hellsten + algorithm   70

Consistent Hash Rings Explained Simply
- you may want to take a URL and get back the server the website is hosted on.

- The problem of mimicking a hash table when the number of locations are constantly changing was exactly why consistent hashing was invented.

- For 2,000 keys spread across 100 locations, you now need to move only 20 keys to a new location if 1 location with only 20 keys goes down.

- This is the main benefit of consistent hashing: you now no longer need to move so many things just because one location has disappea...
algorithms  algorithm  distributed  consistent-hash  hash  cs 
5 weeks ago by hellsten
Let's Learn Algorithms: Implementing Binary Search - Calhoun.io
It is important to remember that a binary search can only work on data that is sorted relevant to what you are searching. For instance, if you want to find a the smallest number greater than 6 in a list, you need a sorted list, but if you want to find a commit that broke your code, you only need the commits sorted in the order ..., working, working, broken, broken, .... That is, you need all working commits to come before the breaking commit, and then all commits after the bad commit must be broken.
binary-search  binary  algorithm  algorithms 
september 2018 by hellsten
Democracy vs. the Algorithm | Boston Review
The Founding Fathers understood the essential point that democracy stands for more than simply bringing people together. As John Jay warned, “The wise and the good never form the Majority of any large society, and it seldom happens that . . . they can always prevent being overborne themselves by the strong and almost never-ceasing union of the wicked and the weak.”

Similarly, Madison believed in the strong human inclination toward faction and oppressing minorities. This understanding of human nature informed his disdain for pure, majoritarian democracy, and the constitutional system was built around this skepticism. Progress and democratic governance, the Founding Fathers understood, can’t merely be about an open platform for “a large community of people” to act on impulse, as Facebook does. Rather it must be designed to safeguard against these natural human passions.


Zuckerberg sees this social connection as a tool for political progress and democracy. As he has noted, “In a lot of ways Facebook is more like a government than a traditional company. We have this large community of people, and more than other technology companies we’re really setting policies.”

When Facebook’s policies proved to fragment, polarize, and threaten liberal democracy more than a year ago, Zuckerberg issued a nearly 6,000-word treatise that began as a mea culpa, but ultimately set out Facebook’s mission to create a political community global in scope.

“History,” Zuckerberg argued, “is the story of how we’ve learned to come together in ever greater numbers . . . Progress now requires humanity coming together not just as cities or nations . . . Facebook stands for bringing us closer together and building a global community.”
facebook  social-media  leadership  community  ai  algorithm  democracy 
august 2018 by hellsten
Constraint satisfaction - Wikipedia
[edit]
Constraint satisfaction problems on finite domains are typically solved using a form of search. The most used techniques are variants of backtracking, constraint propagation, and local search. These techniques are used on problems with nonlinear constraints.

Variable elimination and the simplex algorithm are used for solving linear and polynomial equations and inequalities, and problems containing variables with infinite domain. These are typically solved as optimization prob...
algorithms  algorithm  ai  sudoku 
may 2018 by hellsten
Merkle tree - Wikipedia
Hash trees can be used to verify any kind of data stored, handled and transferred in and between computers. Currently the main use of hash trees is to make sure that data blocks received from other peers in a peer-to-peer network are received undamaged and unaltered, and even to check that the other peers do not lie and send fake blocks. Suggestions have been made to use hash trees in trusted computing systems.[4] Hash trees are also used in hash-based cryptography.

