Ice Cube – Ghetto Bird Lyrics | Genius
Why, oh why must you swoop through the hood
Like everybody from the hood is up to no good
You think all the girls around here are trickin
Up there lookin like Superchicken
At night I see your light through my bedroom window
But I ain't got shit but the pad and pencil
I can't wait till I hear you say
"I'm going down, mayday, mayday." I'm gonna clown
Cause everytime that the pigs have got me
Y'all rub it in with the flying Nazi
Military force, but we don't want ya
Standin' on my roof with the rocket launcher
"So fly like an eagle."
But don't follow us wherever we go
The shit that I'm saying, make sure it's heard
Motherfuck you and your punk-ass ghetto bird"
hip-hop  lyrics  ***  aeriality  los.angeles  rap.genius 
6 weeks ago
Hellenic Wide - Fonts in Use
I'm always trying to remember what the name of this one is.


A very wide, mostly monolinear slab that was very common in the mid 20th century after releases by ATF and Bauer. Metal and wood precursors can be found back to the 1800s, including ATF’s Antique Extended No. 3–4, No. 124, and No. 152.
typography  font  slab  1950s  20thcentury  ** 
7 weeks ago
Boeing Sees Budget Airlines Driving Jet Market to $5.6 Trillion - Bloomberg Business
Boeing sees budget airlines driving jet market to $5.6 trillion: Bloomberg Business -
from twitter_favs
7 weeks ago
Op-Alt: The latest plans for a revamped McKeldin Plaza leave a few things out - citypaper.com
In which I write for about how the destruction of public space and architecture might erode free speech:
from twitter_favs
9 weeks ago
Shift typeface
Shift is inspired by American slab-serifs from the late 19th century. In its lighter weights, it takes on the personality of a typewriter face, with flared terminals and prominent serifs. In the heavier weights, it acts as a titling Egyptian, with thin spaces between characters and small counters. Designed as a display face, it also works well for text.
typography  *****  mytools 
11 weeks ago
Geoff Edlins on Periscope
LIVE on : Going to try DTW's McNamara Tunnel again.

Killing time at the airport has never been so magica…
from twitter
12 weeks ago
Ben Jackson reviews ‘Honourable Friends’ by Caroline Lucas · LRB 7 May 2015
The trouble for the Greens is that they really would like to see the end of modern civilisation as we know it.
from twitter_favs
april 2015
Untitled (http://www.newrepublic.com/article/121638/these-beautiful-photos-are-return-lost-jet-age)
Another great article from "Aerotropolis" author on the "Design Genius of the Golden Age of Air Travel"
from twitter_favs
april 2015
House in rural Germany has a slatted wooden facade
This house in rural Germany features a slatted wooden facade and copper fittings:
from twitter_favs
april 2015
A great website using NestaCMS
nesta  cms  mytools  webdesign  website  ** 
april 2015
Mi6 is a theme for Nesta, a Ruby CMS for developers and designers. A minimalistic and responsive theme developed for showcasing items and presenting various content, mostly for self-promotion (portfolio, skills, bio etc.).
theme  nesta  cms  ***  mytools 
april 2015
FF Franziska
A compelling microsite devoted to the typeface.
design  font  fonts  typography  *** 
april 2015
FF Franziska fonts from the FontFont Library
A lovely font family. I like a typeface that's readable in small sizes and has personality in large.
typography  font  *** 
april 2015
A Walk Through the Gallery - NYTimes.com
"Henri Matisse: The Cut-Outs” at the Museum of Modern Art in New York

On February 10, New Yorkers got their last chance to see the Museum of Modern Art's "Henri Matisse: The Cut-Outs," a show that gathered about 100 of the artist's painted-paper works — the largest and most extensive presentation of these works ever assembled. The exhibition set out from the 1930s, covering work Matisse started producing toward the end of his life. Didn't make it to the museum? Here is the wall-to-wall experience.
art  matisse  nyc  moma  museum  color  nytimes  ** 
march 2015
BLDGBLOG: In a Pinch
Stairway from the Grands Magasins Dufayel, a kind of self-intersecting pinch between floors:
from twitter_favs
march 2015
BLDGBLOG: Unconventional Sports Require Unconventional Spaces and Landscapes
Designing news types of schools and gyms to inspire new types of physical activity:
from twitter_favs
march 2015
Book launch: The Internet Does Not Exist | e-flux
book & the launch look great! - "The Internet Does Not Exist" - & a title after my own heart -
from twitter_favs
march 2015
Wooden tablecloth folds out to form table extensions
The top of this table is designed like a caterpillar track:
from twitter_favs
march 2015
Why Is So Much of Our Discussion of Higher Ed Driven by Elite Institutions?
This. RT Why Is So Much of Our Discussion of Higher Ed Driven by Elite Institutions?
from twitter_favs
march 2015
Vintage Future
LA Times Cover / LA 2013 in 1988

from twitter_favs
march 2015
Night School
The AA’s Night School is an on-going speculative project dealing with alternative models of architectural education. It aims to turn an architecture school inside out, offering what are usually internal activities to a wide audience of professionals, clients, other creative practitioners, the general public as well as students. Its format is short evening classes and events that engage issues of design, culture, history, theory and professional practice. Through these it aims to redraw lines between practice and theory and between student and professional.

