jerryking + social_mobility   24

Opinion | The Meritocracy Is Ripping America Apart
Sept. 12, 2019 | - The New York Times | By David Brooks.

savage exclusion tears the social fabric.

There are at least two kinds of meritocracy in America right now. Exclusive meritocracy exists at the super-elite universities and at the industries that draw the bulk of their employees from them — Wall Street, Big Law, medicine and tech. And then there is the more open meritocracy that exists almost everywhere else.

In the exclusive meritocracy, prestige is defined by how many people you can reject....The more the exclusivity, the thicker will be the coating of P.C. progressivism to show that we’re all good people.

People in this caste work phenomenally hard to build their wealth......People in this caste are super-skilled and productive.....These highly educated professionals attract vast earnings while everybody else gets left behind......Parents in the exclusive meritocracy raise their kids to be fit fighters within it....affluent parents invest on their kids’ human capital, over and above what middle-class parents can afford to invest......the Kansas Leadership Center. The center teaches people how to create social change and hopes to saturate the state with better leaders. But the center doesn’t focus on traditional “leaders.” Its mantra is: “Leadership is an activity, not a position. Anyone can lead, anytime, anywhere.” The atmosphere is one of radical inclusion.....People in both the exclusive and open meritocracies focus intensely on increasing skills. But it’s jarring to move from one culture to the other because the values are so different. The exclusive meritocracy is spinning out of control. If the country doesn’t radically expand its institutions and open access to its bounty, the U.S. will continue to rip apart.
Accomplisher_Class  Big_Law  caste_systems  Colleges_&_Universities  David_Brooks  elitism  exclusivity  hard_work  human_capital  inequality  law_firms  leadership  medicine  meritocracy  op-ed  parenting  political_correctness  social_classes  social_exclusion  social_fabric  social_impact  social_inclusion  social_mobility  society  technology  values  Wall_Street  winner-take-all 
september 2019 by jerryking
Opinion | The American Renaissance Is Already Happening - The New York Times
May 14, 2018

In many of the cities the local library serves as an all-purpose community center. In Bend, Ore., the library has a few dozen local partnerships — AARP volunteers help people do their taxes in the library; Goodwill workers teach résumé writing. In Charleston, W.Va., and Columbus, Ohio, the libraries zero in on programs for infants to 3-year-olds, so children enter school ready to learn.
social_mobility  David_Brooks  libraries  civics  James_Fallows  renaissance 
may 2018 by jerryking
Opinion | How to Level the College Playing Field
April 7, 2018 | The New York Times | By Harold O. Levy with Peg Tyre. Mr. Levy is a former chancellor of the New York City public schools. He wrote this article with the education journalist Peg Tyre.

Despite the best efforts of many, the gap between the numbers of rich and poor college graduates continues to grow.

It’s true that access programs take some academically talented children from poor and working-poor families to selective colleges, but that pipeline remains frustratingly narrow. And some colleges and universities have adopted aggressive policies to create economic diversity on campus. But others are lagging. Too many academically talented children who come from families where household income hovers at the American median of $59,000 or below are shut out of college or shunted away from selective universities.....The wealthy spend tens of thousands each year on private school tuition or property taxes to ensure that their children attend schools that provide a rich, deep college preparatory curriculum. On top of that, many of them spend thousands more on application coaches, test-prep tutors and essay editors. ......
(1) Let’s start with alumni. It is common to harbor fond feelings toward your alma mater. But to be a responsible, forward-looking member of your college’s extended community, look a little deeper. Make it your business to figure out exactly who your college serves. What is the economic breakdown of the current student body? Some colleges trumpet data about underrepresented minorities and first-generation students. But many don’t. And either way, there are follow-up questions to ask. How has that mix changed over the past 10 years? What policies are in place to increase those numbers?
(2) Legacy admission must end.
(3) shorten the college tour.
(4) cities and states should help students who come from the middle and working classes with programs that provide intensive advising, money for textbooks and even MetroCards
(5) Refine the first two years of some four-year liberal arts education into an accredited associate degree.
(6) Stop acting like everyone already has the road map to college plotted. The college application system has become costly and baroque. Make it possible for high schools to hire, train and deploy enough guidance counselors.
(7) stop giving to your alma mater. Donors to top universities are getting hefty tax deductions to support a system that can seem calculated to ensure that the rich get richer. If you feel you must give, try earmarking your donation for financial aid for low-income, community college students who have applied to transfer to your alma mater.
Colleges_&_Universities  accessibility  legacies  roadmaps  admissions  op-ed  unfair_advantages  social_mobility  meritocratic  alumni  hereditary  nepotism  education  self-perpetuation  super_ZIPs  opportunity_gaps  college-educated  upper-income  compounded  low-income  elitism  selectivity  follow-up_questions 
april 2018 by jerryking
Can we ever knock down the walls of the wealthy ghetto?
Jul. 15, 2017 | The Globe and Mail | DOUG SAUNDERS.