Hash trees are used in the IPFS, Btrfs and ZFS file systems[5] (to counter data degradation[6]), BitTorrent protocol, Dat protocol, Apache Wave protocol,[7] Git and Mercurial distributed revision control systems, the Tahoe-LAFS backup system, the Bitcoin and Ethereum peer-to-peer networks,[8] the Certificate Transparency framework, and a number of NoSQL systems like Apache Cassandra, Riak and Dynamo.[9]
bitcoin  blockchain  algorithm  cryptography  btc 
november 2017 by hellsten
HUSLAB - TTR-laskuri - laskenna tulos
TTR = 98 % (hyvä)
INR-tavoitealueen alaraja: 2,0
INR-tavoitealueen yläraja: 3,0
Hyväksyttäviä mittaustuloksia yhteensä: 4
Tavoitealueella olevia mittaustuloksia: 3
Vuorokausia yhteensä: 92
Tavoitealueella olevia vuorokausia: 90
Näytteenottovälin minimi | mediaani | maksimi: 30 | 30 | 31 vuorokautta

01.09.2014 2,0 --------------------X
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01.11.2014 2,3 -----------------------X
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01.12.2014 3,1 *-------------------------------X
ttr  ttr-algorithm  rosendaal  algorithm 
october 2017 by hellsten
Feynman Problem-Solving Algorithm – Computing: The Science of Nearly Everything
I often think of the Feynman Problem-Solving Algorithm, supposedly coined in jest by another Nobel Prize-winning physicist, Murray Gell-Mann, about Richard Feynman‘s innate problem-solving ability:

Write down the problem.
Think very hard.
Write down the answer.
feynman  algorithm 
august 2017 by hellsten
Introduction to Reed-Solomon – Vivint Innovation Center
Via Lagrange interpolation, once you have data points, you can construct the unique polynomial through those data points pretty easily!
algorithm  math 
august 2017 by hellsten
Feynman Algorithm
Then there is Friedrich Kekule's algorithm:
Write down the problem.
Think real hard.
Have a nap.
Dream the solution.

"For Richard, figuring out these problems was a kind of a game. He always started by asking very basic questions like, 'What is the simplest example?' or 'How can you tell if the answer is right?' He asked questions until he reduced the problem to some essential puzzle that he thought he would be able to solve. Then he would set to work, scribbling on a pad of paper and staring at the results. While he was in the middle of this kind of puzzle solving he was impossible to interrupt. 'Don't bug me. I'm busy,' he would say without even looking up. Eventually he would either decide the problem was too hard (in which case he lost interest), or he would find a solution (in which case he spent the next day or two explaining it to anyone who listened). In this way he worked on problems in database searches, geophysical modeling, protein folding, analyzing images, and reading insurance forms."


Then there is Friedrich Kekule's algorithm:
Write down the problem.
Think real hard.
Have a nap.
Dream the solution.
feynman  thinking  best  algorithm 
april 2017 by hellsten
The Math Trick Behind MP3s, JPEGs, and Homer Simpson’s Face
the Fourier transform is a recipe—it tells you exactly how much of each note you need to mix together to reconstruct the original wave.
math  compression  algorithm  fourier  sound  piano 
april 2017 by hellsten
Two-part Rubik's algorithms | Hacker News
Same for me, I actually have mine (a relatively cheap speedcube) on my table at the office. When I want to clean up my mind, I scramble and solve it. I use Roux's method, which is surprisingly light to learn and satisfying to execute
todo  rubik  algorithm 
march 2017 by hellsten
Sobel operator - Wikipedia
used in image processing and computer vision, particularly within edge detection algorithms where it creates an image emphasising edges
computer-vision  algorithm  edge-detection  image-processing  graphics 
january 2017 by hellsten
Why a pro/con list is 75% as good as your fancy machine learning algorithm - Chris Stucchio
The mathematical name for this technique is unit weighted regression, and the more commonplace name for it is a Pro/Con list.

I present the method in a slightly different format - in each column a different choice is listed. Each row represents a characteristic, all of which are pros. A con is transformed into a pro by negation - rather than treating "Fat" as a con, I treat "Not Fat" as a pro. If one of the choices possesses the characteristic under discussion, a +1 is assigned to the relevant row/column, otherwise 0 is assigned:


Anyone who read one of the many good books on machine learning can probably name several fancy machine learning techniques - neural networks, decision trees, etc. And they are probably asking why I would ever use unit-weighted regression, as opposed to one of these techniques? Why not use linear regression, rather than forcing all the coefficients to be +1?