Night School echoes the Architectural Association’s own origins as an evening school in the 1870’s. It continues the AA’s tradition of innovation in architectural education into an era of rapid transformation of the educational landscape and profound disciplinary change. Night School addresses issues of life long learning, professional development and re-skilling that are becoming increasingly important. It is a timely experiment in architectural learning, knowledge and disciplinary expertise.
london  architecture  school  education  *** 
march 2015
Boris refuses City Airport’s plan to expand | HACAN East
BREAKING: Boris refuses London City Airport's plans to expand on noise grounds:
from twitter_favs
march 2015
The Interview Question That Can Seal The Deal | Suzy Welch | LinkedIn
Powerful interview question from : “What did you do to prepare for this interview?”
from twitter_favs
march 2015
Heiddeger dictionary: SPIELRAUM
Spiel is close to ‘play’ in the sense of ‘game, recreation’, but it also once meant a ‘dance, dancing movement’. Spielen means ‘to play’, but also meant ‘to dance, move in a lively way’. The older meaning survives in Spielraum , ‘room to move, leeway, elbow-room, free play’. To encounter entities DASEIN needs Spielraum , space to move; things that are too close, like the spectacles on one's nose, are ‘further away than the picture on the wall opposite’ (BT, 107). In BT Heidegger links Spielraum , literally ‘play-space’, with SPACE, but later he associates it with TIME-SPACE by coining Zeit-Spiel-Raum , literally ‘time-play-space’ (OWL, 214/106). ‘A man of the world’, Kant said, ‘is a player [Mitspieler] in the great game [Spiel] of life’ (A, Preface). This expression, like all linguistic usage, contains latent philosophy – after all ‘philosophizing belongs to the essence of Dasein’ (XXVII, 309). Hence if the ‘historical being-with-one-another of men’ has the diversity and variability of a game, this is because Dasein is essentially playful (XXVII, 310). This is why children play, in a way quite different from animals: ‘Perhaps the child is only a child because it is in a metaphysical sense something that we adults no longer comprehend at all’ (XXVII, 311). Play is prior to games: ‘We do not play because there are games. On the contrary: there are games because we play’....
dictionary  heidegger  space  play  theory  *****  movement  region 
march 2015
First, kill all the artisans | ROUGH TYPE
"The built environment is an $8 trillion per year industry that is still basically artisanal” – head of Google X 0__0
from twitter_favs
march 2015
How Adam Curtis' film "Bitter Lake" will change everything you believe about news
I saw Curtis give a lecture in New York City once, after the staging of an experimental live show he created with Massive Attack at the colossal Park Ave Armory.

I’m recalling from memory but Curtis’ directly aimed it at media workers. He urged us to reject the fashionable artistic embrace of ambiguity, that we must rebel simply by telling stories.

For an unreckoned relationship with power has given rise to a lack of narrative, where we are aware that the global financial crisis meant something, but we have been given no real idea of what it means, and how it happened. Curtis sincerely believes we can defeat this, and all it will take is the hard work of diligence, good journalism, and storytelling. Despite his dryly funny and acerbic way, I found this argument compelling and impossible to ignore.

Curtis’ work may not be infallible, but it often asks why we have become stagnant and regressive, why we are running out of visions for the future. At the very least, his films have provided a new vision: of how we still have work to do in the form of filmmaking that will help us understand our world. I hope BITTER LAKE most of all raises questions of how news organizations appropriate the imagery that is shot, often at great cost to the lives of journalists, in a way that has narrowed the possible dimensionality of its truth. Even more troublesome, the exploitation of footage created by terrorists has resulted in a horrifying feedback loop where corporate news entities earn profits off of their existence.
aesthetics  culture  documentary  news  media  *****  criticism  critique  adam.curtis  storytelling  truth 
march 2015
Dala Prisma review on Typographica
It's a beautiful typeface.

