jm + ip   84

Connemara shop in patents row with whiskey multinational
Beam Suntory own a trademark on the name "Connemara" -- utter fiasco. How was this granted? Connemara is a very well-known placename in Ireland
connemara  ireland  ip  trademarks  copyfight  beam-suntory  whiskey 
5 weeks ago by jm
GitHub's new Balanced Employee IP Agreement (BEIPA) lets workers keep the IP when they use company resources for personal projects — Quartz
Huh, interesting development:
If it’s on company time, it’s the company’s dime. That’s the usual rule in the tech industry—that if employees use company resources to work on projects unrelated to their jobs, their employer can claim ownership of any intellectual property (IP) they create.
But GitHub is throwing that out the window. Today the code-sharing platform announced a new policy, the Balanced Employee IP Agreement (BEIPA). This allows its employees to use company equipment to work on personal projects in their free time, which can occur during work hours, without fear of being sued for the IP. As long as the work isn’t related to GitHub’s own “existing or prospective” products and services, the employee owns it.
github  law  tech  jobs  work  day-job  side-projects  hacking  ip  copyright 
march 2017 by jm
The Uber Bombshell About to Drop
Alphabet's IP theft allegations regarding Waymo, Otto and Anthony Levandowski are pretty hardcore
alphabet  google  uber  lawsuits  ip  waymo 
march 2017 by jm
[net-next,14/14] tcp_bbr: add BBR congestion control
This commit implements a new TCP congestion control algorithm: BBR
(Bottleneck Bandwidth and RTT). A detailed description of BBR will be
published in ACM Queue, Vol. 14 No. 5, September-October 2016, as
"BBR: Congestion-Based Congestion Control".

BBR has significantly increased throughput and reduced latency for
connections on Google's internal backbone networks and google.com and
YouTube Web servers.

BBR requires only changes on the sender side, not in the network or
the receiver side. Thus it can be incrementally deployed on today's
Internet, or in datacenters. [....]

Signed-off-by: Van Jacobson <vanj@google.com>
google  linux  tcp  ip  congestion-control  bufferbloat  patches  algorithms  rtt  bandwidth  youtube  via:bradfitz 
september 2016 by jm
Why the Very Silly Oracle v. Google Trial Actually Matters
If it’s illegal to write clean room implementations of APIs, then no one has clean hands. The now-shelved open source project Apache Harmony, like Android, reimplemented Java SE, and tech giant IBM contributed code to that project. Oracle itself built its business off a proprietary implementation of SQL, which was created by IBM. The proposition “Reimplementations of APIs are infringements” creates a recursive rabbit hole of liability that spans across the industry. Even the very 37 Java APIs at issue in this trial contain reimplementations of other APIs. Google witness Joshua Bloch—who, while at Sun Microsystems, wrote many of the Java APIs—testified that specific Java APIs are reimplementations of other APIs from Perl 5 and the C programming language.
apis  fair-use  copyright  ip  android  java  google  oracle  law 
may 2016 by jm
“You Can't Copyright Klingon” Means Paramount Is In Trouble
The Language Creation Society filed an amicus brief claiming that Klingon is a real language and therefore not subject to copyright. To reiterate: the fandom of Star Trek elevated a language invented in 1984 by Marc Okrand for Star Trek III: The Search for Spock to the point it is taught in colleges and spoken as a living language. So it isn’t Star Trek anymore: it is real. [...] the entire legal brief is impossible to reprint due to limits in our non-Klingon font system, but even the motion includes Klingon-translated passages that accuse Paramount of being “arrogant” and “pathetic”.
klingon  star-trek  languages  paramount  ip  copyright  law 
may 2016 by jm
In Oracle v. Google, a Nerd Subculture Is on Trial
“The G part stands for GNU?” Alsup asked in disbelief.
“Yes,” said Schwartz on the stand.
“That doesn’t make any sense,” said the 71-year-old Clinton appointee.
law  gnu  gpl  licensing  java  oracle  sun  apis  ip 
may 2016 by jm
Ireland will need referendum to create EU court for patents
omg. Sean "Irish SOPA" Sherlock dealing with the important issues once again -- in this case the bloody "Unified Patent Court"
patents  eu  sean-sherlock  absurd  referenda  ireland  ip 
may 2016 by jm
Open Whisper Systems >> Blog >> Reflections: The ecosystem is moving
Very interesting post on federation vs centralization for new services:
One of the controversial things we did with Signal early on was to build it as an unfederated service. Nothing about any of the protocols we've developed requires centralization; it's entirely possible to build a federated Signal Protocol based messenger, but I no longer believe that it is possible to build a competitive federated messenger at all.
development  encryption  communication  network-effects  federation  signal  ip  protocols  networking  smtp  platforms 
may 2016 by jm
Google Cloud Status
Ouch, multi-region outage:
At 14:50 Pacific Time on April 11th, our engineers removed an unused GCE IP block from our network configuration, and instructed Google’s automated systems to propagate the new configuration across our network. By itself, this sort of change was harmless and had been performed previously without incident. However, on this occasion our network configuration management software detected an inconsistency in the newly supplied configuration. The inconsistency was triggered by a timing quirk in the IP block removal - the IP block had been removed from one configuration file, but this change had not yet propagated to a second configuration file also used in network configuration management. In attempting to resolve this inconsistency the network management software is designed to ‘fail safe’ and revert to its current configuration rather than proceeding with the new configuration. However, in this instance a previously-unseen software bug was triggered, and instead of retaining the previous known good configuration, the management software instead removed all GCE IP blocks from the new configuration and began to push this new, incomplete configuration to the network.