A Pro/Con list is 75% as good as linear regression
machine-learning  pro-con  algorithm  simplicity 
november 2016 by hellsten
So you want to build a journey planner
There we have it, a functional journey planner. All in all it’s taken me about two months of work in my spare time but I’m happy with the results so far. I haven’t done anything new, I’m just standing on the shoulders of giants.

Please check out the code and the live demo and let me know what you think. I’m particularly interested in hearing from people that are better at digesting the academic papers as I understand Hannah Bast’s follow up paper covers how to scale this approach to continental size data sets. I’m not even sure my idea of a transfer pattern is the same as the original paper’s.

I haven’t covered dealing with things like group stations, interchange time and transfers (walking, tube, etc) as they were mostly trivial and you can check my implementation of the Connection Scan Algorithm. If anyone is interested let me know and I will follow up this post.
algorithm  journey  journey-planner 
july 2016 by hellsten
Raft Consensus Algorithm
Raft is a consensus algorithm that is designed to be easy to understand. It's equivalent to Paxos in fault-tolerance and performance. The difference is that it's decomposed into relatively independent subproblems, and it cleanly addresses all major pieces needed for practical systems. We hope Raft will make consensus available to a wider audience, and that this wider audience will be able to develop a variety of higher quality consensus-based systems than are available today.
raft  consensus  algorithm  scaling  distributed 
june 2016 by hellsten
Using integer programming in R to optimize cargo loads | R-bloggers
Linear Programming is a mathematical technique used to find the values of some variables (within the bounds of some defined constraints) to find the maximum value of a quantity. For example, consider this problem from the FishyOperations blog: 

A trading company is looking for a way to maximize profit per transportation of their goods. The company has a train available with 3 wagons. When stocking the wagons they can choose between 4 types of cargo, each with its own specifications. How much of each cargo type should be loaded on which wagon in order to maximize profit?

The quantity we want to optimize here is profit. The variables to consider are the cargo items selected to fill the wagons, each of which has its own volume and profit per tonne (and quantities aren't unlimited, either). The constraints are the weight and space capacities of the three wagons.
linear-programming  algorithm  r  optimi 
june 2016 by hellsten
Yet Another Math Programming Consultant: Job Shop Scheduling
Although standard MIP formulations do not work very well on this problem, the current crop of MIP solvers can solve problems that used to be very difficult to solve. As example consider ft10 with 100 operations (10 machines, 10 jobs). This problem was unsolved for 26 years after its introduction in 1963. Now this can be solved in about 5 minutes to optimality using solvers like Gurobi and Cplex. (Some tabu search based methods have been able to find the optimal solution in seconds).
algorithm  math  job  scheduling 
june 2016 by hellsten
Ridesharing Algorithms in TransLoc OnDemand — TransLoc TechLog — Medium
At the core of TransLoc OnDemand is the scheduling algorithm. The inputs into the algorithm are rides and vehicles.
Each vehicle has the following attributes:
Current Location
Current Passenger Load
Total Passenger Capacity
Each ride has the following attributes:
Origin & Destination
Number of Passengers
Desired Pickup or Dropoff Time (if scheduled in advance)
Candidate Vehicles (determined by other parts of our system)
The problem to solve is two-fold:
Which vehicles should serve wh...
algorithm  cs  transport  location  traffic  maps 
march 2016 by hellsten
How to do distributed locking — Martin Kleppmann’s blog
If you need locks only on a best-effort basis (as an efficiency optimization, not for correctness), I would recommend sticking with the straightforward single-node locking algorithm for Redis (conditional set-if-not-exists to obtain a lock, atomic delete-if-value-matches to release a lock), and documenting very clearly in your code that the locks are only approximate and may occasionally fail. Don’t bother with setting up a cluster of five Redis nodes.

On the other hand, if you need locks for correctness, please don’t use Redlock. Instead, please use a proper consensus system such as ZooKeeper, probably via one of the Curator recipes that implements a lock. (At the very least, use a database with reasonable transactional guarantees.) And please enforce use of fencing tokens on all resource accesses under the lock.