Fifty-two years ago, sociologist John Porter demonstrated, in his bestseller The Vertical Mosaic, that Canada's economy, its politics and its culture were controlled by a cloistered elite from the same schools and neighbourhoods, and only 3 per cent of Canadians had any access to this circle. Social mobility has improved dramatically thanks to half a century of immigration, growth and better social policies. But the top ranks remain closed and self-protective.

There are two factors in particular that make Canada's cycle of privilege a closed loop that excludes outsiders.

The first is Canada's lack of an inheritance tax. Estates (including houses) are taxed as income upon their owner's death, then can be passed on to children – removing incentives to put that wealth to better and more productive use. As a result, the higher rungs on the ladder are less open to people who have developed creative, profitable companies and ideas, and more so to people who have simply had the right parents.

The second is Canada's lax policy on private schools. The 6 per cent of Canadians who attend fee-charging schools are overwhelmingly there because their families are wealthy (studies show that their advantages are entirely found in their connections, not in their academic performance).
Canada  Canadians  high_net_worth  privilege  Doug_Saunders  cumulative  social_mobility  social_classes  private_schools  inheritance_tax  elitism  compounded  inequality  geographic_sorting  college-educated  super_ZIPs  self-perpetuation  upper-income 
july 2017 by jerryking
How We Are Ruining America
JULY 11, 2017 | The New York Times | David Brooks.

Over the past generation, members of the college-educated class have become amazingly good at making sure their children retain their privileged status. They have also become devastatingly good at making sure the children of other classes have limited chances to join their ranks.....Over the past few decades, upper-middle-class Americans have embraced behavior codes that put cultivating successful children at the center of life. As soon as they get money, they turn it into investments in their kids......Richard Reeves of the Brookings Institution recently published a book called “Dream Hoarders” detailing some of the structural ways the well educated rig the system.

The most important is residential zoning restrictions. Well-educated people tend to live in places like Portland, New York and San Francisco that have housing and construction rules that keep the poor and less educated away from places with good schools and good job opportunities.....second structural barrier is the college admissions game. Educated parents live in neighborhoods with the best teachers, they top off their local public school budgets and they benefit from legacy admissions rules, from admissions criteria that reward kids who grow up with lots of enriching travel and from unpaid internships that lead to jobs.....the structural barriers emphasized are less important than the informal social barriers that segregate the lower 80 percent (e.g. being aware of cultural signifiers around, say, gourmet food)

.......American upper-middle-class culture (where the opportunities are) is now laced with cultural signifiers that are completely illegible unless you happen to have grown up in this class (i.e. excelling at being socially graceful). They play on the normal human fear of humiliation and exclusion. Their chief message is, “You are not welcome here.”
David_Brooks  social_mobility  Colleges_&_Universities  socially_graceful  inequality  geographic_sorting  college-educated  super_ZIPs  self-perpetuation  values  opportunity_gaps  upper-income  social_exclusion  books  structural_barriers  admissions  elitism  social_classes  zoning  restrictions  social_barriers  cultural_signifiers  privilege  gaming_the_system  unfair_advantages  ruination  rituals 
july 2017 by jerryking
What Does It Take to Climb Up the Ladder? - The New York Times
Thomas B. Edsall MARCH 23, 2017

What drives success? Cognitive skills are important, but so are harder-to-measure strengths that fall under the heading of what is sometimes called character......In a 2014 paper, “The Character Factor: Measures and Impact of Drive and Prudence,” Richard Reeves of the Brookings Institution, and two co-authors, Kimberly Howard and Joanna Venator, focus on what they call “performance character strengths” and the crucial role played by noncognitive skills in educational attainment, employment and earned income. These character strengths — “perseverance, industriousness, grit, resilience, curiosity, application” and “self-control, future orientation, self-discipline, impulse control, delay of gratification” — make significant contributions to success in adulthood and upward mobility.

