dunnettreader + war   8

Hoffman, P.T.: Why Did Europe Conquer the World? (eBook and Hardcover).
Between 1492 and 1914, Europeans conquered 84% of the globe. But why did Europe rise to the top, when for centuries the Chinese, Japanese, Ottomans, and South Asians were far more advanced? Why didn’t these powers establish global dominance? ...distinguished economic historian Hoffman demonstrates that conventional explanations— eg geography, epidemic disease, and the Industrial Revolution—fail to provide answers. Arguing instead for the pivotal role of economic and political history, Hoffman shows that if variables had been at all different, Europe would not have achieved critical military innovations, and another power could have become master of the world. In vivid detail, he sheds light on the two millennia of economic, political, and historical changes that set European states on a distinctive path of development and military rivalry. Compared to their counterparts in China, Japan, South Asia, and the Middle East, European leaders—whether chiefs, lords, kings, emperors, or prime ministers—had radically different incentives, which drove them to make war. These incentives, which Hoffman explores using an economic model of political costs and financial resources, resulted in astonishingly rapid growth in Europe’s military sector from the Middle Ages on, and produced an insurmountable lead in gunpowder technology. The consequences determined which states established colonial empires or ran the slave trade, and even which economies were the first to industrialize. -- Professor of Business Economics and professor of history at CalTech. His books include Growth in a Traditional Society (PUP), Surviving Large Losses, and Priceless Markets. -- ebook and pbk not yet released --text 200 pgs, data, mideks in appendices ~35 pgs -- downloaded 1st chapter excerpt
books  kindle-available  Great_Divergence  economic_history  political_history  political_culture  military_history  technology  gunpowder  colonialism  imperialism  Europe  Europe-exceptionalism  Europe-Medieval  Europe-Early_Modern  incentives  wars-causes  war  Innovation  technology-adoption  historical_sociology  historical_change  balance_of_power  path-dependency  Tilly  Mann_Michael  state-building  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
The Oxford Companion to Military History, ed. Richard Holmes: | Answers.com
The Oxford Companion to Military History, edited by Richard Holmes, Oxford University Press -- A complete overview of military history from classical times to the present, The Oxford Companion to Military History is an essential guide to how the world has been shaped by conflict. Entries on key topics such as intelligence, propaganda, peacekeeping and women in the military, are included, with over 70 maps showing the course of famous battles and campaigns.
books  etexts  military_history  military  war  ancient_history  ancient_Rome  Roman_Empire  medieval_history  Europe-Early_Modern  Military_Revolution  propaganda  maritime_history  IR 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Mary L. Dudziak - The Future as a Concept in National Security Law :: SSRN August 18, 2014
Emory University School of Law; Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences -- Pepperdine Law Review, Forthcoming - symposium The Future of National Security Law -- The essays in this issue share a common premise: that the future matters to legal policy, and that law must take the future into account. But what conception of the future do national security lawyers have in mind? The future is, in an absolute sense, unknowable. Yet human action is premised on ideas about the future, political scientist Harold Lasswell wrote in his classic work The Garrison State. The ideas about the future that guide social scientific work are rational predictions, he suggested. If law is premised on ideas about something unknowable, something that can, at best, be a prediction, then it seems important to examine what those ideas, assumptions and predictions are. This essay examines future-thinking in prominent works related to national security, including the ideas that the future is peacetime, a long war, a “next attack,” and the future as a postwar. Drawing from scholarship on historical memory and conceptions of temporality, this essay argues that understandings of the future depend on more than the rational empirical predictions that Lasswell had in mind. The future is a cultural construct that depends in part on the way we remember the past. It does not exist apart from the politics and values that inform our perceptions. The future does not unfold on its own. We produce our future through both our acts and our imaginations. Culture matters deeply in this context, for the future we imagine is a well-spring of law. -Keywords: national security, war, wartime, long war, terrorism, peace, future, temporality, historical memory, 9/11, history - downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  legal_theory  legal_culture  national_security  war  terrorism  memory-group  memory_studies  uncertainty  prediction  future  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Liberty Matters: Hugo Grotius on War and the State (March 2014) - Online Library of Liberty
This online discussion is part of the series “Liberty Matters: A Forum for the Discussion of Matters pertaining to Liberty.” Fernando R. Tesón, a professor at Florida State University College of Law, explores what Grotius thought about the proper relationship between the laws of nature and the laws of nations, what limits (if any) can be legitimately and rightly placed on the conduct of states engaged in war, and what relevance his insights may have today. Responding to his essay are Hans W. Blom, Paul Carrese, and Eric Mack. -- downloaded ebook to Note
etexts  17thC  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  legal_history  human_nature  international_law  natural_law  natural_rights  natural_religion  property_rights  just_war  navigation  trade  colonialism  war  Dutch_Revolt  Dutch  VOC  commercial_law  state-of-nature  consent  legitimacy  social_contract  sociability  self-interest  self-defense  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Water Supply Key to Outcome of Conflicts in Iraq and Syria | Mother Jones - July 2014
Partitioning Iraq not just problem of where the oil is but access to water. Isis already has control of important points threatening water for Shia south and has been using water as a weapon -- diverting to cut off some and flood others, like Abu Gharib flooded to forestall Iraqi army trying to take back Fallujah. Water control and collapsing infrastructure part of both government and Isis tactics in Syria. And then are the neighbors like Turkey. With recent droughts getting early taste of climate change impact in next decades.