Note this requires the storage server to take an active role in checking tokens, and rejecting any writes on which the token has gone backwards. But this is not particularly hard, once you know the trick. And provided that the lock service generates strictly monotonically increasing tokens, this makes the lock safe. For example, if you are using ZooKeeper as lock service, you can use the zxid or the znode version number as fencing token, and you’re in good shape [3].

However, this leads us to the first big problem with Redlock: it does not have any facility for generating fencing tokens. The algorithm does not produce any number that is guaranteed to increase every time a client acquires a lock. This means that even if the algorithm were otherwise perfect, it would not be safe to use, because you cannot prevent the race condition between clients in the case where one client is paused or its packets are delayed.
zookeeper  transaction  reliability  programming  best  redis  redlock  locking  algorithm 
february 2016 by hellsten
SigOpt Blog — SigOpt Fundamentals: Intuition behind Gaussian...
We can study previous observations, e.g., oil wells that have already been drilled, to learn about this interaction and optimally predict the success of future wells.
prediction  math  algorithm  machine-learning  predictions 
november 2015 by hellsten
www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economic-sciences/laureates/2012/popular-economicsciences2012.pdf
The Gale-Shapley algorithm proved to be useful in other applications, such as high-school choice.
Up until 2003, applicants to New York City public high schools were asked to rank their five most
preferred choices, after which these preference lists were sent to the schools. The schools then decided
which students to admit, reject, or place on waiting lists. The process was repeated in two more
rounds, and students who had not been assigned to any school after the third round were allocated
through an administrative process. However, this did not provide the applicants with enough opportunities
to list their preferences, and the schools did not have enough opportunities to make offers. As
a result, about 30,000 students per year ended up at schools they had not listed. Moreover, the process
gave rise to misrepresentation of preferences. Since schools were more likely to admit students who
ranked them as their first choice, students unlikely to be admitted to their favorite school found it
in their best interest to list a more realistic option as their first choice, while applicants who simply
reported their true preferences suffered unnecessarily poor outcomes. In 2003, Roth and his colleagues
helped redesign this admissions process, based on an applicant-proposing version of the Gale-Shapley
algorithm. The new algorithm proved to be successful, with a 90 percent reduction in the number of
students assigned to schools for which they had expressed no preference. Today, a growing number of
U.S. metropolitan areas use some variant of the Gale-Shapley algorithm.
algorithm  algorithms  nobel-prize 
september 2015 by hellsten
Golang Code Reuse - Generalization tricks
Core of alorithm is a Backtrack function, it uses problem specific functions:

IsSolution(a []elements, k int, n int)
ConstructCandidates(a []elements, k int, n int) []elements
ProcessSolution(a []elements, k int, n int)
To solve your problem, you just need to substitute those functions.
backtracking  golang  interfaces  algorithm 
september 2015 by hellsten
Welcome to the Tricki | Tricki
a repository of mathematical know-how

Techniques for finding algorithms and algorithmic proofs

Techniques for approximating one thing by another

Techniques for classifying mathematical structures

Techniques for comparing sets and mathematical structures

Techniques for counting

Techniques for solving equations

Techniques for obtaining estimates

Techniques for proving existence

Techniques for producing explicit examples

Techniques for proving equalities and identities

Techniques for proving impossibility and nonexistence

Techniques for proving inequalities

Techniques for maximizing and minimizing

Techniques for proving "for all" statements
math  mathematics  toread  wiki  best  matematik  algorithm  thinking 
july 2015 by hellsten
Mark DiMarco: User Interface Algorithms [JSConf2014] - YouTube
Use voronoi to find which item (menu item, toilet) is closest to your position (mouse position, geo location).