As the accompanying chart demonstrates, upper-income kids perform well on tests of noncognitive skills, but there are substantial numbers of low-income children who do well also.
movingonup  social_mobility  perseverance  industriousness  grit  resilience  curiosity  hard_work  self-control  forward_looking  self-discipline  impulse_control  delayed_gratification  character_traits  up-and-comers 
march 2017 by jerryking
Why I’m Moving Home
MARCH 16, 2017 | The New York Times | By J. D. VANCE.

" The economist Matthew Kahn has shown that in Appalachia, for instance, the highly skilled are much likelier to leave not just their hometowns but also the region as a whole. This is the classic “brain drain” problem: Those who are able to leave very often do.

The brain drain also encourages a uniquely modern form of cultural detachment. Eventually, the young people who’ve moved out marry — typically to partners with similar economic prospects. They raise children in increasingly segregated neighborhoods, giving rise to something the conservative scholar Charles Murray calls “super ZIPs.” These super ZIPs are veritable bastions of opportunity and optimism, places where divorce and joblessness are rare." ......“The sociological role [colleges and universities] play is to suck talent out of small towns and redistribute it to big cities.” There have always been regional and class inequalities in our society, but the data tells us that we’re living through a unique period of segregation....This has consequences beyond the purely material. Jesse Sussell and James A. Thomson of the RAND Corporation argue that this geographic sorting has heightened the polarization that now animates politics. This polarization reflects itself not just in our voting patterns, but also in our political culture...JD Vance has decided to move [back] home-to Ohio....."we often frame civic responsibility in terms of government taxes and transfer payments, so that our society’s least fortunate families are able to provide basic necessities. But this focus can miss something important: that what many communities need most is not just financial support, but talent and energy and committed citizens to build viable businesses and other civic institutions."
sorting  segregation  compartmentalization  neighbourhoods  polarization  geographic_mobility  brain_drain  super_ZIPs  cultural_detachment  Rust_Belt  midwest  Red_states  whites  political_partisanship  political_polarization  working_class  J.D._Vance  industrial_Midwest  Appalachia  cities  engaged_citizenry  talent  Charles_Murray  civics  social_mobility  self-perpetuation  values  opportunity_gaps  college-educated  geographic_sorting  regional 
march 2017 by jerryking
J.D. Vance and the Anger of the White Working Class - WSJ
By ALEXANDRA WOLFE
July 29, 2016

J.D. Vance credits his grandparents, religion and his time in the Marine Corps from 2003 to 2007 for helping him to get his life together. Whereas many of the people around him growing up seemed to have a feeling of “learned helplessness” and didn’t think their decisions mattered, he says, he learned the opposite in the Marines: “My decisions did matter and I did have some control over my own life.”.....“In the family life that I grew up in, the way you handled conflict resolution with your spouse or your partner was by screaming and yelling, and if things got really bad, maybe throwing stuff or hitting and punching them,” he says. He only later realized that rather than fighting to win, he should try to solve problems in a relationship. .....“Concretely, I want pastors and church leaders to think about how to build community churches, to keep people engaged, and to worry less about politics and more about how the people in their communities are doing,” he says. “I want parents to fight and scream less, and to recognize how destructive chaos is to their children’s future.”

He thinks that school leaders could help by being more cognizant of what’s going on in students’ home lives. But most of all he wants people to hold themselves responsible for their own conduct and choices. “Those of us who weren’t given every advantage can make better choices, and those choices do have the power to affect our lives,” he says.
books  Yale  working_class  Appalachia  Rust_Belt  poverty  hopelessness  social_mobility  resentments  grievances  values  habits  USMC  helplessness  conflict_resolution  whites  deindustrialization  industrial_Midwest  family_breakdown  underclass  J.D._Vance  faith_leaders  individual_agency  individual_autonomy 
july 2016 by jerryking
Trump nation: An insider’s tour - The Globe and Mail
MARGARET WENTE
The Globe and Mail
Published Tuesday, Jul. 19, 2016

What explains the appeal of Donald Trump? Many pundits have tried to answer this question and fallen short. But J.D. Vance nails it. His stunning new book, Hillbilly Elegy: A Memoir of A Family and Culture in Crisis, doesn’t even mention Mr. Trump.....It’s misleading to describe the problems of the white working class as an economic crisis. Above all, it is a cultural, spiritual and psychological crisis. The real challenge is not so much the loss of jobs as the loss of values, order and meaning. The yawning chasm between the working and the middle class isn’t about money. It’s about habits and attitudes and a sense of powerlessness.....Mr. Trump is “cultural heroin” – the newest opioid of the masses. He, too, offers an easy escape from problems that seem overwhelming and hopeless.