"Barnes has taken cues from striped typefaces of the 19th and 20th centuries and transposed this styling idea to Dala Floda’s crisp Renaissance-inspired structures. Such diverse historical echoes notwith­standing, the result radiates an almost shocking contemporary sophistication. The stripes, so precisely drawn they’re dazzling, swell and taper with the strokes, bringing them to life. The circular ball term­inals transform into delightful marbles. The combin­ation of open inlines with stencil forms makes for an elegant, shimmering airiness rarely seen in type."
typography  mytools  *****  font 
march 2015
Mønster review on Typographica
But Mønster is easily misunderstood, even by its ostensible “reverse contrast” kindred, which are in fact decidedly banal in comparison. It’s no coincidence that designer Sindre Bremnes’ fellow Monokrom founder Frode Helland has questioned the rigidly contrarian modus operandi of virtually all reverse-contrast designs, and Mønster is anything but formulaic. It announces its quixotic nature from its very first letter: ‘M’, which is neither here (conventional contrast) nor there (reverse contrast), but elsewhere. Instead of following ductal logic, or its mere mechanical flipping, Mønster explores its own path through our forest. Illogical? No, simply something new, something… higherlogical.
review  typography  font  mytools  *** 
march 2015
Karol Sans review on Typographica
In its range of weights and styles, Karol Sans supports a breadth of diverse expression and typographic tones of voice. In text settings, it feels informal and yet trustworthy, with a comfortable and economical set of proportions and a durable contrast that equip it well for use in a variety of media. With the inclusion of Black and Light for display, it seems particularly useful for editorial design.
typeface  typography  font  mytools  *** 
march 2015
Klim Foundry: Maelstrom
A ridiculously fun typeface from Kris Sowersby.
typography  font  ***  mytools 
march 2015
The Setup: Stefano Zacchiroli
As desktop environment I use GNOME 3 with GNOME Shell. Philosophically, I really like the GNOME project, their vision, and the courage they have had to reinvent the desktop after many years in which nobody was innovating. But I'm also technically quite happy about GNOME Shell. I love full-text searching for applications, the big switch to mute notifications, the no-frills approach, and the well-rounded app integration.

The only feature I miss in off-the-shelf GNOME Shell is tiling window management (there is some tiling support in GNOME Shell, like splitting the screen in half with two main windows, but I do use more complex window arrangements than that). To fill that gap I'm using the Shellshape extension; the result is good enough for my needs.
gnome  linux  computers  howto  ****  mytools 
march 2015
Intervention – “Future Shock” by Andy Merrifield | AntipodeFoundation.org
"In accepted wisdom, we tend to think of amateurs as people who dabble, who don’t do things for a living, but who do something as a hobby, at weekends, in their spare time. We see amateurs as less accomplished than professionals. But professionalism, said Said, can constitute a form of compliant behavior, of making yourself marketable and presentable to the powers that be. None of which denies the need for competence, for being conscientious about what you do, and for having the right skills to do it. Not anyone can do heart surgery or pilot a plane, teach high school or cure animals. It involves training and learning. So it’s not the skills question that concerned Said; it’s more the professional practice, how you employ those skills, to whom you sell them, how you apply your knowledge, in whose interests you’re acting. Pros aren’t usually controversial; they’re on the payroll, they’re there to provide a service. Professionalism means having an expertise to hide behind, an often narrow expertise, an esoteric language that sets you apart, that gains entry into a professional bodies, one strictly off-limits to rank amateurs.

Amateurs, by contrast, aren’t moved by profit or pay; they usually care more about ideas and values not tied down to any profession; their vision is often more expansive, more eclectic, not hampered by the conservatism of narrow expertise, preoccupied with defending one’s intellectual turf. To be an amateur is to express the ancient French word: love of, a person who engages on an unpaid basis, a non-specialist, a layperson. Nothing pejorative intended. Amateurs sometimes care for ideas that question professional authority because they express concerns professions don’t consider, don’t see, don’t care about. Thus an amateur might likely be somebody who rocks the boat, who stirs up trouble, because he or she isn’t on anybody’s payroll—never will be on the payroll because of the critical things they say. In this sense, an intellectual ought to be an amateur, Said insisted, a thinking and concerned member of a society who raises questions at the very heart of even the most professionalized activity. Still, the issue for amateurs today is how to deal with the flagrant professionalism in our midst—in urban studies, in urban life, everywhere?"
andymerrifield  shrinkage  austerity  plannedshrinkage  economics  authority  experts  2015  maateurs 
march 2015
Boeing plans to build world's longest-range passenger jet
Experts say ultra-long range planes deliver mixed benefits to airlines and so far the market for them remains a niche, overshadowed by the juggernauts designed for trunk routes.

That is because when modern aircraft fly the longest 15-hour flights, the first few hours are spent mostly burning the fuel needed to carry even more fuel for the rest of the flight.

These aircraft "carry more fuel to carry more fuel," said consultant Richard Aboulafia of Virginia-based Teal Group.

"They need a very big wing with lots of (fuel storage) capacity, which means lots of structure and weight."

Fuel is not the only source of extra weight. The long journey times also mean loading extra meals and a reserve crew, so that the fuel burned per hour - a measure of efficiency - can end up greater than if the plane simply stopped en route.