Use jquery-menu-aim instead of hover-intent or setTimeout-hacks to figure out when to hide menu.
fortune-algorithm  voronoi-diagram  algorithm  ui-algorithm  web-design  ui-design 
december 2014 by hellsten
www.slaney.org/malcolm/yahoo/Slaney2008-LSHTutorial.pdf
The LSH algorithm has been applied suc- cessfully to quickly find nearest neighbors
in very large databases. Instead of find- ing exact matches as conventional hashes would, LSH takes into account the locality of the points so that nearby points remain nearby.
Examples of such applications include finding duplicate pages on the Web, image retrieval, and music retrieval.

- FINDING DUPLICATE PAGES ON THE WEB

A solution to identify Web page duplicates makes use of shingles. Each shingle represents a portion of a Web page and is computed by forming a histogram of the words found within that portion of the page. We can test to see if a portion of the page is duplicated else- where on the Web by looking for other shingles with the same histogram.


- RETRIEVING IMAGE AND MUSIC

LSH can be used in image retrieval as an object recognition tool [7]. We com- pute a detailed metric for many differ- ent orientations and configurations of an object we wish to recognize. Then, given a new image we simply check our database to see if a precomputed object’s metrics are close to our query.

In music retrieval typically we use conventional hashes and robust fea- tures to find musical matches. The fea- tures can be fingerprints, i.e., representations of the audio signal that are robust to common types of abuse that are performed to audio before it reaches our ears [8]. Fingerprints can be computed, for instance, by noting the peaks in the spectrum (because they are robust to noise) and encoding their position in time and space. One then just has to query the database for the same fingerprint.
big-data  lsh  similarity  recommendation  algorithm  fingerprint  music  detection  object-detection 
november 2014 by hellsten
algorithms/trie.rb at 81987340f24edb7fd8ca60885b1f04d1907f8c03 · kanwei/algorithms
Tries are often used for longest prefix algorithms, wildcard matching, and can be used to
implement a radix sort.
tree  trie  algorithm  ruby  search 
october 2014 by hellsten
Parsing English with 500 lines of Python « Computational Linguistics
The Natural Language Processing (NLP) community has made big progress in syntactic parsing over the last few years. It’s now possible for a tiny Python implementation to perform better than the widely-used Stanford parser:

Parser Accuracy Speed (w/s) Language LOC
Stanford 89.6% 19 Java > 50,000[1]
parser.py 89.8% 2,020 Python ~500
Redshift 93.6% 2,580
python  nlp  ai  algorithm  parsing 
april 2014 by hellsten
Lamport timestamps - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The algorithm of Lamport timestamps is a simple algorithm used to determine the order of events in a distributed computer system. As different nodes or processes will typically not be perfectly synchronized, this algorithm is used to provide a partial ordering of events with minimal overhead, and conceptually provide a starting point for the more advanced vector clock method. They are named after their creator, Leslie Lamport.
timestamps  algorithm 
april 2014 by hellsten
Duplicate record detection - Wikiversity
Often, in the real world, entities have two or more representations in databases. Duplicate records do not share a common key and/or they contain errors that make duplicate matching a difficult task. Errors are introduced as the result of transcription errors, incomplete information, lack of standard formats or any combination of these factors. In this article, we present a thorough analysis of the literature on duplicate record detection. We cover similarity metrics that are commonly used to detect similar field entries, and we present an extensive set of duplicate detection algorithms that can detect approximately duplicate records in a database. We also cover multiple techniques for improving the efficiency and scalability of approximate duplicate detection algorithms. We conclude with a coverage of existing tools and with a brief discussion of the big open problems in the area.
duplicate  algorithm  wikipedia  name-detection  ner 
may 2012 by hellsten
Rank Hotness With Newton's Law of Cooling
So in a nutshell, you will:

1. Pick an initial temperature for new items
2. Pick a cooling rate
3. Pick a temperature increment
4. When there is new activity on an item, calculate the current temperature, then increment and record it along with the current time
5. Sort items based on the current temperature using the formula above
hotness  algorithm  statistics  ranking  programming 
november 2010 by hellsten
masuidrive's pr_geohash at master - GitHub
GeoHash encode/decode library for pure Ruby.

