jerryking + reconstruction   18

In ‘Stony the Road,’ Henry Louis Gates Jr. Captures the History and Images of the Fraught Years After the Civil War
April 18, 2019 | The New York Times | By Nell Irvin Painter.

STONY THE ROAD
Reconstruction, White Supremacy, and the Rise of Jim Crow
By Henry Louis Gates Jr.
Illustrated. 296 pp. Penguin Press. $30.

Vergangenheitsbewältigung = coming to terms with the past — and it carries connotations of a painful history that citizens would rather not confront but that must be confronted in order not to be repeated.
20th_century  African-Americans  bigotry  books  book_reviews  Henry_Louis_Gates  historians  history  Jim_Crow  John_Hope_Franklin  KKK  lynchings  memorabilia  racial_politics  Reconstruction  stereotypes  torture  white_nationalism  white_supremacy  imagery  Vergangenheitsbewältigung  W.E.B._Du_Bois  iconic 
april 2019 by jerryking
Confederate Memorials as Instruments of Racial Terror - The New York Times
JULY 24, 2015 | NYT | By BRENT STAPLES.

In the wake of the Charleston massacre, for example, the parks and recreation board of Birmingham, Ala., voted to explore a proposal that would remove a 52-foot Confederate memorial from the entrance of a prominent park and place it with a Confederate heritage group.

Not all monuments warrant that kind of challenge. But those honoring the Confederate general Nathan Bedford Forrest deserve the backlash they have generated. Forrest presided over the 1864 massacre of Union soldiers, many of them black, at Fort Pillow in Tennessee. He was also a prominent slave trader and served as the first grand wizard of the Ku Klux Klan.

Apologists argue that his involvement with the Klan was unimportant because he later adopted more enlightened views. But as the Forrest biographer Jack Hurst writes, by lending his name to the K.K.K. even temporarily, the general accelerated its development. “As the Klan’s first national leader,” Mr. Hurst writes, “he became the Lost Cause’s avenging angel, galvanizing a loose collection of boyish secret social clubs into a reactionary instrument of terror still feared today.”....Critics predictably condemn these efforts as bad-faith attempts to rewrite history. But what’s happening is that communities that were once bound and gagged on this issue are now free to contest a version of history that was created to reinforce racial subjugation.

They are reflecting on how to honor history — including the neglected history of African-Americans — and rightly deciding that some figures who were enshrined as heroes in the past do not deserve to be valorized in public places.
the_South  KKK  Confederacy  terrorism  white_supremacy  history  symbolism  race  African-Americans  Charleston_shootings  Reconstruction  race_relations  racial_discrimination  racial_segregation  racism  violence  Jim_Crow  race-baiting 
july 2015 by jerryking
Black Church Is Target Again for Deadly Strike at the Heart - The New York Times
By RACHEL L. SWARNS and CAMPBELL ROBERTSON JUNE 19, 2015

in those years after Emancipation is what the African-American scholar W. E. B. Du Bois and others have described as the “first social institution fully controlled by black men in America.” Black churches ran schools, offered burial assistance and served as clearinghouses for information about jobs, social happenings and politics. More than just spiritual homes, they embodied their communities’ growing political aspirations.

And before long, they became targets.

In 1963, a bomb tore through the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Ala., killing four girls. Black churches have long been a site of racist attacks.

In the fall of 1870, as the Ku Klux Klan battled to return African-Americans to subservience, nearly every black church in Tuskegee, Ala., was engulfed in flames. Ninety-three years later, as the civil rights movement gained momentum, a bomb blast killed four young girls in a black church in Birmingham, Ala., that was a well-known meeting place for movement leaders....In the 19th century, these centers of worship, small and large, rural and urban, stone and ramshackle, became vital community engines. More than 100 of the first black men to be elected to legislative office in the United States were ministers, according to Eric Foner, a Columbia University history professor known for his expertise in the Reconstruction era.