Airlines must balance this against any extra revenue they can charge for a direct flight and the ability to eliminate the fuel wasted in climbing and descending twice, as well as en-route landing fees and other costs linked to a stopover.
airlines  boeing  airbus  a380  a350  777  787  aeriality  economics  ****  reuters 
march 2015
1/ Combining my typography tools into one library: Typography tools for better web type.
****  mytools  design  typography  javascript 
march 2015
My Ambitious Writing Goal Over the Next 12 Months | Jamie Todd Rubin
A Tale of Two Stories Last week, while on one of my daily walks, I suddenly hit on why I was struggling with the novella on which I’ve been working, off and on, for the last year or so. The current working title is “Strays.” I was artificially constraining the story.
writing  novel  howto  **  habits 
march 2015
Suzanne Heath on Twitter: "In the intro essay to High Rise it says that J G Ballard predicted social media in a 1977 essay for Vogue. Here it is http://t.co/EJm75E4A9r"
RT @Suzanne_Heath: In the intro essay to High Rise it says that J G Ballard predicted social media in a 1977 essay for Vogue. Here it is
essay  future  ****  social.media  ballard  prediction  vogue 
march 2015
College and football
At some point the cognitive dissonance of “college” and “football” together will be too great to ignore.
medicine  sports  ***  mind  nytimes  disease  football  college 
march 2015
George Orwell: Why Socialists Don't Believe In Fun
"The inability of mankind to imagine happiness except in the form of relief, either from effort or pain, presents Socialists with a serious problem. Dickens can describe a poverty-stricken family tucking into a roast goose, and can make them appear happy; on the other hand, the inhabitants of perfect universes seem to have no spontaneous gaiety and are usually somewhat repulsive into the bargain. But clearly we are not aiming at the kind of world Dickens described, nor, probably, at any world he was capable of imagining. The Socialist objective is not a society where everything comes right in the end, because kind old gentlemen give away turkeys. What are we aiming at, if not a society in which ‘charity’ would be unnecessary? We want a world where Scrooge, with his dividends, and Tiny Tim, with his tuberculous leg, would both be unthinkable. But does that mean we are aiming at some painless, effortless Utopia? At the risk of saying something which the editors of Tribune may not endorse, I suggest that the real objective of Socialism is not happiness. Happiness hitherto has been a by-product, and for all we know it may always remain so. The real objective of Socialism is human brotherhood. This is widely felt to be the case, though it is not usually said, or not said loudly enough. Men use up their lives in heart-breaking political struggles, or get themselves killed in civil wars, or tortured in the secret prisons of the Gestapo, not in order to establish some central-heated, air-conditioned, strip-lighted Paradise, but because they want a world in which human beings love one another instead of swindling and murdering one another. And they want that world as a first step. Where they go from there is not so certain, and the attempt to foresee it in detail merely confuses the issue."

[Also available here: http://www.k-1.com/Orwell/site/work/essays/fun.html ]

[See also commentary: https://radicalscholarship.wordpress.com/2013/12/25/the-socialist-objective-i-can-see-the-dawn-of-the-better-day-for-humanity/ ]
fun  1943  charlesdickens  humanism  charity  socialism  society  orwell  quotation  literature  happiness 
march 2015
"The Card Index as Creativity Machine"
Great article on Roland Barthes' use of an index card system, and how it relates to his creative process and his perception of fragments
creativity  ***  writing  archive  fragments  process 
march 2015
Airbus's Flagship Plane May Be Too Big To Be Profitable
Tom Enders stared at the phone on his desk as it began to ring. The Airbus boss had been expecting a call to his office in Toulouse. It was Tim Clark, chief executive of Dubai-based airline Emirates, the biggest buyer of the planemaker’s A380 “superjumbo”.

Clark was angry. He wanted to know why Airbus finance director Harald Wilhelm had just raised the prospect of the death of the A380.

The aircraft cost $25bn (£16bn) to develop, but it has struggled to chalk up the large orders Airbus had envisioned, at $440m each. So far, it has just 318 orders, compared with the 1,200 that Airbus thought airlines needed in that size category – it carries around 550 passengers – when it began marketing in 2000.

Wilhelm sparked panic among Airbus customers and shareholders when he told analysts it would break even on the aircraft up until 2018, “if we would do something on the product, or even if we would discontinue the product”.

The indiscretion let slip an internal debate at Airbus about the future of the world’s largest jetliner. However, it was the first time the Franco-German manufacturer had publicly admitted it was contemplating pulling the rug on the programme. “I am not particularly happy, as you can imagine,” Clark fumed. “We are on the hook for this plane. I get pretty miffed when we have put so much at stake.”

Emirates has 55 of the giant planes in service and has placed orders for a further 85. The carrier accounts for 40% of the total orders for the aircraft, so any squeak from Clark will reverberate around Toulouse.

Airbus has attempted to soothe fears about killing off its marquee plane by saying it was more likely to modify the aircraft and launch a model with more fuel-efficient engines, known as the A380Neo (new engine option), or a bigger “stretch” version.

“The entire Airbus top management continues to believe strongly in the market prospects for the A380, but any investment requires a sound business case, which we will continue to study.”

Emirates Airline's Airbus A380REUTERS/Tobias Schwarz

Clark said if Airbus did press ahead with the engine upgrade, which could improve fuel efficiency by up to 15%, Emirates would eventually replace all 140 of its superjumbos with the upgraded version.