It’s implementation of en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geohash
geolocation  algorithm  maps  geocoding 
september 2010 by hellsten
Geohash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Geohash is a latitude/longitude geocode system invented by Gustavo Niemeyer when writing the web service at geohash.org, and put into the public domain. It is a hierarchical spatial data structure which subdivides space into buckets of grid shape.
geolocation  algorithm  maps  geocoding 
september 2010 by hellsten
How I Made Money Spamming Twitter with Contextual Book Suggestions - Charles Hooper
Four months later and I had generated over $7,000 in sales for Amazon with over $400 commission for myself.

Commenter:
5 months leading up to Sept 09, I was making $5000-$7000 a month spamming twitter's trending topics with eBay affiliate links and other affiliate links.

Commenter:
I also built another bot that would create Twitter accounts with girl pictures. Then I found a list of porn stars on Twitter and used the API to gather a list of all the followers who followed porn stars. Then I would use those girl accounts to follow those people following porn stars and tried to get them to sign up for webcam shows. It didn't work that well but it did make decent money over time.
twitter  spam  affiliate  algorithm  recommendation  book  amazon  earnings  statistics 
august 2010 by hellsten
The Ensemble
Yesterday, Sept 21st, Netflix announced that the winner of the $1 million Netflix Prize is "BellKor's Pragmatic Chaos(BPC)," and we congratulate them on their victory. The contest was remarkably close, and now we know precisely just how close it was.
netflix  recommendation-engine  recommendations  algorithm  ai 
december 2009 by hellsten
Ensemble learning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In statistics and machine learning, ensemble methods use multiple models to obtain better predictive performance than could be obtained from any of the constituent models.[1][2]
ai  machinelearning  algorithm  optimization  statistics 
december 2009 by hellsten
SVD and LSI Tutorial 1: Understanding SVD and LSI
FMRI revealed that well-known brands, regardless of the product, activated parts of the brain associated with positive emotional processing, self-identity and reward. Less well-known brands activated parts of the brain associated with negative emotional response. Lead researcher Dr. Christine Born, a radiologist at University Hospital, part of the Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich, Germany said: "This is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging test examining the power of brands", "We found that strong brands activate certain areas of the brain independent of product categories."..."The vision of this research is to better understand the needs of people and to create markets which are more oriented towards satisfaction of those needs."
brand  branding  lsi  ai  datamining  algorithm  psychology  svd 
december 2009 by hellsten
Computer Algorithms vs Human Creativity | SEO Book.com
“So I don’t know how to characterize the next 10 years except to say that we’ll get to the point - the long-term goal is to be able to give you one answer, which is exactly the right answer over time…what I’d like to do is to get to the point where we could read his site [the definitive authority on a particular searched query] and then summarize what it says, and answer the question” - Eric Schmidt
google  prediction  seo  algorithm  business 
november 2009 by hellsten
Hacker News | How Not To Sort By Average Rating
"On Kongregate we do the same thing that Newgrounds does - games don't display an average rating or appear in the rankings until they have a minimum number of ratings. For us that's 75 ratings."

"There is another solution called 'True Bayesian Average' that is used on IMDB.com, for example. For the formula and the explanation how it works see here:
http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview/id/507508.html"
algorithm  rating  average  programming  kongregate  newsgrounds  imdb 
june 2009 by hellsten
www.iki.fi/sol - Tutorials - Interpolation Tricks
"Adding little smoothness to all kinds of movement, be it actual movement of the camera, some object, fading of lights, fading in and out etc, makes things much more enjoyable to watch. Sharp movements and changes are jarring and should be avoided."
interpolation  animation  graphics  algorithm  tips 
june 2009 by hellsten
Apriori Algorithm - Ruby
The Apriori algorithm, takes an initial data set...gives you all the possible ways of cooking a hot poket. With cheese, no cheese...this algorithm gets you every possible cobination and the number of times it happens in the database set.
ai  ruby  machine  learning  apriori  algorithm 
march 2008 by hellsten
Welcome to the SICP Web Site
Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs
book  programming  algorithm 
march 2007 by hellsten

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