During segregation, churches became places where black men and women found leadership opportunities denied to them by white society.
clearinghouses  Charleston_shootings  African-Americans  churches  Civil_War  KKK  institutions  social_institutions  history  violence  Reconstruction  segregation  leadership  leadership_development  W.E.B._Du_Bois  19th_century 
june 2015 by jerryking
Isabel Wilkerson Reflects on the Black Lives Matter Movement
January 05, 2015 | Essence.com | Essay by Isabel Wilkerson.
Where Do We Go From Here?:

The outcomes in Staten Island and Ferguson and elsewhere signal, as in the time of Jim Crow, that the loss of Black life at the hands of authorities does not so much as merit further inquiry and that the caste system has only mutated with the times.From this, we have learned that the journey is far from over and that we must know our history to gain strength for the days ahead. We must love ourselves even if—and perhaps especially if—others do not. We must keep our faith even as we work to make our country live up to its creed. And we must know deep in our bones and in our hearts that if the ancestors could survive the Middle Passage, we can survive anything.
African-Americans  authors  Black_Lives_Matter  digital_advocacy  feedback_loops  Great_Migration  internal_migration  Isabel_Wilkerson  Jim_Crow  journalists  protests  protest_movements  Reconstruction  the_South  women 
may 2015 by jerryking
Why Reconstruction Matters - NYTimes.com
By ERIC FONER MARCH 28, 2015

Reconstruction also made possible the consolidation of black families, so often divided by sale during slavery, and the establishment of the independent black church as the core institution of the emerging black community. But the failure to respond to the former slaves’ desire for land left most with no choice but to work for their former owners.

It was not economic dependency, however, but widespread violence, coupled with a Northern retreat from the ideal of equality, that doomed Reconstruction. The Ku Klux Klan and kindred groups began a campaign of murder, assault and arson that can only be described as homegrown American terrorism. Meanwhile, as the Northern Republican Party became more conservative, Reconstruction came to be seen as a misguided attempt to uplift the lower classes of society.
African-Americans  segregation  Jim_Crow  the_South  Reconstruction  violence  slavery  emancipation  Civil_War  KKK  terrorism 
march 2015 by jerryking
Return to Self-Reliance
August 13, 1997 | Wall Street Journal | Jason L. Riley

A sad truth of late-20th-century black history is the lack of emphasis black leaders have placed on economic independence, opting instead to funnel resources toward integrating predominantly white institutions, be they political, corporate or educational. Such was not always the thinking; indeed, blacks left bondage with a very different mind-set.

"When you think back to the situation right after the Emancipation Proclamation, African-Americans did a couple things coming right out of slavery," Mr. Price said recently in an interview. "They started up colleges and they started up businesses, like independent farms and burial societies that led to the creation of insurance companies. And as black folks moved into the cities, they started everything that came with living there--barber shops, grocery stores, hotels."

Part of the reason blacks were able to do these things despite the racial barriers of Reconstruction and, later, Jim Crow, was the guidance and support of individuals such as Booker T. Washington. The pre-eminent black leader of the late 1800s and early 1900s, Washington was a shrewd self-help advocate and educator, and a relentless promoter of black economic independence. In 1901, the black novelist Pauline Hopkins called him "probably the most talked of Afro-American in the civilized world today."

A famous William Johnson painting of Washington shows the former slave addressing a class full of attentive black children. The blackboard behind him depicts a plow, a shovel, books and writing instruments--symbolizing the "tools" Washington realized were essential to the postslavery progress of his race. Demonstrating a keen understanding of the central role money and wealth accumulation play in advancing a people, Washington said: "No race that has anything to contribute to the markets of the world is long in any degree ostracized."
Jason_Riley  African-Americans  conservatism  Booker_T._Washington  Emancipation  capital_formation  capital_accumulation  self-help  civil_rights  education  self-reliance  Jim_Crow  economic_empowerment  generational_wealth  institutions  desegregation  history  Reconstruction  leaders 
september 2012 by jerryking
A More Honest History Lesson
July 31, 1989 | TIME | Edward M. Gomez.