Since the plane’s first commercial flight with Singapore Airlines in 2007, Airbus has struggled to sell the A380. The global economic downturn hit airlines hard, forcing many out of business. Those that survived have turned to using smaller, twin-jet models that are more fuel efficient and can fly to more airports.

One industry source said: “We still haven’t come out of recession and for companies to put major assets like this on the balance sheet is a big ask.”

The A380 works best when flown on popular routes, or from capacity-constrained airports, such as Heathrow. But many airlines have struggled to make the investment profitable.

Alexandre de Juniac, chief executive of Air France-KLM, aims to cancel the last two of a dozen A380s the airline has on order and swap them for smaller models. He said recently: “It’s an excellent plane but it only works for the right destinations.”

This year looks like it will be the first since the A380 entered service without a new airline customer. The only buyer has been a leasing company that has yet to line up a single carrier to take any of the 20 planes it ordered.

James Hogan, chief executive of Etihad, this month ruled out further A380 purchases as he took delivery of the airline’s first “superjumbo”. His frank assessment that Etihad would not be affected by the ending of A380 production added weight to fears that Airbus has struggled to find any more buyers.

Emirates Airline's Airbus A380 stewardessREUTERS/Tobias Schwarz

Hogan said: “When you are taking 10 aircraft, whether Airbus continues the production line or not isn’t an issue.”

Airbus is suing Japan’s Skymark Airlines after canceling an order for six A380s amid fears that it would not receive payment from the airline, while Virgin Atlantic and Air Austral are among the carriers increasingly unlikely to proceed with orders.

Clark is baffled by the way rival airlines use the A380, noting the odd seating configurations that some use.

Emirates is using the plane as its main jet because air travel is forecast to double in the next 10 years to 7bn passengers annually. So it is convinced that airports and airlines will need huge jets like the A380 to cope with the surge in demand.

“It’s a great aircraft,” Clark told Airlineratings.com. “If airlines don’t believe they can fill an A380, their business model is wrong.”

He said if a new model was built it would be as economical to fly as the Boeing 777X long-haul jet, which is being introduced in 2018. “We will buy 140 of the A380Neos,” he said. “As long as I am around, I am going to continue to fight the battle for the A380. The world needs [this aircraft].”

He described the plane as a “passenger magnet” and reckons the five that Emirates operates each day between Dubai and Heathrow are 95% full.

While the Dubai carrier is loath to see the A380 cancelled, perhaps even more is at stake for Britain’s economy. Any move to kill off the “queen of the skies” is sure to cause anguish at Airbus’s two main British plants. All of the wings for its planes are designed in Filton, Bristol, and assembled at Broughton in north Wales.

Broughton’s new north factory is one of the biggest in Britain and contains a huge, automated rivet gun which is five stories high. It takes this giant industrial stapler 10 days to punch 750,000 rivets into precise locations on both wings. It would take more than a month for two teams of 20 people on each wing to do the same job.

The wings are the most complicated and most important part of the plane and there are thousands of well-paid, highly skilled British jobs that rely on the work. “There’s a lot hanging on the future of this programme for Britain,” an industry source said.

However, insiders suggested that Wilhelm’s gaffe and Clark’s angry response had refocused Airbus’s top team on sorting out the A380, which may give the programme a shot in the arm.

Emirates Airline's Airbus A380 screensREUTERS/Chip East

The Emirates chief urged the manufacturer to step up its A380 marketing efforts. He also criticized Airbus for focusing too heavily on an upgrade of its best-selling A320 short-haul plane.

“What is happening over there?” he fumed. “I would like a first-hand understanding on where it is going.”

Whatever Airbus decides, some believe the A380 is already destined for the history books.

Richard Aboulafia, aviation analyst at Teal Group and a long-time critic of the giant jetliner, said the fresh crop of wide bodied, twin-engine planes coming to the market signalled the death of the A380.

“I don’t think it will last for more than a few years into the next decade,” Aboulafia said. “The quicker Airbus lets go, the quicker it can devote its marketing efforts to other products.”

■ The Airbus A380 made its first flight on 27 April 2005 and entered commercial service in October 2007 with Singapore Airlines.

■ It is the world’s biggest jetliner at 73m long, 24.45m high and with a wingspan of almost 80m.

■ Each of the A380’s giant wings, which are designed and made in Britain, can hold up to 125 tonnes of fuel. This gives it a flight range of 15,700 km, or enough juice to fly non-stop from Dallas to Sydney.

■It takes 3,600 liters of paint to cover the 3,100 sq m (33,000 sq ft) exterior of the aircraft.

■There is 530km of wiring in each A380 aircraft.
airbus  aviation  airlines  airplane  a380  aeriality  ****  economics 
march 2015
How Composites are Strengthening the Aviation Industry
Increasingly, aircraft designers have been turning to composites to help make their vehicles lighter, more fuel-efficient and more comfortable for passengers.

