jm + emv   4

Contactless credit cards vulnerable to a range of scams
Johanson said it's possible to use an RFID "gate antenna" — two electronic readers spanning a doorway, similar to the anti-theft gates in retail stores — to scan the credit cards of people passing through. 
With enough high-powered gates installed at key doorways in a city or across the country, someone could collect comprehensive information on people's movements, buying habits and social patterns.
"These days you can buy a $500 antenna to mount in doorways that can read every card that goes through it," Johanson said.

Amazingly, these seem to be rife with holes -- they still use the legacy EMV protocol, do not require online verification with backend systems, and allow replay attacks. A article today claims that attackers are sniffing EMV data, then replaying it against card readers in shops in Dublin, which while it may not be true, the attack certainly seems viable...
rfid  security  scams  emv  wireless  contactless  credit-cards  replay-attacks 
december 2016 by jm
How a criminal ring defeated the secure chip-and-PIN credit cards | Ars Technica
Ingenious --
The stolen cards were still considered evidence, so the researchers couldn’t do a full tear-down or run any tests that would alter the data on the card, so they used X-ray scans to look at where the chip cards had been tampered with. They also analyzed the way the chips distributed electricity when in use and used read-only programs to see what information the cards sent to a Point of Sale (POS) terminal.

According to the paper, the fraudsters were able to perform a man-in-the-middle attack by programming a second hobbyist chip called a FUN card to accept any PIN entry, and soldering that chip onto the card’s original chip. This increased the thickness of the chip from 0.4mm to 0.7mm, "making insertion into a PoS somewhat uneasy but perfectly feasible,” the researchers write. [....]

The researchers explain that a typical EMV transaction involves three steps: card authentication, cardholder verification, and then transaction authorization. During a transaction using one of the altered cards, the original chip was allowed to respond with the card authentication as normal. Then, during card holder authentication, the POS system would ask for a user’s PIN, the thief would respond with any PIN, and the FUN card would step in and send the POS the code indicating that it was ok to proceed with the transaction because the PIN checked out. During the final transaction authentication phase, the FUN card would relay the transaction data between the POS and the original chip, sending the issuing bank an authorization request cryptogram which the card issuer uses to tell the POS system whether to accept the transaction or not.
security  chip-and-pin  hacking  pos  emv  transactions  credit-cards  debit-cards  hardware  chips  pin  fun-cards  smartcards 
october 2015 by jm
Why dispute resolution is hard
Good stuff (as usual) from Ross Anderson and Stephen Murdoch.

'Today we release a paper on security protocols and evidence which analyses why dispute resolution mechanisms in electronic systems often don’t work very well. On this blog we’ve noted many many problems with EMV (Chip and PIN), as well as other systems from curfew tags to digital tachographs. Time and again we find that electronic systems are truly awful for courts to deal with. Why?
The main reason, we observed, is that their dispute resolution aspects were never properly designed, built and tested. The firms that delivered the main production systems assumed, or hoped, that because some audit data were available, lawyers would be able to use them somehow.
As you’d expect, all sorts of things go wrong. We derive some principles, and show how these are also violated by new systems ranging from phone banking through overlay payments to Bitcoin. We also propose some enhancements to the EMV protocol which would make it easier to resolve disputes over Chip and PIN transactions.'
finance  security  ross-anderson  emv  bitcoin  chip-and-pin  banking  architecture  verification  vvat  logging 
february 2014 by jm
Chip and Skim: cloning EMV cards with the pre-play attack
Worrying stuff from the LBT team. ATM RNGs are predictable, and can be spoofed by intermediate parties:

'So far we have performed more than 1000 transactions at more than 20 ATMs and a number of POS terminals, and are collating a data set for statistical analysis. We have developed a passive transaction logger which can be integrated into the substrate of a real bank card, which records up to 100 unpredictable numbers in its EEPROM. Our analysis is ongoing but so far we have established non-uniformity of unpredictable numbers in half of the ATMs we have looked at.

First, there is an easier attack than predicting the RNG. Since the unpredictable number is generated by the terminal but the relying party is the issuing bank, any intermediate party – from POS terminal software, to payment switches, or a middleman on the phone line – can intercept and superimpose their own choice of UN. Attacks such as those of Nohl and Roth, and MWR Labs show that POS terminals can be remotely hacked simply by inserting a sabotaged smartcard into the terminal.
atm  banking  security  attack  prngs  spoofing  banks  chip-and-pin  emv  smartcards 
september 2012 by jm

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