  java  kafka  scala  network-partitions  availability  multi-region  multi-az  aws  replication  onlive 
november 2014 by jm
Facebook announce Wormhole
Over the last couple of years, we have built and deployed a reliable publish-subscribe system called Wormhole. Wormhole has become a critical part of Facebook's software infrastructure. At a high level, Wormhole propagates changes issued in one system to all systems that need to reflect those changes – within and across data centers.


Facebook's Kafka-alike, basically, although with some additional low-latency guarantees. FB appear to be using it for multi-region and multi-AZ replication. Proprietary.
pub-sub  scalability  facebook  realtime  low-latency  multi-region  replication  multi-az  wormhole 
june 2013 by jm

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