One of our core principles at Google is ‘defense in depth’, and Google’s networking systems have a number of safeguards to prevent them from propagating incorrect or invalid configurations in the event of an upstream failure or bug. These safeguards include a canary step where the configuration is deployed at a single site and that site is verified to still be working correctly, and a progressive rollout which makes changes to only a fraction of sites at a time, so that a novel failure can be caught at an early stage before it becomes widespread. In this event, the canary step correctly identified that the new configuration was unsafe. Crucially however, a second software bug in the management software did not propagate the canary step’s conclusion back to the push process, and thus the push system concluded that the new configuration was valid and began its progressive rollout.
multi-region  outages  google  ops  postmortems  gce  cloud  ip  networking  cascading-failures  bugs 
april 2016 by jm
Internet mapping turned a remote farm into a digital hell
I think this a bit of a legal issue for MaxMind:
The trouble for the Taylor farm started in 2002, when a Massachusetts-based digital mapping company called MaxMind decided it wanted to provide “IP intelligence” to companies who wanted to know the geographic location of a computer to, for example, show the person using it relevant ads or to send the person a warning letter if they were pirating music or movies.
maxmind  fail  location  ip  geodata  gps  mapping  kansas 
april 2016 by jm
Yosemite agrees to change the names of its significant locations to appease trademark troll / Boing Boing
This is absolutely appalling. IP law gone mad:
DNC Parks & Resorts at Yosemite, Inc (a division of one of the largest privately owned companies in the world) used to have the concessions to operate various businesses around Yosemite National Park. Now that they've been fired, they're using some decidedly dubious trademark to force the Park Service to change the names of buildings and locations that have stood for as much as a century, including some that have been designated national landmarks. The Parks Service has caved to these requests as it readies the park for its centennial celebration. It will not only change the names of publicly owned landmarks -- such as the Ahwahnee hotel, Yosemite Lodge, the Wawona Hotel, Curry Village, and Badger Pass ski area -- it will also have to change all its signs, maps and guidebooks.
yosemite  ip  trademarks  law  fiasco  national-parks  usa 
january 2016 by jm
How both TCP and Ethernet checksums fail
At Twitter, a team had a unusual failure where corrupt data ended up in memcache. The root cause appears to have been a switch that was corrupting packets. Most packets were being dropped and the throughput was much lower than normal, but some were still making it through. The hypothesis is that occasionally the corrupt packets had valid TCP and Ethernet checksums. One "lucky" packet stored corrupt data in memcache. Even after the switch was replaced, the errors continued until the cache was cleared.


YA occurrence of this bug. When it happens, it tends to _really_ screw things up, because it's so rare -- we had monitoring for this in Amazon, and when it occurred, it overwhelmingly occurred due to host-level kernel/libc/RAM issues rather than stuff in the network. Amazon design principles were to add app-level checksumming throughout, which of course catches the lot.
networking  tcp  ip  twitter  ethernet  checksums  packets  memcached 
october 2015 by jm
Dublin-traceroute
uses the techniques invented by the authors of Paris-traceroute to enumerate the paths of ECMP flow-based load balancing, but introduces a new technique for NAT detection.


handy. written by AWS SDE Andrea Barberio!
internet  tracing  traceroute  networking  ecmp  nat  ip 
october 2015 by jm
Gene patents probably dead worldwide following Australian court decision
The court based its reasoning on the fact that, although an isolated gene such as BRCA1 was "a product of human action, it was the existence of the information stored in the relevant sequences that was an essential element of the invention as claimed." Since the information stored in the DNA as a sequence of nucleotides was a product of nature, it did not require human action to bring it into existence, and therefore could not be patented.


Via Tony Finch.
via:fanf  australia  genetics  law  ipr  medicine  ip  patents 
october 2015 by jm
Newegg vs. Patent Trolls: When We Win, You Win
go NewEgg: 'Newegg went against a company that claimed its patent covered SSL and RC4 encryption, a common encryption system used by many retailers and websites. This particular patent troll has gone against over 100 other companies, and brought in $45 million in settlements before going after Newegg. We won.'
via:nelson  ip  law  patent-trolls  patents  newegg  crypto 
july 2015 by jm
Apple now biases towards IPv6 with a 25ms delay on connections
Interestingly, they claim that IPv6 tends to be more reliable and has lower latency now:
Based on our testing, this makes our Happy Eyeballs implementation go from roughly 50/50 IPv4/IPv6 in iOS 8 and Yosemite to ~99% IPv6 in iOS 9 and El Capitan betas. While our previous implementation from four years ago was designed to select the connection with lowest latency no matter what, we agree that the Internet has changed since then and reports indicate that biasing towards IPv6 is now beneficial for our customers: IPv6 is now mainstream instead of being an exception, there are less broken IPv6 tunnels, IPv4 carrier-grade NATs are increasing in numbers, and throughput may even be better on average over IPv6.
apple  ipv6  ip  tcp  networking  internet  happy-eyeballs  ios  osx 
july 2015 by jm
Family in No poster Says YES to Marriage Equality | Amnesty International
Beyond the politics, the risks of stock photo usage are pretty evident too:
"In 2014, as a young family, we did a photo shoot with a photographer friend to get some nice shots for the family album. No money was exchanged – we got nice photos for free, they got nice images for their portfolio. As part of this agreement, we agreed to let them upload them to a stock photo album. We knew that these were available for purchase and we gave permission. Perhaps, naïvely, we imagined that on the off chance that any was ever selected, it might be for a small magazine or website. To confirm, we have not received any money for the photo – then or now, and nor do we expect any.

We were surprised and upset to see that the photo was being used as part of a campaign with which we do not agree. We completely support same-sex marriage, and we believe that same-sex couples’ should of course be able to adopt, as we believe that they are equally able to provide children with much-needed love and care. To suggest otherwise is offensive to us, and to many others."
ssm  ireland  politics  amnesty  stock-photos  ip  rights  photos  campaigns  ads 
may 2015 by jm
David P. Reed on the history of UDP
'UDP was actually “designed” in 30 minutes on a blackboard when we decided pull the original TCP protocol apart into TCP and IP, and created UDP on top of IP as an alternative for multiplexing and demultiplexing IP datagrams inside a host among the various host processes or tasks. But it was a placeholder that enabled all the non-virtual-circuit protocols since then to be invented, including encapsulation, RTP, DNS, …, without having to negotiate for permission either to define a new protocol or to extend TCP by adding “features”.'
udp  ip  tcp  networking  internet  dpr  history  protocols 
april 2015 by jm
Why We Will Not Be Registering easyDNS.SUCKS - blog.easydns.org
If you're not immersed in the naming business you may find the jargon in it hard to understand. The basic upshot is this: the IPC believes that the mechanisms that were enacted to protect trademark holders during the deluge of new TLD rollouts are being gamed by the .SUCKS TLD operator to extort inflated fees from trademark holders.


