emkay + science   62

Regular trips out guard against depression in old age: New study finds clear link between cultural engagement and lower risk
Researchers at University College London found a clear link between the frequency of 'cultural engagement' and the chances of someone over 50 developing depression. It is the first such study to show that cultural activities not only help people manage and recover from depression but can actually help to prevent it.
science  depression  culture 
2 days ago by emkay
Vitamin B12 deficiency can be sneaky, harmful
The human body needs vitamin B12 to make red blood cells, nerves, DNA, and carry out other functions. The average adult should get 2.4 micrograms a day. Like most vitamins, B12 can’t be made by the body. Instead, it must be gotten from food or supplements.

Conditions that interfere with food absorption, such celiac or Crohn’s disease, can cause B12 trouble.

The condition is more likely to occur in older people due to the cutback in stomach acid production that often occurs with aging.
science  medicine  celiac  vegetarianism 
2 days ago by emkay
Lethal combination: Drug cocktail turns off the juice to cancer cells
The widely used anti-diabetes drug metformin not only reduces blood sugar but also has an anti-cancer effect. However, the metformin dose commonly used in the treatment of diabetes is too low to inhibit cancer growth. The previous study of Prof. Hall's group at the University of Basel's Biozentrum revealed that the antihypertensive drug syrosingopine enhances metformin's anti-cancer efficacy
science  medicine  cancer 
4 days ago by emkay
'Dropout' rate for academic scientists has risen sharply in past 50 years, study finds
Half of the people pursuing careers as scientists at higher education institutions will drop out of the field after five years, according to a new analysis from researchers at Indiana University Bloomington. That number contrasts sharply with the departure rate of scientists in the 1960s, when a much higher fraction spent their full careers in academia. Back then, it took 35 years for half of the people entering the field at the same time to drop out.
science  career  academia  welduh 
5 days ago by emkay
Topological material switched off and on for the first time
Topological insulators are novel materials that behave as electrical insulators in their interior, but can carry a current along their edges. "In these edge paths, electrons can only travel in one direction," explains lead author Dr Mark Edmonds. "And this means there can be no 'back-scattering,' which is what causes electrical resistance in conventional electrical conductors."
science  physics 
5 days ago by emkay
'Chemo brain' caused by malfunction in three types of brain cells, study finds
More than half of cancer survivors suffer from cognitive impairment from chemotherapy that lingers for months or years after the cancer is gone. In a new study explaining the cellular mechanisms behind this condition, scientists at the Stanford University School of Medicine have demonstrated that a widely used chemotherapy drug, methotrexate, causes a complex set of problems in three major cell types within the brain's white matter.
science  medicine  cancer  chemobrain 
8 days ago by emkay
Engineers repurpose wasp venom as an antibiotic drug
After performing a systematic study of the antimicrobial properties of a toxin normally found in a South American wasp, researchers at MIT have now created variants of the peptide that are potent against bacteria but nontoxic to human cells.
science  medicine  antibiotics  wasps 
8 days ago by emkay
Gene that lets you eat as much as you want holds promise against obesity
It sounds too good to be true, but a novel approach that might allow you to eat as much as you want without gaining weight could be a reality in the near future. When a single gene known as RCAN1 was removed in mice and they were fed a high fat diet, they failed to gain weight, even after gorging on high fat foods for prolonged periods.
science  medicine  obesity  genetics 
11 days ago by emkay
Towards a treatment for gluten intolerance: While mutations of the ion-channel CFTR cause cystic fibrosis, its inhibition may serve as a target for addressing celiac disease
About 1 in 100 people suffer from celiac disease, but the prevalence is about three times higher in patients who also suffer from cystic fibrosis.
celiac  medicine  science  genetics 
12 days ago by emkay
How many senses do plants employ? More than animals or people, it seems
Plants are endowed with close equivalents of all five – and as many as 15 others, like the ability to detect electromagnetic force,  that are generally denied to the animal kingdom and its so-called higher life forms. And their sensing is hardly passive; those vining plants have been shown to direct tendrils toward a support located in advance, rather than flailing until they bump something, and even to display preferences among available options.
science  plants  senses  vegetarianism 
15 days ago by emkay
Device could provide refrigeration for off-grid locations
"In the past, people have only been thinking about using it to reduce heating. But now, we know if the shade is used smartly together with some supportive light filtering, it can actually be used to cool the object down,"
science  physics  refrigeration 
16 days ago by emkay
Ointment to counter the effects of brown recluse spider bites is tested on humans
The bite from a brown recluse spider (Loxosceles) can cause skin necrosis, renal failure, and even death. A new ointment is being tested in Brazil, however. Its effects have already been proven in tests conducted in cell cultures and animal models. Now the ointment will have its immunomodulatory action tested on humans in Phase III clinical trials, and it may be included in the treatment protocol for patients who develop lesions caused by the spider bite. The trial has started in October.
science  medicine  spiders 
16 days ago by emkay
A prosthetic arm that decodes phantom limb movements
About 75 percent of amputees exhibit mobility of their phantom limb. Using this information, researchers have developed a prototype capable of detecting these movements and activating a prosthetic arm. The prosthesis does not require any surgery and patients do not need training.
science  prosthetics 
16 days ago by emkay
How Restaurants Got So Loud
The coffee shop is quiet, probably as quiet as it can be while still being occupied. Even at its slowest and most hushed, the average background noise level hovered around 73 decibels (as measured with my calibrated meter). That’s not dangerous—noise levels become harmful to human hearing above 85 decibels—but it is certainly not quiet. Other sounds that reach 70 decibels include freeway noise, an alarm clock, and a sewing machine.
science  noise  restaurant  architecture 
16 days ago by emkay
Your Dog May Not Be a Genius, after All
The study finds that dogs are cognitively quite ordinary when compared to other carnivores, domestic animals, and social hunters. “There is no current case for canine exceptionalism,” the authors conclude.
science  dogs  intelligence 
16 days ago by emkay
Lack of sleep intensifies anger, impairs adaptation to frustrating circumstances
Losing just a couple hours of sleep at night makes you angrier, especially in frustrating situations, according to new Iowa State University research. While the results may seem intuitive, the study is one of the first to provide evidence that sleep loss causes anger.
psychology  sleep  anger  science 
18 days ago by emkay
Women Sleep Better With Dogs By Their Side Instead Of Human Partners, Study Shows
On the flip side, cats were reported to be equally disruptive as human partners and were associated with weaker feelings of comfort and security compared to dogs or humans.
science  pets  sleep 
18 days ago by emkay
Vaccine breakthrough brings researchers closer to eliminating polio worldwide: Scientists create a temperature-stable vaccine for use in developing countries where refrigeration may be unavailable
The injectable vaccine, which was freeze-dried into a powder, kept at room temperature for four weeks and then rehydrated, offered full protection against the polio virus when tested in mice.
science  medicine  vaccination  polio 
18 days ago by emkay
Study in mice suggests drug to turn fat 'brown' could help fight obesity
To carry out their research, the team used mice that had been bred to produce higher levels of the protein in adipose tissue. As anticipated, they found that increasing BMP8b levels changed some of the white fat into brown fat, a process known as beiging and thus increased the amount of energy burnt by the tissue.
science  medicine  obesity 
19 days ago by emkay
The Sun's long-lost sibling found in our own backyard
That star is HD 186302, and it really is uncannily like the Sun. It's what we call a G3 star, very close to the Sun's classification as a G2; it's only slightly less massive and cooler than the Sun. The chemical abundances seen in it are a virtual match for the Sun. The age is harder to determine; the average age found using various indicators was about 3.5 billion years, but the uncertainty is well over a billion years, meaning that within the margin of error HD 186302 was born around the same time as the Sun
astronomy  science 
24 days ago by emkay
Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2015
From 2006 to 2015, the total number of reported abortions decreased 24% (from 842,855), the abortion rate decreased 26% (from 15.9 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–44 years), and the abortion ratio decreased 19% (from 233 abortions per 1,000 live births). In 2015, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2006–2015).
science  medicine  abortion  CDC 
24 days ago by emkay
Sugar Cures Cancer?
The authors “were keen to find out” (they’re in the UK) if these effects that they’d seen in tissue culture dishes could be recapitulated in vivo. They fed mannose to mice with tumors, and it slowed tumor growth and enhanced chemotherapy in the mice, too. It did not cause weight gain or otherwise impact the health of the mice.
science  cancer  medicine 
24 days ago by emkay
Dogs know when they don't know
Dogs more self aware than most humans. (whistles)

"Researchers have shown that dogs possess some 'metacognitive' abilities -- specifically, they are aware of when they do not have enough information to solve a problem and will actively seek more information."
science  dogs  awareness 
25 days ago by emkay
Eyes of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients show evidence of prions
By the time symptoms of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) are typically discovered, death is looming and inevitable. In a new study, researchers report finding tell-tale evidence of the condition's infectious agent in the eyes of deceased sCJD patients, making the eye a potential source for both early CJD detection and prevention of disease transmission.
science  medicine  prions 
25 days ago by emkay
New inflammation inhibitor discovered
A multidisciplinary team of researchers led from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have developed an anti-inflammatory drug molecule with a new mechanism of action. By inhibiting a certain protein, the researchers were able to reduce the signals that trigger an inflammation. 
science  medicine 
4 weeks ago by emkay
Bearded Men Found More Attractive Than Clean-Shaven
“Beards may be more attractive to women when considering long‐term than short‐term relationships as they indicate a male’s ability to successfully compete socially with other males for resources,” the study concluded.
science  beard 
4 weeks ago by emkay
Rainforest vine compound starves pancreatic cancer cells
The researchers found that this new compound killed pancreatic cancer cells under conditions of nutrient starvation but not when nutrients were plentiful. Ancistrolikokine E3 also inhibited cancer cell migration and colonization in lab tests, which suggests that the compound could help prevent metastasis in patients.
science  medicine  cancer 
4 weeks ago by emkay
Why your number of romantic partners mirrors your mother: Moms may pass on relationship skills, other key characteristics
A new national study shows that people whose mothers had more partners -- married or cohabiting -- often follow the same path.
science  relationships 
4 weeks ago by emkay
Cancer stem cells get energy from protein, and it's proving to be their Achilles' heel
Healthy cells don't need to metabolize protein. The current study shows that cancer stem cells do need to metabolize protein. And this difference is proving to be an Achilles' heel that allows researchers to target cancer stem cells without harming healthy cells -- the approach has already proven effective in clinical trials against acute myeloid leukemia and holds promise for other cancers including breast, pancreatic, and liver.
science  medicine  cancer 
4 weeks ago by emkay
Definition Of The Kilogram Is About To Change
The world is about to say au revoir to Le Grand K, a cylinder of platinum and iridium that has long reigned over the world's system of weight measurement.
science  physics  history 
4 weeks ago by emkay
Brain learns to recognize familiar faces regardless of where they are in the visual field
"Much in the same way that the human language system is adapted and optimized to process an individual's native language, including auditory recognition of speech sounds, the face perception system is finely tuned in each individual for interaction with the people that play an important role in that person's life"
science  perception  recognition  brain  faces 
5 weeks ago by emkay
Delivering drugs directly to the eye using microneedles that dissolve
A team of researchers wants to replace these with a small patch patients can place on the eye, much like a contact lens. When removed, the patch leaves behind microneedles, which slowly dissolve in the corneal fluid, releasing drugs into the eye as they do.
medicine  science  glaucoma  terrifying 
5 weeks ago by emkay
How many calories do you burn? It depends on time of day
When at rest, people burn 10 percent more calories in the late afternoon and early evening than in the early morning hours
science  metabolism  medicine 
5 weeks ago by emkay
Traditional glaucoma test can miss severity of disease: Study finds variation of exam better assesses central vision damage
"When looking for signs of early glaucoma, clinicians tend to focus on loss of peripheral (side) vision and seldom on the macula, the central area of the retina -- which determines our ability to read, drive, and to see our children's faces,"
medicine  science  glaucoma 
5 weeks ago by emkay
Brain signature of depressed mood unveiled in new study
A study of 21 people found that for most, feeling down was associated with greater communication between brain areas involved in emotion and memory
science  medicine  depression 
5 weeks ago by emkay
Genetics play less of a role in lifespan than we thought
Nobody is choosing partners based on how long they’ll live. As the authors of the paper sagely note, lifespan “cannot be observed until death, at which point the opportunity to mate has ended.”
science  genetics  aging 
5 weeks ago by emkay
Blue light can reduce blood pressure, study suggests
Researchers discovered that exposure to whole-body blue light significantly reduced the systolic blood pressure of participants by almost 8 mmHg, compared to the control light which had no impact. The reduction of blood pressure from blue light is similar to what is seen in clinical trials with blood pressure lowering drugs.
science  medicine  hypertension  light 
5 weeks ago by emkay
Visitor from another solar system accelerated away from the Sun
Based on these calculations, gravity comes up short. There are 10 measurements where 'Oumuamua was more than five standard deviations away from where it would be expected to have ended up based on gravity alone. Another 25 locations are more than three standard deviations off.
science  space  gravity  physics 
5 weeks ago by emkay
A Beautiful World: Want to save the world? Educate girls
The theory, which they discovered after collecting data from global experts in health, commerce, and energy, is that getting girls into classrooms is the single most powerful way to end global poverty.
science  politics  poverty  education  girls 
5 weeks ago by emkay
Air pollution linked to autism
The study of children in Shanghai, from birth to three years, found that exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) from vehicle exhausts, industrial emissions and other sources of outdoor pollution increased the risk of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by up to 78%.
medicine  science  autism  pollution 
5 weeks ago by emkay
Potential antidote to botulism
Researchers have identified a compound that strongly inhibits botulinum neurotoxin, the most toxic compound known.
science  medicine 
5 weeks ago by emkay
If You Drink Coffee Black, You're Probably a Psychopath
A new study from the University of Innsbruck in Austria found that people who prefer their coffee black often have psychopathic or sadistic tendencies.
coffee  psychology  science 
5 weeks ago by emkay
Three types of depression identified
This study not only identifies sub-types of depression for the first time, but also identifies some underlying factors and points to the need to explore new treatment techniques.
science  medicine  depression  MRI 
6 weeks ago by emkay
Lifespan and sexual maturity depends on your brain more than your body: 'Brain Soup' research connects number of neurons to longevity
More specifically, it is not animals with larger bodies or slower metabolic rates that live longer; it is animals with more neurons in the cerebral cortex, whatever the size of the body.
science  medicine  longevity 
6 weeks ago by emkay
Psychologists devise free test for measuring intelligence that takes 10 minutes to complete and is available on touch-screen devices
Unlike standard paper and pencil tests, UCMRT provides insight into problem-solving patterns and reaction times.
science  intelligence  psychology  test 
6 weeks ago by emkay
Gut bacteria recover from antibiotics, but they may take six months
After a course of broad-spectrum antibiotics, 12 men were able to recover to a mostly normal microbiome level within six months. Nine species of gut dwellers, though, never reappeared; instead, there were some undesirable species of bacteria that managed to take hold.
science  medicine  antibiotics  microbiome 
6 weeks ago by emkay
Obese mice lose a third of their fat using a natural protein
The treatments also reduced a number of obesity-related disorders in the mice, such as hyperglycemia -- excess blood sugar that is often linked to diabetes -- and eliminated the fat in their once fatty livers. Clinical as well as microscopic examination of the mice showed no side effects, researchers say.
science  medicine  obesity 
6 weeks ago by emkay
Earth's dust cloud satellites confirmed
A team of Hungarian astronomers and physicists may have confirmed two elusive clouds of dust, in semi-stable points just 400,000 kilometres from Earth.
science  astronomy  Lagrange  dust  space 
7 weeks ago by emkay
Cannabis pain relief without the 'high': Mechanism of cannabidiol for safe pain relief without side effects
Researchers were able to extrapolate the exact dosage of CBD displaying analgesic and antianxiety properties without the risk of addiction and euphoria classically produced by the THC.
science  medicine  pain  cannabis 
7 weeks ago by emkay
Rating movies based on fear pheromones in the cinema
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz have now developed a method that can objectively evaluate the age at which children and adolescents can safely watch a movie.
science  pheromones  movies 
7 weeks ago by emkay
Computer Security: Preventing attacks made possible by Meltdown/Spectre: 'DAWG' system breaks up cache memory more efficiently to defend against 'timing attacks'
In contrast, the MIT CSAIL team's approach is the equivalent of building walls to split the kitchen into separate spaces, and ensuring that everyone only knows their own ingredients and appliances. (This approach is a form of so-called "secure way partitioning"; the "chefs," in the case of cache memory, are referred to as "protection domains.")
security  computer  science  vulnerability 
8 weeks ago by emkay
Length of ring and index fingers 'linked to sexuality'
On average, the lesbians, but not the straight twins, had different sized index and ring fingers, typically a male trait, but only on the left hand.
science  sexuality  hands 
8 weeks ago by emkay
Dandelion seeds reveal newly discovered form of natural flight: Why the plant is among the best fliers in the natural world
Their study revealed that a ring-shaped air bubble forms as air moves through the bristles, enhancing the drag that slows each seed's descent to the ground.
science  flight  plants 
8 weeks ago by emkay
Wind farms and reducing hurricane precipitation
"By the time a hurricane actually makes landfall, these arrays of turbines have been operating for days and days, extracting energy and moisture out of the storm. As a result, the storm will be weaker. Literally."
science  weather 
8 weeks ago by emkay
Massive organism is crashing on our watch: First comprehensive assessment of Pando reveals critical threats -- ScienceDaily
"While Pando has likely existed for thousands of years -- we have no method of firmly fixing its age -- it is now collapsing on our watch. One clear lesson emerges here: we cannot independently manage wildlife and forests."
science  trees  wildlife 
8 weeks ago by emkay
No sweat required: Hypertension treatment mimics effect of exercise: By targeting the liver, scientists open door to new way of treating high blood pressure -- ScienceDaily
Hypertension researchers at The University of Toledo have shown that by increasing the body's supply of beta hydroxybutyrate, a chemical produced predominantly by the liver, it is possible to regulate high blood pressure without reducing sodium intake or increasing exercise.
medicine  science  hypertension 
8 weeks ago by emkay
Scientists chase mystery of how dogs process words: New study focuses on the brain mechanisms dogs use to differentiate between words
"Dogs may have varying capacity and motivation for learning and understanding human words," Berns says, "but they appear to have a neural representation for the meaning of words they have been taught, beyond just a low-level Pavlovian response."
dogs  language  science  fMRI 
8 weeks ago by emkay
Probiotic bacillus eliminates staphylococcus bacteria: Additional studies of common supplement planned -- ScienceDaily
A new study shows that a 'good' bacterium commonly found in probiotic digestive supplements helps eliminate Staphylococcus aureus, a type of bacteria that can cause serious antibiotic-resistant infections.
science  medicine  infections 
9 weeks ago by emkay

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