Half of the Boeing 787 and the Airbus A350, for example, are constructed of composite materials, and other manufacturers, like Bombardier, are adopting composites for a variety of aircraft sections.

Composites present a number of substantial advantages to aircraft designers -- as well as potential problems.

Pros and Cons of Composites

Composites do have some attractive material properties.

First of all, composites offer a very high stiffness-to-weight ratio. Very stiff fibers (usually carbon or glass) are embedded in a matrix (usually some sort of plastic).

The fibers provide the stiffness, and the matrix provides the glue to produce a stiff structure that is very light. Plastics and the fibers generally are less dense than metals, but the fibers have greater stiffness, providing for a larger stiffness-to-weight ratio.

Since composites are composed of a matrix reinforced with a fiber, it's rare for large cracks to develop in them.

Small cracks ordinarily stop when they run into a stiff, neighboring fiber. When extreme forces are applied to the structure, composites indeed may crack, but the energy required for complete fracture is significant.

Metals are susceptible to both fatigue and corrosion -- each of which has resulted in high-visibility calamities over the years. The famous Aloha Airlines disaster in the 1980s was the result of fatigue.
Aircraft operate in very corrosive environments, and inspections for corrosion damage are carried out often. Composites don't corrode, which is a plus, and they are also not subject to fatigue damage to the extent of metal structures.

Because of this, new aircraft with composite fuselages, such as the Boeing 787, can provide some additional passenger comfort amenities not available on a metal aircraft.

For example, the pressure in the cabin in flight can be higher, producing less ear popping on landing. This is possible since the pressurization differences between the inside cabin and the outside air can be higher for a composite fuselage.

This is due to its superior cyclic load capabilities, which is the primary cause of fatigue damage. The humidity levels in the cabin also can be higher due to the corrosion resistance of composites, which will produce fewer headaches and dry mouths after a long flight.

Another passenger benefit to composites is that due to their very stiff material properties, windows can be larger.

From an engineering perspective, composites offer some additional advantages. For one, their stiffness properties can be tailored since they are stiffer in the direction of the reinforcing fibers.

Composites are usually built up with laminates where unidirectional fabric layers are stacked on top of each other in different orientations to give the structure maximum stiffness where it is needed.

Also composites can be tailored to slightly change shape in designed ways with an applied load, which allows designers to create more aerodynamically efficient wing structures. With composites, engineers also are more easily able to embed sensors into the aircraft's skin to allow pilots to watch for any damage. That capability can significantly reduce the likelihood of a small problem growing into a dangerous one.

Despite these benefits, aircraft manufacturers justifiably have been very cautious in transitioning to composites. One reason is that since composites are often constructed of different ply layers into a laminate structure, they can "delaminate" between layers where they are weaker.

Out-of-plane loads perpendicular to the layers are one cause of delamination, so designers have to be aware of all of the potential loads paths in the structure to avoid this. Similarly, any loads that try to compress the length of the fibers can cause delamination.

Much like pushing on the ends of a deck of cards, the entire stack can come apart. The internal load distribution in a composite can be very complex, which can cause layers to separate in certain combinations of loads.

This definitely poses some design issues to be addressed that don't often come into play with metallic structures.

Because of the threat of delamination, engineers who design composite structures take special care to make certain that loads placed on the composites are primarily in-plane -- where the fibers are strong -- and that buckling does not occur.

Compounding the difficulties confronting engineers, composites cannot be inspected for weakness or internal damage in the same way that metals can. Delamination and cracks in the composite matrix are usually internal to the composite and will not be visible from the surface.

Techniques are available to find such faults -- such as the embedded sensors previously mentioned -- but they require a different methodology than that to which the industry is accustomed.
A final issue revolves around the joining of composite components to metal structures.

The composite is stiffer than the metal, so from an engineering standpoint, the composite carries most of the loads. To compensate for this additional stress, manufacturers must build up the joint with more material, a process that adds weight to the aircraft.

Moreover, the metal will expand and contract much more than the composites to which it is joined, an imbalance that can cause joint failure.

The solution seems simple enough: Use more composites. Joining composite to composite eliminates some of the issues but they can cause others.

For example, joining of composites is often done with an adhesive layer that is prone to delamination under certain types of loads. Using fasteners to join composites presents other difficulties due to the stress concentrations from drilled holes and thermal expansion mismatch between the composites and the fasteners.

Ideally, designers are looking to create more integral composite structures that do not require joining.

The Importance of Simulation

Because so many technical variables can impact the use of composites, manufacturers are relying more than ever on computer simulation to design and test composite structures virtually before constructing the actual aircraft.

However, simulation becomes more complex than in the past because, rather than analyzing a uniform metal component, the system must deal with layers of fibers that have a directionality that can influence the response of the structure. This heterogeneous material has its own particular properties that must be considered.

The number of design variables to consider is multiplied exponentially, which often results in very conservative designs that do not take full advantage of the many unique properties of composites.