(via Nelson)
shakedown  business  internet  domains  dns  easydns  dot-sucks  scams  tlds  trademarks  ip 
april 2015 by jm
tcpcopy
"tees" all TCP traffic from one server to another. "widely used by companies in China"!
testing  benchmarking  performance  tcp  ip  tcpcopy  tee  china  regression-testing  stress-testing  ops 
march 2015 by jm
Stairs to nowhere, trap streets, and other Toronto oddities
'There’s a set of stairs on Greenwood Avenue that lead nowhere. At the top, a wooden fence at the end of someone’s back yard blocks any further movement, forcing the climber to turn around and descend back to the street. What’s remarkable about the pointless Greenwood stairs, which were built in 1959 as a shortcut to a now-demolished brickyard, is that someone still routinely maintains them: in winter, some kindly soul deposits a scattering of salt lest one of the stairs’ phantom users slip; in summer someone comes with a broom to sweep away leaves.
These urban leftovers are lovingly called “Thomassons” after Gary Thomasson, a former slugger for the San Francisco Giants, Oakland As, Yankees, Dodgers, and, most fatefully, the Yomiuri Giants in Tokyo.'
trap-streets  maps  ip  google  via:bldgblog  mapping  copyright  thomassons  orphaned-roads 
march 2015 by jm
How TCP backlog works in Linux
good description of the process
ip  linux  tcp  networking  backlog  ops 
january 2015 by jm
The US complains that others steal its technology, but America was once a tech pirate itself
History repeating itself -- see the "Gongkai" story today for a modern analogue.
Hamilton used patents to lure immigrants with skills and knowledge to move to the United States. George Parkinson, for example, was awarded a patent in 1791 for a textile spinning machine, which was really just a rip-off of a machine he had used in England. The United States also paid his family's expenses to emigrate and re-locate to the US. [...]

The Brits were not happy about the attempts to steal their intellectual property. Severe penalties were on the books for anyone trying to take machines or designs out of the country, or even to lure skilled workers. It was actually illegal for such skilled workers to leave the country.
china  gongkai  patents  ip  copyright  history  us  uk  textiles  spinning 
december 2014 by jm
Use sshuttle to Keep Safe on Insecure Wi-Fi
I keep forgetting about sshuttle. It's by far the easiest way to get a cheapo IP-over-SSH VPN working with an OSX client, particularly since it's in homebrew
ssh  vpn  sshuttle  tunnelling  security  ip  wifi  networking  osx  homebrew 
december 2014 by jm
Help the GNOME Foundation defend the GNOME trademark
Recently Groupon announced a product with the same product name as GNOME. Groupon’s product is a tablet based point of sale “operating system for merchants to run their entire operation." The GNOME community was shocked that Groupon would use our mark for a product so closely related to the GNOME desktop and technology. It was almost inconceivable to us that Groupon, with over $2.5 billion in annual revenue, a full legal team and a huge engineering staff would not have heard of the GNOME project, found our trademark registration using a casual search, or even found our website, but we nevertheless got in touch with them and asked them to pick another name. Not only did Groupon refuse, but it has now filed even more trademark applications (the full list of applications they filed can be found here, here and here). To use the GNOME name for a proprietary software product that is antithetical to the fundamental ideas of the GNOME community, the free software community and the GNU project is outrageous. Please help us fight this huge company as they try to trade on our goodwill and hard earned reputation.
gnome  groupon  trademark  infringement  open-source  operating-systems  ip  law  floss 
november 2014 by jm
This Canadian Artist Halted Pipeline Development by Copyrighting His Land as a Work of Art
One of the really important pieces on my land was this white-picket fence. The picket fence is probably 100 yards or less, within 100 yards of where they wanted to build this pipeline. I [plan to] extend it 8 feet every year for the rest of my life and I've been doing that for 25 years. It got me thinking, where does this piece end? Does it end at the actual structure of the fence or the things growing around it, growing through it, that are part of the photography, the documentation of it? I realized at that point that [the fence], and the other sculptures and pieces and incursions and conceptual works, were actually integral to that piece of land and to my practice.

I had not intended for it to be a political piece, it was just a piece, an idea the follow-through of which at some point became poetic, you go, "Wait a minute the fence actually stopped them!" But the fence doesn't actually enclose anything. It's just a straight line. And it's marking something that's actually unmarkable, which is time. And one day it'll be gone, as will I. The land will be changed--but it was just this crazy irony that kicked into play when I was standing there with those oil negotiators.
copyright  art  pipelines  canada  politics  oil  land  conceptual-art  ip 
november 2014 by jm
Belgian and French copyright laws ban photos of EP buildings
An obscure clause in EU copyright rules means no one can publish photos of public buildings in Belgium, like the Atomium, or France’s Eiffel tower at night without first asking permission from the rights owners.


Ah, copyright.
copyright  ip  stupid  belgium  france  law  atomium  eiffel-tower 
november 2014 by jm
UK museums lobbying for copyright reform with empty display cases
Great to see museums campaigning for copyright reform -- this makes perfect sense.
Display cases in the Imperial War Museum, National Library of Scotland and University of Leeds sit empty. They should contain letters from the First World War; from a young girl to her father serving as a soldier and from soldiers to their families back home. Because of current UK copyright laws the original letters cannot be displayed. At the moment the duration of copyright in certain unpublished works is to the end of the year 2039, regardless how old the work is. The Free Our History campaign wants the term of copyright protection in unpublished texts to be reduced to the author’s lifetime plus 70 years.
copyright  history  uk  law  museums  ip 
november 2014 by jm
Ebola: While Big Pharma Slept
We’ve had almost 40 years to develop, test and stockpile an Ebola vaccine. That has not happened because big pharma has been entirely focused on shareholder value and profits over safety and survival from a deadly virus. For the better part of Ebola’s 38 years ‒ big pharma has been asleep. The question ahead is what virus or superbug will wake them up?
pharma  ebola  ip  patents  health  drugs  africa  research 
october 2014 by jm
Ebola vaccine delayed by IP spat
This is the downside of publicly-funded labs selling patent-licensing rights to private companies:
Given the urgency, it's inexplicable that one of the candidate vaccines, developed at the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) in Winnipeg, has yet to go in the first volunteer's arm, says virologist Heinz Feldmann, who helped develop the vaccine while at PHAC. "It’s a farce; these doses are lying around there while people are dying in Africa,” says Feldmann, who now works at the Rocky Mountain Laboratories of the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) in Hamilton, Montana.