The issues described in Hillbilly Elegy – low social mobility, the yawning gap between the haves and the have-nots, the waning prospects and social decay experienced by people at the bottom of the ladder – are among the greatest challenges of our times. They can’t be fixed with technocratic or government solutions.
books  Margaret_Wente  working_class  J.D._Vance  Appalachia  Rust_Belt  poverty  Donald_Trump  resentments  grievances  values  habits  social_mobility  hopelessness  helplessness  industrial_Midwest  whites  family_breakdown  underclass 
july 2016 by jerryking
Episode 04 :: Revisionist History Podcast
“Carlos Doesn’t Remember” is the first in a three-part Revisionist History miniseries taking a critical look at the idea of capitalization—the measure of how well America is making use of its human potential.
Malcolm_Gladwell  social_mobility  capitalization  podcasts  human_potential 
july 2016 by jerryking
Racial Wealth Gap Persists Despite Degree, Study Says - The New York Times
By PATRICIA COHEN AUG. 16, 2015

The lack of family wealth is pivotal to understanding the racial economic gap, he argues.

While the researchers from the St. Louis Fed, when asked, played down the importance of financial support from family when explaining their results, Mr. Darity said he believed that family aid helped individuals avoid the type of risky big-ticket borrowing that ensnared so many Hispanic and black graduates.

“Prior family wealth is the key,” Mr. Darity explained in an email, noting that it “shapes both income-generating opportunities and the capacity to allow wealth to grow more wealth.”
African-Americans  downward_mobility  financial_literacy  generational_wealth  personal_finance  racial_disparities  self-perpetuation  social_classes  social_mobility  wealth_creation  wealth_management 
august 2015 by jerryking
America’s elite: An hereditary meritocracy
Jan 24th 2015 | The Economist | Anonymous.

America has always had rich and powerful families, from the floor of the Senate to the boardrooms of the steel industry. But it has also held more fervently than any other country the belief that all comers can penetrate that elite as long as they have talent, perseverance and gumption....But now, the american elite is self-perpetuating by dint of school ties, wealth....Today’s elite is a long way from the rotten lot of West Egg. Compared to those of days past it is by and large more talented, better schooled, harder working (and more fabulously remunerated) and more diligent in its parental duties. It is not a place where one easily gets by on birth or connections alone. At the same time it is widely seen as increasingly hard to get into.

Some self-perpetuation by elites is unavoidable; the children of America’s top dogs benefit from nepotism just as those in all other societies do. But something else is now afoot. More than ever before, America’s elite is producing children who not only get ahead, but deserve to do so: they meet the standards of meritocracy better than their peers, and are thus worthy of the status they inherit....wealthy parents pass their advantage(s) on to their children....
Colleges_&_Universities  elitism  hereditary  Matthew_effect  nepotism  education  values  parenting  public_education  legacies  admissions  alumni  endowments  SAT  social_mobility  self-perpetuation  super_ZIPs  opportunity_gaps  college-educated  upper-income  compounded  meritocratic  cultural_transmission 
january 2015 by jerryking
How Black Middle-Class Kids Become Poor Adults
JAN 19 2015 | The Atlantic | GILLIAN B. WHITE.

A 2014 study from the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, which looked at factors like parental income, education, and family structure, shows a similar pattern: Many black Americans not only fail to move up, but show an increased likelihood of backsliding. According to the study, “In recent decades, blacks have experienced substantially less upward intergenerational mobility and substantially more downward intergenerational mobility than whites.”...The explanations for this phenomenon are varied, but largely hinge on many of the criticisms that already exist in regard to socioeconomics and race in the U.S. Economists cite lower educational attainment, higher rates of single-parent households, and geographic segregation as potential explanations for these trends.
African-Americans  middle_class  children  single_parents  downward_mobility  geographic_segregation  social_mobility  social_classes  racial_disparities  unemployment  generational_wealth 
january 2015 by jerryking
Crossing Class Lines - NYTimes.com
OCT. 3, 2014 | NYT | By STÉPHANE CÔTÉ and MICHAEL W. KRAUS
social_classes  social_mobility 
october 2014 by jerryking
Your ancestry may be your destiny
Mar. 22 2014 | The Globe and Mail | by Margaret Wente.