Advanced simulation software is enabling engineers to account for these variables in a more reliable and systematic fashion. For instance, Altair ProductDesign, with its optimization algorithm that has been developed especially for composite design, is able to precisely calculate where designers should incorporate fewer plies or more of them, which ply angles should be used where in the structure, and how to best stack the plies.

These solutions offer up the calculations that engineers need to fabricate the right composite structure for the particular application. This process takes advantage of the computer that can cycle through the variables in a very efficient manner to come up with a better design.

Composites are likely to assume an ever more crucial position in the aviation industry, and with composites playing a larger role, the industry can expect a lift that takes it and its customers to new heights of safety, comfort and efficiency.
aviation  aeriality  technology  innovation  composites  *** 
march 2015
What scares the new atheists | John Gray | World news | The Guardian
"The vocal fervour of today’s missionary atheism conceals a panic that religion is not only refusing to decline – but in fact flourishing"

"Above all, these unevangelical atheists accepted that religion is definitively human. Though not all human beings may attach great importance to them, every society contains practices that are recognisably religious. Why should religion be universal in this way? For atheist missionaries this is a decidedly awkward question. Invariably they claim to be followers of Darwin. Yet they never ask what evolutionary function this species-wide phenomenon serves. There is an irresolvable contradiction between viewing religion naturalistically – as a human adaptation to living in the world – and condemning it as a tissue of error and illusion. What if the upshot of scientific inquiry is that a need for illusion is built into in the human mind? If religions are natural for humans and give value to their lives, why spend your life trying to persuade others to give them up?

The answer that will be given is that religion is implicated in many human evils. Of course this is true. Among other things, Christianity brought with it a type of sexual repression unknown in pagan times. Other religions have their own distinctive flaws. But the fault is not with religion, any more than science is to blame for the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction or medicine and psychology for the refinement of techniques of torture. The fault is in the intractable human animal. Like religion at its worst, contemporary atheism feeds the fantasy that human life can be remade by a conversion experience – in this case, conversion to unbelief.

Evangelical atheists at the present time are missionaries for their own values. If an earlier generation promoted the racial prejudices of their time as scientific truths, ours aims to give the illusions of contemporary liberalism a similar basis in science. It’s possible to envision different varieties of atheism developing – atheisms more like those of Freud, which didn’t replace God with a flattering image of humanity. But atheisms of this kind are unlikely to be popular. More than anything else, our unbelievers seek relief from the panic that grips them when they realise their values are rejected by much of humankind. What today’s freethinkers want is freedom from doubt, and the prevailing version of atheism is well suited to give it to them."
culture  belief  Liberalism  atheism  religion  values  johngray  christianity  2015  via:Anne  *** 
march 2015
A Practical Utopian’s Guide to the Coming Collapse - David Graeber
Myself, I am less interested in deciding what sort of economic system we should have in a free society than in creating the means by which people can make such decisions for themselves. What might a revolution in common sense actually look like? I don’t know, but I can think of any number of pieces of conventional wisdom that surely need challenging if we are to create any sort of viable free society. I’ve already explored one—the nature of money and debt—in some detail in a recent book. I even suggested a debt jubilee, a general cancellation, in part just to bring home that money is really just a human product, a set of promises, that by its nature can always be renegotiated.

What would remain is the kind of work only human beings will ever be able to do: those forms of caring and helping labor that are at the very center of the crisis that brought about Occupy Wall Street to begin with. What would happen if we stopped acting as if the primordial form of work is laboring at a production line, or wheat field, or iron foundry, or even in an office cubicle, and instead started from a mother, a teacher, or a caregiver? We might be forced to conclude that the real business of human life is not contributing toward something called “the economy” (a concept that didn’t even exist three hundred years ago), but the fact that we are all, and have always been, projects of mutual creation.Labor, similarly, should be renegotiated. Submitting oneself to labor discipline—supervision, control, even the self-control of the ambitious self-employed—does not make one a better person. In most really important ways, it probably makes one worse. To undergo it is a misfortune that at best is sometimes necessary. Yet it’s only when we reject the idea that such labor is virtuous in itself that we can start to ask what is virtuous about labor. To which the answer is obvious. Labor is virtuous if it helps others. A renegotiated definition of productivity should make it easier to reimagine the very nature of what work is, since, among other things, it will mean that technological development will be redirected less toward creating ever more consumer products and ever more disciplined labor, and more toward eliminating those forms of labor entirely.
david.graeber  economics  revolution  politics  labor  *** 
march 2015
Hacked dog, a car that snoops on you and a fridge full of adverts: the perils of the internet of things | Technology | The Guardian
"In the not so distant future, every object in your life will be online and talking to one another. It’ll transform the way we live and work - but will the benefits outweigh the dangers?"