At the center of the controversy is NewLink Genetics, a small company in Ames, Iowa, that bought a license to the vaccine's commercialization from the Canadian government in 2010, and is now suddenly caught up in what WHO calls "the most severe acute public health emergency seen in modern times.” Becker and others say the company has been dragging its feet the past 2 months because it is worried about losing control over the development of the vaccine.
ip  patents  drugs  ebola  canada  phac  newlink-genetics  health  epidemics  vaccines 
october 2014 by jm
Chris Baus: TCP_CORK: More than you ever wanted to know
Even with buffered streams the application must be able to instruct the OS to forward all pending data when the stream has been flushed for optimal performance. The application does not know where packet boundaries reside, hence buffer flushes might not align on packet boundaries. TCP_CORK can pack data more effectively, because it has direct access to the TCP/IP layer. [..]

If you do use an application buffering and streaming mechanism (as does Apache), I highly recommend applying the TCP_NODELAY socket option which disables Nagle's algorithm. All calls to write() will then result in immediate transfer of data.
networking  tcp  via:nmaurer  performance  ip  tcp_cork  linux  syscalls  writev  tcp_nodelay  nagle  packets 
september 2014 by jm
The Ramifications of Alice: A Conversation with Mark Lemley - IPWatchdog.com
I think you need to review what is actually happening at the USPTO in terms of rejections and how the Federal Circuit is applying Alice to find software patent claims patent ineligible. We are not crying wolf. It is really, factually, truthfully happening.


On the face of it, this sounds like great news ;)
swpat  patents  alice  uspto  ip  reform  software 
september 2014 by jm
Boundary's new server monitoring free offering
'High resolution, 1 second intervals for all metrics; Fluid analytics, drag any graph to any point in time; Smart alarms to cut down on false positives; Embedded graphs and customizable dashboards; Up to 10 servers for free'

Pre-registration is open now. Could be interesting, although the limit of 10 machines is pretty small for any production usage
boundary  monitoring  network  ops  metrics  alarms  tcp  ip  netstat 
july 2014 by jm
Tracedump
a single application IP packet sniffer that captures all TCP and UDP packets of a single Linux process. It consists of the following elements:

* ptrace monitor - tracks bind(), connect() and sendto() syscalls and extracts local port numbers that the traced application uses;
* pcap sniffer - using information from the previous module, it captures IP packets on an AF_PACKET socket (with an appropriate BPF filter attached);
* garbage collector - periodically reads /proc/net/{tcp,udp} files in order to detect the sockets that the application no longer uses.

As the output, tracedump generates a PCAP file with SLL-encapsulated IP packets - readable by eg. Wireshark. This file can be later used for detailed analysis of the networking operations made by the application. For instance, it might be useful for IP traffic classification systems.
debugging  networking  linux  strace  ptrace  tracedump  tracing  tcp  udp  sniffer  ip  tcpdump 
may 2014 by jm
Microsoft "Scroogles" Itself
'Microsoft went through a blogger’s private Hotmail account in order to trace the identity of a source who allegedly leaked trade secrets.'

Bear in mind that the alleged violation which MS allege allows them to read their email was a breach of the terms of service, which also include distribution of content which 'incites, advocates, or expresses pornography, obscenity, vulgarity, [or] profanity'. So no dirty jokes on Hotmail!
hotmail  fail  scroogled  microsoft  stupid  tos  law  privacy  data-protection  trade-secrets  ip 
march 2014 by jm
British American Tobacco - Plain packaging of tobacco products
Compare and contrast with the Law Society's comments:
We believe we are entitled to use our packs to distinguish our products from those of our competitors. Our brands are our intellectual property which we have created and invested in. Plain packaging would deny us the right to use brands.

But also, a brand is also an important tool for consumers. As the British Brands Group has stated  , plain packaging legislation "ignores the crucial role that branding plays in providing consumers with high quality, consistent products they can trust".

The restriction of valuable corporate brands by any government would risk placing it in breach of legal obligations relating to intellectual property rights and, in most cases, international trade.
law-society  branding  ip  ireland  tobacco  cigarettes  law  trademarks 
february 2014 by jm
Irish Law Society takes a stand for "brand owners IP rights"
The Law Society will attend a meeting of the Oireachtas Health Committee today to outline its strong opposition to the Government proposals to introduce legislation that will require tobacco products to use plain packaging. The society’s director general Ken Murphy will be its principal representative at the meeting today to discuss its submission on the legislation, and to discuss its concerns that a plain packaging regime will undermine registered trade mark, and design, systems and will amount to an “expropriation of brand owners intellectual property rights’.

Speaking ahead of the meeting, Mr Murphy told The Irish Times the views contained in it represent those of the Law Society as a whole, and its 10,000 members, and have been endorsed by the society as a whole, rather than the committee.

Mr Murphy also said the purpose of the Law Society submission was not to protect the tobacco industry, rather the wider effect and impact such a law would have on intellectual property rights, trade marks, in other areas.
“There is a real concern also that plain packaging in the tobacco industry is just the beginning of a trend that will severely undermine intellectual property owners’ rights in other sectors such as alcohol, soft drinks and fast foods.”


Judging by some reactions on Twitter, "endorsed by the society as a whole" may be over-egging it a little.
law-society  gubu  law  ireland  ip  packaging  branding  trademarks  cigarettes  health  tobacco 
february 2014 by jm
CJEU in #Svensson says that in general it is OK to hyperlink to protected works without permission
IPKat says 'this morning the Court of Justice of the European Union issued its keenly awaited decision in Case C-466/12 Svensson [...]: The owner of a website may, without the authorisation of the copyright holders, redirect internet users, via hyperlinks, to protected works available on a freely accessible basis on another site. This is so even if the internet users who click on the link have the impression that the work is appearing on the site that contains the link.'