military  war  Syria  Iraq  water  climate 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jörg Spieker - Foucault and Hobbes on Politics, Security, and War | JSTOR: Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, Vol. 36, No. 3 (August 2011), pp. 187-199
This article engages and seeks to develop Michel Foucault’s account of the nexus between modern politics, security, and war. Focusing on his 1976 lecture series Society Must Be Defended, the article considers Foucault’s tentative hypothesis about how the logic of war becomes inscribed into modern politics through the principle of security. Contra Foucault, it is suggested that this nexus can already be found in the proto-liberal political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes. In order to make this argument, the article focuses on the ontological dimension of Hobbes' thought. It suggests that the relationship between the state of war and political order in Hobbes is more complex and more ambiguous than Foucault thought. Rather than being transcended, the Hobbesian state of war is appropriated by the state, and converted into the fundamental antagonism between reason and passion. The latter gives rise to a regime of security through which a relationship of war is inscribed into the Hobbesian commonwealth. Jörg Spieker - Department of War Studies, King’s College London, London, UK - doi: 10.1177/0304375411418596 Alternatives: Global, Local, Political August 2011 vol. 36 no. 3 187-199 -- on Sage -- sounds Weberian
article  jstor  paywall  IR  political_philosophy  17thC  20thC  Hobbes  Foucault  war  security  fear  nation-state  political_order  reason  emotions  human_nature  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Edgar Kiser and April Linton: Determinants of the Growth of the State: War and Taxation in Early Modern France and England (2001)
JSTOR: Social Forces, Vol. 80, No. 2 (Dec., 2001), pp. 411-448 -- downloaded pdf to Note -'- Although the causal impact of war on state-making in the early modern era is now widely accepted, there is less consensus about the way in which war affects levels of taxation, and the factors that might strengthen or weaken the relationship. Two questions can be posed: Do individual wars produce immediate effects on taxes, or is the cumulative effect of long periods of warfare more important? How do variations in administrative capacity and the strength of representative institutions affect the extent to which war pushes the growth of the state? This article attempts to answer these questions with a quantitative analysis of the effects of war on taxation in early modern England and France. We find that the cumulative effect of war is strong in both cases, suggesting that war made states via a "ratchet effect," and that this effect is much stronger when the administrative capacity of states is improved by centralization and bureaucratization. Strong representative assemblies decrease the effect of war on state growth in France but increase it in England, due to the very different characteristics of these institutions in the two countries.
article  jstor  social_theory  historical_sociology  state-building  Weber  Tilly  fiscal-military_state  representative_institutions  Parliament  institutional_economics  taxes  war  16thC  17thC  18thC  Britain  British_politics  France  fiscal_policy  French_politics  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Edgar Kiser, Kriss A. Drass and William Brustein: Ruler Autonomy and War in Early Modern Western Europe (1995)
JSTOR: International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 1 (Mar., 1995), pp. 109-138 -- Following Kant, many scholars have argued that rulers often benefit more from war than do their subjects, and thus that rulers with more autonomy from subjects will initiate more wars. They usually test this argument by focusing on whether democratic states are less prone to initiate wars than autocracies, and generally find little or no relationship. These are not adequate tests of the general argument, since they turn both ruler autonomy and the interests of actors into rough dichotomies (democracy vs. autocracy, rulers' interests vs. interests of all subjects), and they ignore opportunity costs. This article uses a model of state policy formation based on agency theory to provide a better measure of ruler autonomy by differentiating between institutional autonomy and resource autonomy. We also use a more nuanced specification of the interests of different groups of subjects, taking their opportunity costs into account. This model allows us to derive more precise propositions about the relationship between ruler autonomy and war initiation. An analysis of war in four Western European states (England, France, Sweden, and Spain) between 1400 and 1700, using logit regression and qualitative comparative analysis, provides some support for the central propositions of the theory.
article  jstor  social_theory  IR  democratic_peace_theory  15thC  16thC  17thC  fiscal-military_state  war  Britain  France  Spain  Sweden  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader

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