A deeply challenging new book by economic historian Gregory Clark (The Son Also Rises: Surnames and the History of Social Mobility) argues that such endurance is not the exception but the norm. It goes on to argue that most people’s outcomes can be predicted at conception. To an alarming degree, your destiny is determined by your ancestors.
ancestry  books  economic_history  genes  historians  Margaret_Wente  social_classes  social_mobility 
march 2014 by jerryking
The Self-Destruction of the 1 Percent -
October 13, 2012 | NYTimes.com | By CHRYSTIA FREELAND.

IN the early 14th century, Venice was one of the richest cities in Europe. At the heart of its economy was the colleganza, a basic form of joint-stock company created to finance a single trade expedition. The brilliance of the colleganza was that it opened the economy to new entrants, allowing risk-taking entrepreneurs to share in the financial upside with the established businessmen who financed their merchant voyages.

Venice’s elites were the chief beneficiaries. Like all open economies, theirs was turbulent. Today, we think of social mobility as a good thing. But if you are on top, mobility also means competition. In 1315, when the Venetian city-state was at the height of its economic powers, the upper class acted to lock in its privileges, putting a formal stop to social mobility with the publication of the Libro d’Oro, or Book of Gold, an official register of the nobility. If you weren’t on it, you couldn’t join the ruling oligarchy.

The political shift, which had begun nearly two decades earlier, was so striking a change that the Venetians gave it a name: La Serrata, or the closure. It wasn’t long before the political Serrata became an economic one, too. Under the control of the oligarchs, Venice gradually cut off commercial opportunities for new entrants. Eventually, the colleganza was banned. The reigning elites were acting in their immediate self-interest, but in the longer term, La Serrata was the beginning of the end for them, and for Venetian prosperity more generally. By 1500, Venice’s population was smaller than it had been in 1330. In the 17th and 18th centuries, as the rest of Europe grew, the city continued to shrink....several recent studies have shown that in America today it is harder to escape the social class of your birth than it is in Europe. The Canadian economist Miles Corak has found that as income inequality increases, social mobility falls...Businessmen like to style themselves as the defenders of the free market economy, but as Luigi Zingales, an economist at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, argued, “Most lobbying is pro-business, in the sense that it promotes the interests of existing businesses, not pro-market in the sense of fostering truly free and open competition.”
business_interests  capitalism  Chrystia_Freeland  city-states  cronyism  crony_capitalism  depopulation  elitism  entrenched_interests  history  income_distribution  income_inequality  lobbying  locked_in  moguls  new_entrants  oligarchs  pro-business  pro-market  Renaissance  self-destructive  self-interest  social_classes  social_mobility  The_One_Percent  Venice  winner-take-all 
september 2013 by jerryking
The middle class is good politics but a curious crusade
Aug. 03 2013 | The Globe and Mail | Konrad Yakabuski.

A “thriving middle class” won’t come from new programs hatched in Ottawa. It will come from the innovators and entrepreneurs who harness Canada’s abundant human capital and natural resources to create wealth.

as TD Economics has shown, Canada has not experienced the same wage polarization that has led to rising income inequality south of the border. Social mobility is higher here and our tax system is more progressive. The after-tax income of the top 10 per cent of Canadians was 4.1 times that of the bottom 10 per cent in 2010. The U.S. ratio was 6 to 1.

There is no doubt that globalization and technological change have rendered thousands of middle-class Canadian jobs obsolete. But there is no reversing this trend, no matter how much would-be federal policy-makers aspire to meddle. Besides, globalization’s upsides outweigh its downsides. And Canadians, among the best-educated people on the planet, stand to benefit.

“Rewards to education, to innovation and to creativity are higher than they have ever been,” notes Princeton University economist Angus Deaton in The Great Escape, his forthcoming book on the history of inequality. “Perhaps the greatest escape in all of human history, and certainly the most rapid one [is] the reduction in global poverty since 1980 … The world has done much better than the pessimists predicted.”
Konrad_Yakabuski  globalization  Chrystia_Freeland  obsolescence  middle_class  technological_change  social_mobility  Toronto  expatriates  inequality  books  income_inequality  capitalization 
august 2013 by jerryking
The Problem With Too Many Millionaires - NYTimes.com
June 20, 2013 | REUTERS | By CHRYSTIA FREELAND.

The rich are getting richer....the very, very rich are doing best of all. The ranks of the ultrarich, whom the report defines as people with investable assets of at least $30 million, surged 11 percent, an even greater rate than the mere millionaires....“We are increasingly becoming a ‘winner-take-all’ economy, a phenomenon that the music industry has long experienced,”...The lucky and the talented — and it is often hard to tell the difference — have been doing better and better, while the vast majority has struggled to keep up.”... the problem is that the rise of the ultrarich isn’t occurring in isolation--it takes place in lock step with a darker phenomenon — the hollowing out of the global middle class. What is worrying is that: (a) labor productivity — which used to be the secret sauce for making everyone better off — has a diminished impact on wages.
(b) declining social mobility. The 1 percent is very good at passing on its privilege, and those born at the bottom are finding it harder to climb up.

That is the great paradox of today’s winner-take-all economy. At its best, it is driven by adopted dropouts like Steve Jobs or struggling single mothers like J.K. Rowling, who come up with something amazing and manage to prosper — and to enrich us all. But the winner-take-all economy will make such breakthroughs for anyone who didn’t make the wise choice of being born into the 1 percent harder and harder in the future, which is why we urgently need to come up with ways to soften its impact.
breakthroughs  Chrystia_Freeland  compounded  elitism  high_net_worth  hollowing_out  income_inequality  Matthew_effect  middle_class  paradoxes  productivity  self-perpetuation  social_mobility  special_sauce  The_One_Percent  virtuous_cycles  winner-take-all 
june 2013 by jerryking
In Palm Beach, The Old Money Isn't Having a Ball - WSJ.com
May 20, 2005 | WSJ | By ROBERT FRANK |
Rich vs. Richer: Influx of New Wealth Sparks Spat Over Red Cross Event; Inheritance's Smaller Role; A 1930s Landmark Is Razed

The number of superwealthy in the U.S. has surged, with 430,000 households now worth more than $10 million. That's up from 65,000, adjusted for inflation, in 1989. In 2001, the top 1% of Americans ranked by net worth controlled 33% of all personal assets. As the nouveaux riches buy their way into high society, they're increasingly clashing with an older elite that largely lives off inherited money.

A study of the Forbes 400 list of super-rich Americans by Arthur Kennickell, senior economist with the Federal Reserve in Washington, D.C., found that about half the people on the 2001 list weren't on the list in 1989. For the nation's richest 1%, inherited wealth accounted for only 9% of their net worth in 2001, down from 23% in 1989, according to a study by New York University economist Edward Wolff.
[Simon Fireman]

The rapid shift in the composition of the tiny sliver of wealthiest Americans is striking because the amount of U.S. class mobility overall hasn't significantly changed for the last three decades, according to economists. The chance that a poor child will make it into the upper-middle class -- or that a rich child will fall down to the middle class -- has stayed about the same, and some studies suggest mobility in the U.S. is less than in continental Europe and Canada.

It's not that the old rich have become appreciably poorer, although taxes, inflation and offspring take their toll. Rather, the new wealth among entrepreneurs has leapfrogged inherited money. Bill Gates's $48 billion net worth is more than twice the Rockefeller family's current fortune.
high_net_worth  Robert_Frank  entrepreneurship  social_mobility  The_One_Percent  capitalization 
august 2012 by jerryking
Two Classes in America, Divided by ‘I Do’ - NYTimes.com
July 14, 2012 | NYT | By JASON DePARLE.

The economic storms of recent years have raised concerns about growing inequality and questions about a core national faith, that even Americans of humble backgrounds have a good chance of getting ahead. Most of the discussion has focused on labor market forces like falling blue-collar wages and lavish Wall Street pay.

But striking changes in family structure have also broadened income gaps and posed new barriers to upward mobility. College-educated Americans like the Faulkners are increasingly likely to marry one another, compounding their growing advantages in pay. Less-educated women like Ms. Schairer, who left college without finishing her degree, are growing less likely to marry at all, raising children on pinched paychecks that come in ones, not twos.

Estimates vary widely, but scholars have said that changes in marriage patterns — as opposed to changes in individual earnings — may account for as much as 40 percent of the growth in certain measures of inequality.
marriage  parenting  family  family_breakdown  income  income_distribution  Matthew_effect  social_classes  college-educated  social_mobility  self-perpetuation  compounded  blue-collar  inequality 
july 2012 by jerryking

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