This is potentially big news. Not so much for the torrent-site scenario, but for the NNI/NLI linking-to-newspaper-stories scenario.
ip  svensson  cjeu  eu  law  linking  hyperlinks  pirate-bay  internet  web  links  http  copyright 
february 2014 by jm
Chartbeat's Lessons learned tuning TCP and Nginx in EC2
a good writeup of basic sysctl tuning for an internet-facing HTTP proxy fleet running in EC2. Nothing groundbreaking here, but it's well-written
nginx  amazon  ec2  tcp  ip  tuning  sysctl  linux  c10k  ssl  http 
january 2014 by jm
Removing DRM Boosts Music Sales by 10%
Based on a working paper from University of Toronto researcher Laurina Zhang
Comparing album sales of four major labels before and after the removal of DRM reveals that digital music revenue increases by 10% when restrictions are removed. The effect goes up to 30% for long tail content, while top-selling albums show no significant jump. The findings suggest that dropping technical restrictions can benefit both artists and the major labels.


more details: http://inside.rotman.utoronto.ca/laurinazhang/files/2013/11/laurina_zhang_jmp_nov4.pdf , "Intellectual Property Strategy and the Long Tail: Evidence from the Recorded Music Industry", Laurina Zhang, November 4, 2013
ip  copyright  drm  mp3  music  laurina-zhang  research  long-tail  albums  rights-management  piracy 
december 2013 by jm
Tintin And The Copyright Sharks - Falkvinge on Infopolicy
A rather sordid tale of IP acquisition and exploitation, from the sounds of it
tintin  moulinsart  belgium  history  herge  ip  copyright  royalties  rick-falkvinge 
november 2013 by jm
Link without fear – Copyright in Ireland in a Digital Age
The Copyright Review Committee report has been published. Headline recommendations:

Ensure the right of free speech is a central element of the new copyright regime, including in the areas of parody and satire;
Legalise legitimate forms of copying by introducing an explicit and broadly defined “Fair Use” policy.
Ensure the extent of copyright ownership is balanced against the public good;
Design a system which is clear to all parties, including end users;
Design an enforcement mechanism which is easy to understand, transparent and accessible to all parties;
Target penalties at those who infringe on copyright rather than on third parties such as intermediaries;
Future-proof the new regime by basing it on applicable principles rather than rules relevant to today’s technology only;
Make it easy for end-users to identify and engage with owners of copyright material.


Here's hoping Sean Sherlock now does what he said he'd do, and acts on these recommendations.
copyright  law  ireland  reports  fair-use  free-speech  satire  parody  copying  copyfight  ownership  ip  drm  linking 
october 2013 by jm
In historic vote, New Zealand bans software patents | Ars Technica
This is amazing news. Paying attention, Sean Sherlock?
A major new patent bill, passed in a 117-4 vote by New Zealand's Parliament after five years of debate, has banned software patents. The relevant clause of the patent bill actually states that a computer program is "not an invention." Some have suggested that was a way to get around the wording of the TRIPS intellectual property treaty, which requires patents to be "available for any inventions, whether products or processes, in all fields of technology." [...]

One Member of Parliament who was deeply involved in the debate, Clare Curran, quoted several heads of software firms complaining about how the patenting process allowed "obvious things" to get patented and that "in general software patents are counter-productive." Curran quoted one developer as saying, "It's near impossible for software to be developed without breaching some of the hundreds of thousands of patents granted around the world for obvious work."
"These are the heavyweights of the new economy in software development," said Curran. "These are the people that needed to be listened to, and thankfully, they were."
new-zealand  nz  patents  swpats  law  trips  ip  software-patents  yay 
august 2013 by jm
The ultimate SO_LINGER page, or: why is my tcp not reliable
If we look at the HTTP protocol, there data is usually sent with length information included, either at the beginning of an HTTP response, or in the course of transmitting information (so called ‘chunked’ mode). And they do this for a reason. Only in this way can the receiving end be sure it received all information that it was sent. Using the shutdown() technique above really only tells us that the remote closed the connection. It does not actually guarantee that all data was received correctly by program B. The best advice is to send length information, and to have the remote program actively acknowledge that all data was received.
SO_LINGER  sockets  tcp  ip  networking  linux  protocols  shutdown  FIN  RST 
august 2013 by jm
TCP is UNreliable
Great account from Cliff Click describing an interest edge-case risk of using TCP without application-level acking, and how it caused a messy intermittent bug in production.
In all these failures the common theme is that the receiver is very heavily loaded, with many hundreds of short-lived TCP connections being opened/read/closed every second from many other machines.  The sender sends a ‘SYN’ packet, requesting a connection. The sender (optimistically) sends 1 data packet; optimistic because the receiver has yet to acknowledge the SYN packet.  The receiver, being much overloaded, is very slow.  Eventually the receiver returns a ‘SYN-ACK’ packet, acknowledging both the open and the data packet.  At this point the receiver’s JVM has not been told about the open connection; this work is all opening at the OS layer alone.  The sender, being done, sends a ‘FIN’ which it does NOT wait for acknowledgement (all data has already been acknowledged).  The receiver, being heavily overloaded, eventually times-out internally (probably waiting for the JVM to accept the open-call, and the JVM being overloaded is too slow to get around to it) – and sends a RST (reset) packet back…. wiping out the connection and the data.  The sender, however, has moved on – it already sent a FIN & closed the socket, so the RST is for a closed connection.  Net result: sender sent, but the receiver reset the connection without informing either the JVM process or the sender.
tcp  protocols  SO_LINGER  FIN  RST  connections  cliff-click  ip 
august 2013 by jm
Branded to death | Features | Times Higher Education
The most abominable monster now threatening the intellectual health and the integrity of pure enquiry as well as conscientious teaching is the language of advertising, or better, the machinery of propaganda. Any number of critics from within university walls have warned the people at large and academics in particular of the way the helots of advertising and the state police of propaganda bloat and distort the language of thoughtful description, peddle with a confident air generalisations without substance, and serenely circulate orotund lies while ignoring their juniors’ rebuttals and abuse.