"For all the untold benefits of the IoT, its potential downsides are colossal. Adding 50bn new objects to the global information grid by 2020 means that each of these devices, for good or ill, will be able to potentially interact with the other 50bn connected objects on earth. The result will be 2.5 sextillion potential networked object-to-object interactions – a network so vast and complex it can scarcely be understood or modelled. The IoT will be a global network of unintended consequences and black swan events, ones that will do things nobody ever planned. In this world, it is impossible to know the consequences of connecting your home’s networked blender to the same information grid as an ambulance in Tokyo, a bridge in Sydney, or a Detroit auto manufacturer’s production line.

The vast levels of cyber crime we currently face make it abundantly clear we cannot even adequately protect the standard desktops and laptops we presently have online, let alone the hundreds of millions of mobile phones and tablets we are adding annually. In what vision of the future, then, is it conceivable that we will be able to protect the next 50bn things, from pets to pacemakers to self-driving cars? The obvious reality is that we cannot.

Our technological threat surface area is growing exponentially and we have no idea how to defend it effectively. The internet of things will become nothing more than the Internet of things to be hacked."
security  advertising  2015  susceptibility  via:Anne  surveillance  internetofthings  iot  rfid  ***  connectivity 
march 2015
Untitled (http://www.newrepublic.com/article/121277/laziest-generation)
The Laziest Generation: "Older workers who refuse to learn computers are torturing millions of millennials every day"
from twitter_favs
march 2015
Toile Chic - The Awl
A history of capital using labor for decoration
design  labor  ornament  ** 
march 2015
Aggregate – Black Lives Matter
Favorite tweet:

This looks deeply fascinating: Black lives matter meets architecture, urbanism, and power: http://t.co/JOQHeTwlci

— Eleanor Saitta (@Dymaxion) March 10, 2015
power  justice  architecture  race  *** 
march 2015
Sara Haider on Twitter: "Jay Z's My President (2009) and Obama's speech in Selma (2015) http://t.co/LCOvpdYAFA"
Jay Z:
"Rosa parks sat so Martin Luther could walk
Martin Luther walked so Barack Obama could run
Barack Obama ran so all the children could fly"

"We honor those who walked so we could run.
We must run so our children soar."
race  politics  jayz  america  hip-hop  funny  quotes  speech  obama  via:tracychou 
march 2015
Deep mapping as an ‘essaying’ of place | Iain Biggs
In the case of deep mapping as essaying these concerns correspond to McLucas’ view that deep mapping should be a “politicized, passionate, and partisan” evocation of a site, involving “negotiation and contestation over who and what is represented and how” and giving rise to “debate about the documentation and portrayal of people and places” but, above all, should strive to remain “unstable, fragile and temporary… a conversation and not a statement”
mapping  cartography  geography  methodology  ***  critical.cartography  essay 
march 2015
That Way We’re All Writing Now — The Message — Medium
Clive Thompson: For the first fifteen years of the mainstream Internet, the main way language changed was at the level of the individual word. We invented a lot of ‘textisms’ — short forms like ‘ur’ for “you’re”, LOL-style acronyms, or alphanumeric l33tspe@k. And of course, a lot of words got invented, like “selfie”.

What’s happening now is different. Now we’re messing around with syntax — the structure of sentences, the order in which the various parts go and how they relate to one another. This stuff people are doing with the subordinate clause, it’s pretty sophisticated, and oddly deep. We’re not just inventing catchy new words. We’re mucking around with what makes a sentence a sentence.
internet  ****  via:jbushnell  future  language  change 
march 2015
Pablo Neruda on originality annfriedman:I’ve been... - Austin Kleon

You have often said that you don’t believe in originality.


To look for originality at all costs is a modern condition. In our time, the writer wants to call attention to himself, and this superficial preoccupation takes on fetishistic characteristics. Each person tries to find a road whereby he will stand out, neither for profundity nor for discovery, but for the imposition of a special diversity. The most original artist will change phases in accord with the time, the epoch.

I’ve been thinking a lot about the illusion of pure originality ever since I read this comment [http://www.theparisreview.org/interviews/4091/the-art-of-poetry-no-14-pablo-neruda ] from Pablo Neruda… I’m putting this here to remind myself that next time I feel the desire to defend and clamp down on my work, it might be time to try making something new instead. And accept that even the new-for-me thing is not going to be totally original.

Nice thoughts from Ann. (Her newsletter rules.) Another bit from Neruda’s Memoirs:
I don’t believe in originality. It is just one more fetish made up in our time, which is speeding dizzily to its collapse. I believe in personality reached through any language, any form, any creative means used by the artist. But out-and-out originality is a modern invention and an electoral fraud.
creativity  austinkleon  annefriedman  2015  fraud  author  originality  via:robertogreco  neruda 
march 2015
All you need is publish — The Message — Medium
Craig Mod: "Whether you own your URL or not, your own app or not, whether you Tumblr or Wattpad, just publish. Export often? Yes. Backup feverishly? Of course. But publish everything everywhere. Anything anywhere."
internet  writing  *****  via:jbushnell  design  manifesto  independent  indie 
march 2015
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