the little museum has become one of the most innovative and carefully watched institutions of its kind in the U.S. Embracing the city's past in the belief that no part of it should be overlooked, the Valentine relates the "story of a real city,instead of some abstraction." notes the monthly Richmond Review. Through an intelligent and careful study of the Jim Crow era. it helps audiences understand the thinking of those who practiced the unacceptable.
history  Richmond  African-Americans  segregation  Jim_Crow  the_South  Reconstruction  museums  exhibitions 
september 2012 by jerryking
Shall We Overcome? - WSJ.com
October 14, 2005 | WSJ |By CHARLES JOHNSON.

As Louis Farrakhan, Jesse Jackson and Al Sharpton prepare for yet another symbolic and substanceless "Million Man March" in Washington, all three have managed to dodge the joke about the first such rally a decade ago (the one in which Mr. Farrakhan dazzled the world with his knowledge of numerology): namely, that black men in America are the only group ever to march in protest of themselves. I'm guessing that the rationale for this weekend's gathering is identical to that of the initial march. It is a lament we have heard in one guise or another for 3½ decades: Our family is in crisis; black men are an endangered species....On the one hand, we are CEOs at AOL Time Warner, American Express and Merrill Lynch; we have served as secretary of state and White House national security adviser; we are mayors, police chiefs, best-selling novelists, MacArthur fellows, Nobel laureates, professors, billionaires, scientists, stockbrokers, engineers,etc...But there is a second, disturbing profile that reveals too high a percentage of black men being AWOL as fathers and husbands; as disappearing from our colleges (UC Berkeley's 2004-05 freshman class had only 108 African-Americans out of 3,600 students, with less than 40 males, and not one black among the 800 entering students in engineering); as graduating from high school with an eighth-grade level of proficiency in math and reading; in prison, on probation or on parole (a third of black men in their 20s). With the HIV infection rate doubling for blacks in the past decade, as well as urban violence, hypertension, social stress and heart disease, the number of black men now trails black women by two million....we are finally willing to acknowledge a national "boy problem" in general, one with devastating consequences for black males in particular...We have already allowed the talent, resources and genius of two generations of young black men who might have enriched this republic to be squandered by gang violence, by poor academic preparation, by the lack of good parenting and by the celebration of an irresponsible "thug life" that is ethically infantile and, predictably, embraced by a notoriously values-challenged entertainment industry....Two things could not be more clear in 2005: First, without strong, self-sacrificing, frugal and industrious fathers as role models, our boys go astray, never learn how to be parents (or men), and perpetuate the dismal situation of single-parent homes run by tired and overworked black women. The black family as a survival unit fails, which leads to the ever-fragile community collapsing along with it. Second, our black predecessors (particularly Booker T. Washington with his corny but unfailingly correct "gospel of the toothbrush") understood from the era of Reconstruction until the late 1960s how indispensable was the black family for sustaining a fight against racism that by its very nature can only be measured in centuries, and for ensuring that our progress toward liberation, personal and political, would not be lost in but a single generation as it now threatens to be.
family_breakdown  dysfunction  African-Americans  crisis  thug_code  leadership  Jesse_Jackson  Al_Sharpton  fatherhood  Booker_T._Washington  Reconstruction  Louis_Farrakhan  self-sacrifice  frugality  industriousness  endangered 
august 2012 by jerryking
Was Freedom Enough? - NYTimes.com
November 11, 2011, 9:30 pm
Was Freedom Enough?
By GREGORY P. DOWNS and JAMES DOWNS
Reconstruction  slavery  Civil_War  emancipation 
november 2011 by jerryking
Civil War Reconstructed - WSJ.com
JANUARY 31, 2011 | | By CAMERON MCWHIRTER

Civil War Reconstructed
Archaeologist Mines Atlanta Landscape for Remains of the Clash Between Union and Confederate Armies
Civil_War  Reconstruction 
january 2011 by jerryking

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