Relevant to this argument -- http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2013/07/the-webs-longest-nightmare-ends-eolas-patents-are-dead-on-appeal/ notes that 'the role of the University of California [was] one of the most perplexing twists in the Eolas saga. The university kept a low profile during the lead-up to trial; but once in Texas, Eolas' lawyers constantly reminded the jury they were asserting "these University of California patents." A lawyer from UC's patent-licensing division described support for Eolas at trial by simply saying that the university "stands by its licensees."'
branding  advertising  newspeak  universities  third-level  eolas  higher-education  education  research  university-of-california  ucb  patents  ip  swpats 
july 2013 by jm
France Kills Three Strikes
Missed bookmarking this news --
After years of debate and controversy the French Government has finally backtracked on the law which allowed errant subscribers to be disconnected from the Internet. This morning a decree was published which removed the possibility for file-sharers to have their connections cut for copyright infringement. Instead, those caught by rightsholders will now be subjected to a system of automated fines.
france  legal  ip  piracy  filesharing  three-strikes 
july 2013 by jm
An excellent writeup of the TCP bounded-buffer deadlock problem
on pages 146-149 of 'TCP/IP Sockets in C: Practical Guide for Programmers' by Michael J. Donahoo and Kenneth L. Calvert.
tcp  ip  bounded-buffer  deadlock  bugs  buffering  connections  distributed-systems 
july 2013 by jm
the TCP bounded buffer deadlock problem
I've wound up mentioning this twice in the past week, so it's worth digging up and bookmarking!
Under certain circumstances a TCP connection can end up in a "deadlock", where neither the client nor the server is able to write data out or read data in. This is caused by two factors. First, a client or server cannot perform two transactions at once; a read cannot be performed if a write transaction is in progress, and vice versa. Second, the buffers that exist at either end of the TCP connection are of limited size. The deadlock occurs when both the client and server are trying to send an amount of data that is larger than the combined input and output buffer size.
tcp  ip  bounded-buffer  deadlock  bugs  buffering  connections  distributed-systems 
july 2013 by jm
packetdrill - network stack testing tool
[Google's] packetdrill scripting tool enables quick, precise tests for entire TCP/UDP/IPv4/IPv6 network stacks, from the system call layer down to the NIC hardware. packetdrill currently works on Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, and NetBSD. It can test network stack behavior over physical NICs on a LAN, or on a single machine using a tun virtual network device.
testing  networking  tun  google  linux  papers  tcp  ip  udp  freebsd  openbsd  netbsd 
july 2013 by jm
Newegg nukes “corporate troll” Alcatel in third patent appeal win this year
I am loving this. Particularly this:

At trial in East Texas Cheng took the stand to tell Newegg's story. Alcatel-Lucent's corporate representative, at the heart of its massive licensing campaign, couldn't even name the technology or the patents it was suing Newegg over.

"Successful defendants have their litigation managed by people who care," said Cheng. "For me, it's easy. I believe in Newegg, I care about Newegg. Alcatel Lucent, meanwhile, they drag out some random VP—who happens to be a decorated Navy veteran, who happens to be handsome and has a beautiful wife and kids—but the guy didn't know what patents were being asserted. What a joke."

"Shareholders of public companies that engage in patent trolling should ask themselves if they're really well-served by their management teams," Cheng added. "Are they properly monetizing their R&D? Surely there are better ways to make money than to just rely on litigating patents. If I was a shareholder, I would take a hard look as to whether their management was competent."
patents  ip  swpats  alcatel  bell-labs  newegg  east-texas  litigation  lucent 
may 2013 by jm
'The Impact of Copyright Policy Changes on Venture Capital Investment in Cloud Computing Companies' [pdf]
'Our results suggest that the Cablevision decision, [which was widely seen as easing certain ambiguities surrounding intellectual property], led to additional incremental investment in U.S. cloud computing firms that ranged from $728 million to approximately $1.3 billion over the two-and-a-half years after the decision. When paired with the findings of the enhanced effects of VC investment relative to corporate investment, this may be the equivalent of $2 to $5 billion in traditional R&D investment.'

via Fred Logue.
via:fplogue  law  ip  copyright  policy  cablevision  funding  vc  cloud-computing  investment  legal  buffering 
march 2013 by jm
IOS TCP wifi optimizer
Basically, tweaking a few suboptimal sysctls to optimize for 802.11b/n; requires a Jailbroken IOS device. I'm surprised that Apple defaulted segment size to 512 to be honest, and disabling delayed ACKs sounds like it might be useful (see also http://www.stuartcheshire.org/papers/NagleDelayedAck/).
TCP optimizer modifies a few settings inside iOS, including increasing the TCP receive buffer from 131072 to 292000, disabling TCP delayed ACK’s, allowing a maximum of 16 un-ACK’d packets instead of 8 and set the default packet size to 1460 instead of 512. These changes won’t only speed up your YouTube videos, they’ll also improve your internet connection’s performance overall, including Wi-Fi network connectivity.
tcp  performance  tuning  ios  apple  wifi  wireless  802.11n  sysctl  ip 
february 2013 by jm
Heroku finds out that distributed queueing is hard
Stage 3 of the Rap Genius/Heroku blog drama. Summary (as far as I can tell): Heroku gave up on a fully-synchronised load-balancing setup ("intelligent routing"), since it didn't scale, in favour of randomised queue selection; they didn't sufficiently inform their customers, and metrics and docs were not updated to make this change public; the pessimal case became pretty damn pessimal; a customer eventually noticed and complained publicly, creating a public shit-storm.

Comments: 1. this is why you monitor real HTTP request latency (scroll down for crazy graphs!). 2. include 90/99 percentiles to catch the "tail" of poorly-performing requests. 3. Load balancers are hard.

http://aphyr.com/posts/277-timelike-a-network-simulator has more info on the intricacies of distributed load balancing -- worth a read.
heroku  rap-genius  via:hn  networking  distcomp  distributed  load-balancing  ip  queueing  percentiles  monitoring 
february 2013 by jm
Passively Monitoring Network Round-Trip Times - Boundary
'how Boundary uses [TCP timestamps] to calculate round-trip times (RTTs) between any two hosts by passively monitoring TCP traffic flows, i.e., without actively launching ICMP echo requests (pings). The post is primarily an overview of this one aspect of TCP monitoring, it also outlines the mechanism we are using, and demonstrates its correctness.'
tcp  boundary  monitoring  network  ip  passive-monitoring  rtt  timestamping 
february 2013 by jm
How did I do the Starwars Traceroute?
It is accomplished using many vrfs on 2 Cisco 1841s. For those less technical, VRFs are essentially private routing tables similar to a VPN. When a packet destined to 216.81.59.173 (AKA obiwan.scrye.net) hits my main gateway, I forward it onto the first VRF on the "ASIDE" router on 206.214.254.1. That router then has a specific route for 216.81.59.173 to 206.214.254.6, which resides on a different VRF on the "BSIDE" router. It then has a similar set up which points it at 206.214.254.9 which lives in another VPN on "ASIDE" router. All packets are returned using a default route pointing at the global routing table. This was by design so the packets TTL expiration did not have to return fully through the VRF Maze. I am a consultant to Epik Networks who let me use the Reverse DNS for an unused /24, and I used PowerDNS to update all of the entries through mysql. This took about 30 minutes to figure out how to do it, and about 90 minutes to implement.
vrfs  routing  networking  hacks  star-wars  traceroute  rdns  ip 
february 2013 by jm
Antigua Government Set to Launch “Pirate” Website To Punish United States
oh the lulz.
The Government of Antigua is planning to launch a website selling movies, music and software, without paying U.S. copyright holders. The Caribbean island is taking the unprecedented step because the United States refuses to lift a trade “blockade” preventing the island from offering Internet gambling services, despite several WTO decisions in Antigua’s favor. The country now hopes to recoup some of the lost income through a WTO approved “warez” site.
us-politics  antigua  piracy  filesharing  pirate  gambling  wto  ip  blockades 
january 2013 by jm
Lesser known crimes: do you own that copyright?
A very interesting crime on the Irish statute books:

Section 141 of the Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 provides: A person who, for financial gain, makes a claim to enjoy a right under this Part [ie. copyright] which is, and which he or she knows or has reason to believe is, false, shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction on indictment to a fine not exceeding £100,000, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years, or both.
ireland  copyright  ip  false-claims  law 
january 2013 by jm
On Patents
Notch comes up with a perfect analogy for software patents.
I am mostly fine with the concept of “selling stuff you made”, so I’m also against copyright infringement. I don’t think it’s quite as bad as theft, and I’m not sure it’s good for society that some professions can get paid over and over long after they did the work (say, in the case of a game developer), whereas others need to perform the job over and over to get paid (say, in the case of a hairdresser or a lawyer). But yeah, “selling stuff you made” is good. But there is no way in hell you can convince me that it’s beneficial for society to not share ideas. Ideas are free. They improve on old things, make them better, and this results in all of society being better. Sharing ideas is how we improve. A common argument for patents is that inventors won’t invent unless they can protect their ideas. The problem with this argument is that patents apply even if the infringer came up with the idea independently. If the idea is that easy to think of, why do we need to reward the person who happened to be first?

Of course, in reality it's even worse, since you don't actually have to be first to invent -- just first to file without sufficient people noticing, and people are actively dissuaded from noticing (since it makes their lives riskier if they know about the existence of patents)...
business  legal  ip  copyright  patents  notch  minecraft  patent-trolls 
july 2012 by jm
Copyfraud - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
'a term coined by Jason Mazzone (Associate Professor of Law at Brooklyn Law School) to describe situations where individuals and institutions illegally claim copyright ownership of the public domain and other breaches of copyright law with little or no oversight by authorities or legal consequence for their actions.' Good term (via Nelson)
copyright  rights  ip  fraud  copyfraud  wikipedia  words  terminology  neologisms  dmca  infringement 
may 2012 by jm
The Irish Times demands meme takedown
satire of whiny rich-girl complaining is not permitted
satire  irish-times  ip  broadsheet  memes 
march 2012 by jm
A Patent Lie: How Yahoo Weaponized My Work
'After we moved in, we were asked to file patents for anything and everything we’d invented while working on Upcoming.org.'
patents  swpat  upcoming  yahoo  ip  idiocy  warchest 
march 2012 by jm
_Intellectual property rights and innovation: Evidence from the human genome_ (PDF)
'Do intellectual property (IP) rights on existing technologies hinder subsequent
innovation? Using newly-collected data on the sequencing of the human genome by
the public Human Genome Project and the private rm Celera, this paper estimates
the impact of Celera's gene-level IP on subsequent scienti c research and product
development. Genes initially sequenced by Celera were held with IP for up to two
years, but moved into the public domain once re-sequenced by the public e ort.
Across a range of empirical speci cations, I nd evidence that Celera's IP led to
reductions in subsequent scienti c research and product development on the order of
20 to 30 percent. Taken together, these results suggest that Celera's short-term IP
had persistent negative e ects on subsequent innovation relative to a counterfactual
of Celera genes having always been in the public domain.' (via Tony Finch)
via:fanf  genetics  ip  copyright  open-source  celera  patents  papers  pdf 
february 2012 by jm
BufferBloat: What's Wrong with the Internet? - ACM Queue
'A discussion with Vint Cerf, Van Jacobson, Nick Weaver, and Jim Gettys' -- the big guns! Great discussion (via Tony Finch)
via:fanf  bufferbloat  networking  buffers  buffering  performance  load  tcp  ip 
december 2011 by jm
Apple rips off student's rejected iPhone app
'Wi-Fi Sync' was rejected from the App Store last May -- and a year later, iOS 5 is released with the same feature. what a coincidence! 'Hughes said Wi-Fi Sync was rejected from the iTunes App Store in May, 2010, one month after he submitted it. He said an iPhone developer relations representative named Steve Rea personally called him prior to sending a formal rejection email to say the app was admirable, but went on to explain there were unspecified security concerns and that it did things not specified in the official iPhone software developers' kit. “They did say that the iPhone engineering team had looked at it and were impressed,” Hughes told El Reg. “They asked for my CV as well.”'
apple  walled-garden  protectionism  iphone  wifi  syncing  apps  ip  rip-offs 
june 2011 by jm
The Hargreaves Report
'The publication of Digital Opportunity follows a six-month independent review of IP and Growth, led by Professor Ian Hargreaves. He was asked to consider how the national and international IP system can best work to promote innovation and growth.' Some fantastic recommendations here. I hope this provides clear direction to similar Irish efforts...
ip  law  hargreaves  uk  patents  copyright 
may 2011 by jm
TwitPic assert ownership over images posted to it, signs licensing deal with sleb-photos agency
scummy. don't use TwitPic if they are planning to monetize your photos, even if it's currently just for a "small number of celebrities". (via my dad)
twitpic  ip  privacy  copyright  via:dad  photography 
may 2011 by jm
Ireland’s new coalition on media, IT & IP law | Lex Ferenda
'some first thoughts on how the just-published coalition agreement (Fine Gael and Labour) in Ireland proposes to deal with issues of interest to cyberlaw and media law.'
lex-ferenda  law  ireland  ip  content  internet  fair-use  copyright  tv  from delicious
march 2011 by jm
Jim Gettys and a star-studded cast explain the 'bufferbloat' problem breaking TCP/IP on modern consumer broadband
'the [large] buffers are confusing TCP’s RTT estimator; the delay caused by the buffers is many times the actual RTT on the path.' [..] 'by inserting big buffers into the network, we have violated the design presumption of all Internet congestion avoiding protocols: that the network will drop packets in a timely fashion.'  QoS traffic shaping avoids this -- hooray for Tomato firmware
jim-gettys  via:glen-gray  buffering  tcp  ip  internet  broadband  routers  from delicious
december 2010 by jm
Strike One? « A Clatter of the Law
Rossa McMahon rounds up some highlights from Mr. Justice Charleton's judgement on the UPC case; good post
law  ireland  upc  irma  emi  ip  from delicious
october 2010 by jm
Why We Need To Abolish Software Patents
'Pam Samuelson, one of the co-authors of the report, says that her conclusion from the research is that the world may be better off without software patents; that the biggest beneficiaries of software patents are patent lawyers and patent trolls, not entrepreneurs.' no shit, Sherlock
ip  patents  techcrunch  startups  swpats  via:brian-caulfield  software  from delicious
august 2010 by jm
XOR patent killed Commodore-Amiga
'Apparently Commodore-Amiga owed $10M for patent infringement. Because of that, the US government wouldn't allow any CD-32's into the USA. And because of that, the Phillippines factory seized all of the CD-32's that had been manufactured to cover unpaid expenses. And that was the end'
cd32  commodore  computers  history  ip  patents  software  swpats  xor  amiga  from delicious
july 2010 by jm
The result of the IMRO & music blogger meeting | Nialler9 Music Blog
upshot: IMRO will think about it and get back to Nialler et al; in the meantime, everyone operates as before. one to keep an eye on, even if you're not Irish; this will play out overseas soon too. Good call getting Simon McGarr along
music  mp3  shakedown  imro  nialler9  ip  from delicious
may 2010 by jm
EU must break down national copyright barriers, says EU Digital Agenda Commissioner Neelie Kroes
"There is a huge Digital Single Market for audiovisual material. The problem is that it's illegal [...] We have effectively allowed illegal file-sharing to set up a single market where our usual policy channels have failed." "While the internet is borderless, Europe’s online markets are not. It is often easier to buy something from a US website than online from the country next-door in Europe. Often you cannot buy it at all within Europe."
copyright  piracy  neelie-kroes  quotes  eu  ec  music  ip  from delicious
may 2010 by jm
« earlier      
per page:    204080120160

related tags

802.11n  absurd  acacia-technologies  addresses  addressing  ads  advertising  africa  alarms  albums  alcatel  algorithms  alice  alphabet  amazon  amiga  amnesty  android  antigua  apis  apple  apps  art  atomium  australia  backlog  bandwidth  bbc  beam-suntory  belgium  bell-labs  benchmarking  blockades  boundary  bounded-buffer  branding  broadband  broadsheet  bufferbloat  buffering  buffers  bugs  business  c10k  cablevision  campaigns  canada  cascading-failures  cd32  celera  checksums  china  cigarettes  cjeu  cliff-click  cloud  cloud-computing  collation  collections  colons  commentary  commodore  communication  computers  conceptual-art  congestion-control  connections  connemara  content  copyfight  copyfraud  copying  copyright  crc  crypto  data-protection  databases  day-job  deadlock  debugging  design  development  distcomp  distributed  distributed-systems  dmca  dns  domains  dot-sucks  dpr  drm  drugs  dublin-bus  east-texas  easydns  ebola  ec  ec2  ecmp  education  eiffel-tower  emi  encryption  eolas  epidemics  ethernet  eu  fail  fair-use  false-claims  federation  fiasco  filesharing  FIN  firewall  floss  fonts  france  fraud  free-speech  freebsd  funding  gambling  gce  genetics  geodata  github  gnome  gnu  gongkai  google  gpl  gps  groupon  gubu  hacking  hacks  hadopi  happy-eyeballs  hargreaves  health  herge  heroku  higher-education  history  homebrew  hotmail  http  hyperlinks  idiocy  imro  infringement  internet  investment  ios  ip  iphone  ipkat  ipr  ipv6  ireland  irish-times  irma  java  jim-gettys  jobs  kansas  klingon  land  languages  laurina-zhang  law  law-society  lawsuits  legal  lex-ferenda  licensing  linking  links  linux  litigation  load  load-balancing  location  logos  long-tail  lucent  mapping  maps  maxmind  medicine  memcached  memes  metrics  microsoft  minecraft  monitoring  moulinsart  mp3  mptcp  multi-region  museums  music  nagle  nat  national-parks  neelie-kroes  neologisms  netbsd  netstat  network  network-effects  networking  new-zealand  newegg  newlink-genetics  newspeak  nginx  nialler9  notch  novell  nz  oil  open-source  openbsd  operating-systems  ops  oracle  orphaned-roads  osx  outages  ownership  packaging  packets  papers  paramount  parody  passive-monitoring  patches  patent-trolls  patents  pdf  percentiles  performance  phac  pharma  photography  photos  pipelines  piracy  pirate  pirate-bay  platforms  policy  politics  postmortems  privacy  protectionism  protocols  ptrace  pwnat  queueing  quotes  rap-genius  rdns  recipes  redhat  referenda  reform  regression-testing  reports  research  rick-falkvinge  rights  rights-management  rip-offs  routers  routing  royalties  RST  rtt  samy-kamkar  satire  scalability  scams  scraping  scroogled  sean-sherlock  security  shakedown  shutdown  side-projects  signal  smtp  sniffer  sockets  software  software-patents  SO_LINGER  spinning  ssh  sshuttle  ssl  ssm  star-trek  star-wars  startups  stock-photos  strace  stress-testing  stun  stupid  sun  svensson  swpat  swpats  syncing  sysadmin  syscalls  sysctl  tcp  tcpcopy  tcpdump  tcp_cork  tcp_nodelay  tech  techcrunch  tee  terminology  testing  textiles  third-level  thomassons  three-strikes  timestamping  tintin  tlds  tobacco  tos  tracedump  traceroute  tracing  trade-secrets  trademark  trademarks  trap-streets  traversal  trips  tun  tuning  tunneling  tunnelling  tv  twitpic  twitter  typography  uber  ucb  udp  uk  universities  university-of-california  upc  upcoming  us  us-politics  usa  usability  uspto  vaccines  vc  via:bldgblog  via:bradfitz  via:brian-caulfield  via:dad  via:fanf  via:fplogue  via:glen-gray  via:hn  via:nelson  via:nmaurer  vpn  vrfs  walled-garden  warchest  waymo  web  whiskey  wifi  wikipedia  wireless  words  work  writev  wto  xor  yahoo  yay  yosemite  youtube 

Copy this bookmark:



description:


tags: